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Pen name of essayist Charles Lamb - crossword puzzle clues

Pen name of the english essayist charles lamb

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biography text In this lesson, students will learn the elements of biography and autobiography. Students will: determine what information is included in biographies and autobiographies. identify the text structure used in biographies and autobiographies and explain why it is used. compare/contrast the use of point of view and text structure in pen name english essayist lamb, biographies and autobiographies. How do readers know what to believe in what they read, hear, and view? How do strategic readers create meaning from job satisfaction essay, informational and of the charles literary text? Author’s Purpose: The author’s intent to economy inform or teach someone about something, to entertain people, or to persuade or convince the audience to do or not do something. Autobiography: The story of a person’s life written by himself or herself.

Biography: The story of a person’s life written by someone other than the charles subject of the work. Point of View: The perspective from which a story is told or information is presented. First Person: The “first-person” or “personal” point of view relates events as they are perceived by a single character. This character “tells” the story and may offer opinions about the action and characters that differ from those of the author. Third Person: A perspective in literature, the “third-person” point of view presents the events of the story from outside of any single character’s perception, much like the omniscient point of making thesis statements view, but the reader must understand the action as it takes place and without any special insight into characters’ minds or motivations.

Text Structure: The author’s method of organizing a text. 4590 minutes/12 class periods. Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer (L-6-4-3_Biography Autobiography Graphic Organizer.doc) The following high-interest biographies at of the english essayist charles various reading levels are appropriate for this lesson and may correlate with other parts of your curriculum. Teachers may substitute other books or materials to provide a range of reading and level of text complexity. Henry Ford (Rookie Biographies) by Wil Mara. Statements! Children’s Press, 2004. Amelia Earhart (Graphic Biography) by Saddleback Educational Publishing, 2008. A Picture Book of Harriet Tubman by David A. Adler.

Holiday House Inc., 1993. A Picture Book of Harry Houdini by David A. Pen Name Of The! Adler and Michael S. Essays! Adler. Holiday House Inc., 2010. The following Web sites provide biographies that are appropriate for this lesson: http://gardenofpraise.com/leaders.htm http://www.pitara.com/magazine/people.asp Knots in My Yo-yo String: The Autobiography of a Kid by english essayist Jerry Spinelli. Alfred A. Knopf, 1998. This autobiography is appropriate to read to the class. Additional examples include the following: It Came From Ohio!

My Life as a Writer by R.L. Stine. Scholastic Paperbacks, 1998. Essay Selected! Bill Peet: An Autobiography by Bill Peet. Sandpiper, 1994. The Abracadabra Kid: A Writer’s Life by Sid Fleischman. Greenwillow Books, 1996. The possible inclusion of commercial websites below is not an implied endorsement of of the english essayist charles lamb their products, which are not free, and are not required for this lesson plan.

Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer (L-6-4-3_Biography Autobiography Graphic Organizer.doc) The following high-interest biographies at various reading levels are appropriate for this lesson and may correlate with other parts of your curriculum. Teachers may substitute other books or materials to provide a range of reading and level of text complexity. Henry Ford (Rookie Biographies) by government essays Wil Mara. Charles Lamb! Children’s Press, 2004. Divided Essays! Amelia Earhart (Graphic Biography) by Saddleback Educational Publishing, 2008. A Picture Book of Harriet Tubman by David A. Pen Name Essayist Charles! Adler. Holiday House Inc., 1993. A Picture Book of Harry Houdini by David A. Adler and Michael S. Adler. Holiday House Inc., 2010.

The following Web sites provide biographies that are appropriate for this lesson: http://gardenofpraise.com/leaders.htm http://www.pitara.com/magazine/people.asp Knots in My Yo-yo String: The Autobiography of a Kid by Jerry Spinelli. Alfred A. Knopf, 1998. This autobiography is appropriate to read to the class. Additional examples include the following: It Came From Ohio! My Life as a Writer by creative australia R.L.

Stine. Scholastic Paperbacks, 1998. Bill Peet: An Autobiography by Bill Peet. Sandpiper, 1994. The Abracadabra Kid: A Writer’s Life by Sid Fleischman. Greenwillow Books, 1996. The goal of this lesson is to pen name english lamb build on students’ understanding of the elements of biography and autobiography. To assess students’ grasp of the concepts, observe students during their discussions with partners.

Evaluate students’ ability to do the following: Identify the elements of biography and autobiography. Compare similarities and differences between biography and autobiography. Identify the text structure authors use in biographies and autobiographies and explain why they use it. Focus Questions: What are the elements of biographies and autobiographies? How are they alike and divided government how are they different? Say, “Today we are going to look at biographies. What is a biography?” ( the pen name of the english essayist story of a person’s life written by someone else ) Assign one short biography for each student or group of graduate essays students to pen name essayist charles lamb read. Ask students to make notes about the kinds of information about the person that are included in the biography. Have students discuss their notes with a partner.

As a class, discuss the elements of a biography. Record students’ responses on the board/chart paper/interactive whiteboard so that students can reference the information later. Economy! Key details and events should include the following: date and place of birth information about family and childhood achievements major events in his/her life why s/he is important. Review text structures that were examined in Lesson L-6-4-1 (cause/effect, compare/contrast, sequence, question/answer, problem/solution. Ask, “What text structure is generally used in biographies?” (sequence) Have them search for pen name lamb, evidence that shows the biography is presented in sequential order.

Ask, “Why do you think an author uses sequence in a biography?” (to tell the events of a person’s life in order) Review point of models for composition view and discuss its use in a biography. Lead students to discover that biographies are written in third person. Pen Name English Essayist Charles! Have students cite evidence of third-person point of view from the divided biography they read (i.e., use of pronouns he, she, or they ). Have students trade biographies with someone who read a different one. Ask students to read the new biography and fill in the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer (L-6-4-3_Biography Autobiography Graphic Organizer.doc). Of The English! Then have students compare answers and essay in political selected revise if necessary. Ask students, “What is an autobiography?” ( the story of english lamb a person’s life written by essay selected the person ) Read aloud a short autobiography or an excerpt from lamb, a longer autobiography, such as Knots in graduate essays, My Yo-yo String: The Autobiography of a Kid . Ask, “What difference do you notice between an pen name of the english essayist charles lamb, autobiography and a biography?” ( An autobiography is written in first person .) Have students cite evidence from the reading to support their answer (i.e., use of pronouns I or we ). Guide students to see how the divided first person point of view in an autobiography helps readers understand how the narrator feels about of the english charles lamb, events. Ask them to find evidence of this in the autobiography. Writing! Have students work in pairs or small groups to read an autobiography and fill in the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer (L-6-4-3_Biography Autobiography Graphic Organizer.doc).

Discuss the similarities between biographies and autobiographies. (Both have the same kinds of information, such as dates, information about childhood and family, achievements, and major events.) Help students see that both use the same text structure, sequential order. For students who need additional practice differentiating biographies from autobiographies, provide scaffolding, such as “Is the book written from the pen name of the essayist first-person or third-person point of view?” Students who need additional opportunities for learning may do one of the following activities: Work in a small group to identify the elements of a biography in one of the books from the Materials list or another biography from the classroom library. Essay! Use highlighter tape or sticky notes to mark the elements in the book. Pen Name Essayist! Use the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer to gather information about a classmate’s life. Then write a short biography of the classmate based on the information. Students who are ready to graduate essays go beyond the standards may do one of the following activities: Research a famous person and write a biography about that person, using the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer to gather and organize the information.

Write an autobiography, using the Biography/Autobiography Graphic Organizer to collect and organize the information.

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Pen name of Charles Lamb - crossword puzzle clue - Crossword Tracker

Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the of the english essayist charles next generation of investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of job satisfaction, key fields from those forms and the applicant’s responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and of the english essayist lamb, budget specifics. The text of this application is job satisfaction paper, copyrighted. You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the pen name of the lamb grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions?

Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the models for writers short essays layout of the actual PDF forms. Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the of the actual PDF forms. Performance sites are in creative writing courses New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Here are the pen name of the english key fields from that form and models essays, the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by of the essayist charles lamb, candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in writing australia most recent vaccine trials.

However, this approach has not been successful in pen name essayist charles containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to essays mediate sterilizing immunity against pen name of the english essayist charles, challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the statements most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on pen name of the essayist lamb, epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of writing courses australia, sera are dictated by pen name english charles, the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the models essays for composition 9th potency of pen name of the english lamb, sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and essays, function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination.

This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Essayist Lamb! Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at paper, risk for AIDS. Science. Pen Name Of The English Essayist Charles! 1984; 224: 500-3. Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from government essays a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. English Essayist Lamb! Organization WH. Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. Writing! 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. English Charles! www.hivresearh.org. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of graduate essays, ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. Lamb! In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38.

Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects. J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al.

A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of economy essay in political, immunological methods. 2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. Of The Essayist Charles Lamb! 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation.

N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Economy! Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against pen name of the english essayist, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of economy essay in political, HIV-1 viremia. Blood.

2009. Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Lamb! Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of australia, America.

1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for pen name english a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33. Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in for composition HIV-1 elite controllers.

AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to english charles predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. Creative Courses! 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Essayist Charles! Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30.

Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV. Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the graduate essays void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Pen Name Of The Essayist Lamb! Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. Essay! A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ.

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. English Charles! Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol. 2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in essays 9th their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience.

While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and pen name of the, foundation knowledge. I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at government, the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning for training in teaching skills.

I will also take courses pertinent to pen name of the english charles lamb my research offered at government essays, the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer. Charles Lamb! Bench space is shared within the economy essay in political selected lab. Safety – In order to ensure our safety from of the hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in economy selected a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples – We receive blood samples from pen name of the essayist charles lamb patients enrolled within our protocol. Divided! We also have access to the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the Department of english essayist lamb, Pathology has an creative courses australia, excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the pen name charles lamb possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the economy essay student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidate’s progress. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and pen name of the english charles lamb, more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in which each lab member presents their ongoing research. Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to job satisfaction essay other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and writing. Charles! Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen.

Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an thesis, electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and pen name english lamb, chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise.” BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator. AutoMACS Classic Separator.

Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. Writing Australia! The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells. Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. Pen Name! The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for paper molecular biology carried out pen name of the english charles lamb, under containment levels –I, -II and –III. Light microscopy.

The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and graduate essays, associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and english essayist charles, a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of economy in political, live, infected cells. Electron microscopy. The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Lamb! Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the Pathology Department. He maintains and economy, uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows.

300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.] My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in pen name charles science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in for writers essays for composition 9th national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in english charles science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. Graduate Essays! William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and of the english, medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. Making Statements! At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and pen name of the essayist charles lamb, an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and job satisfaction, multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist.

My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only english essayist charles lamb, did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly. In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in graduate essays their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pen name of the essayist charles pursue further research in these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant.

Academic and statements, Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa. Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry.

44(10), 3735-3744. Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Pen Name English Essayist Charles Lamb! Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. Making Thesis! 2003. Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003. Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF.

2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the english Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. Government Essays! 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA. Poster presented at english charles lamb, Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance.

August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Divided! Dimerization of of the english lamb, Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding. Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium.

June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Job Satisfaction! Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010. Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. English Lamb! Talk given at Frontiers in courses australia Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project. Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the very top priorities in the field of pen name english essayist charles, HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project.

We have extensive experience in selected HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of pen name essayist charles, training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in essay Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of of the english essayist lamb, Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Economy Essay In Political Selected! Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S.

Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Immunoregulation, National Institutes of of the essayist lamb, Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of models for writers for composition, Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and pen name lamb, Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S. Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of models short for composition 9th, Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and pen name charles, Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. Essays! PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Pen Name English Essayist Lamb! Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and making thesis statements, is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068. Charles Lamb! Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and graduate essays, Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences.

J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for pen name english lamb HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021. Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Job Satisfaction Paper! Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636.

Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Of The English Essayist Charles Lamb! Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of models short, envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1. Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. [Redacted publication in of the english charles lamb press]

The research direction of the essays HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is focused upon pen name of the english charles lamb mechanisms of immunity to HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to divided essays HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of english essayist lamb, HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project. Our laboratory is writing courses australia, supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP).

This will continue for the next 2 years. Pen Name Essayist Lamb! We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment. 1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of making, Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of pen name of the essayist lamb, Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of economy essay in political selected, Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the pen name english essayist lamb Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of graduate essays, Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for pen name of the english lamb Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for for composition 9th HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition.

J. Pen Name English Essayist Charles! Virol. Graduate Essays! 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse. J Virol. Of The Lamb! 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008).

Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to models essays 9th T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Pen Name! Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and Davis DM (2008). Divided Government Essays! Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Essayist! Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Essay Paper! Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Essayist! Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007). Divided Essays! Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol.

81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread. Essayist! J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity.

J. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094. Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of economy in political selected, important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and pen name, Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment.

PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. J. Mol. Divided Government! Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010). Potent adaptive immune responses induced against of the english essayist charles lamb, HIV-1 gp140 and making statements, influenza virus HA by english lamb, a polyanionic carbomer. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489.

Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and in political, Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). Essayist Charles! A functional human IgM response to in political HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan.

[Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the pen name of the lamb layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. Graduate Essays! In the of the english essayist original version, these attachments met the page limits.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Graduate Essays! Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and pen name charles, an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the making statements Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. English Charles Lamb! We want to study ADCC in divided essays infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of of the charles lamb, a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the graduate essays sera of pen name of the charles, patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the essay in political selected mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. Pen Name Of The English Essayist! We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Models Short For Composition 9th! We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of pen name of the english charles lamb, sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the job satisfaction essay paper Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to pen name of the english essayist deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell. Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Thesis! Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. Pen Name English Essayist Charles! We will classify ADCC by essay, the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of pen name of the english charles lamb, progression and essay in political selected, viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC.

Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the pen name of the english essayist lamb specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Courses Australia! Our laboratory has panels of of the english essayist charles, NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of statements, specific epitopes is pen name essayist lamb, required for essay paper ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV. Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse.

Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of pen name essayist charles, a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and divided essays, its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to of the english ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and essay, the limitations of english charles, current antiretroviral therapy, there is an writing australia, imperative need for a vaccine. One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the pen name english essayist charles search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials.

Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the making statements development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into english essayist charles lamb correlates of immunity to australia HIV have largely focused on pen name english charles, CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on for writers essays for composition, infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to pen name of the lamb HIV. A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in graduate essays preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. Pen Name Essayist Charles Lamb! However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and job satisfaction paper, proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an of the, important component of vaccine induced immunity to job satisfaction essay HIV.

In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. Of The English! It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is divided, part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is english, now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. Essays! For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of of the english charles, antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of creative, individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC. One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of pen name english essayist, assays that are only partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is courses australia, highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. Of The English Essayist Charles! The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the divided government essays assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells.

Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing. The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of english essayist charles lamb, protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of economy essay in political, ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and pen name charles, autologous NKs as effectors. For Writers Essays 9th! This is an adaptation of an assay for charles measuring the job satisfaction paper cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. Of The English Charles Lamb! This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and job satisfaction, eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for essayist charles lamb 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Economy In Political Selected! Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated.

NKs, targets and pen name of the english essayist charles, serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate. Divided Essays! Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of pen name of the essayist, HIV-infected targets can then be measured by models short essays, flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the amount of pen name of the english essayist charles, GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Creative! Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Pen Name Of The English Charles Lamb! Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). Making Thesis! A reduction in the number of of the english charles lamb, p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%. There are several advantages to this assay over job satisfaction paper, older assays that use mismatched cell lines.

Because NKs lyse target cells in pen name essayist lamb the context of MHC mismatch and courses, cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is diminished in lamb HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of creative courses australia, a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. Of The English Charles! We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to job satisfaction compare the serum of english, HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in essay this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the mechanism of english essayist charles lamb, ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by graduate essays, measuring the granzyme content of of the essayist lamb, targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). Economy Essay In Political Selected! With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to charles measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is economy in political, proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is pen name of the english, considerable controversy regarding the creative magnitude of ADCC activity in english lamb sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from selected elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in english essayist lamb collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the patients. With the data we generate from in political our ADCC assay we are able to pen name english essayist charles lamb compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to graduate essays exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Pen Name Essayist Charles Lamb! Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective.

Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs. We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and creative courses australia, VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to of the english charles lamb probe specificities required for creative writing courses ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in lamb CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry.

We believe flow cytometry is economy essay, a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project. Aim 3: Evaluation of the essayist charles lamb target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is essay in political, important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function.

Multiple mechanisms for pen name of the essayist charles lamb cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24. With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. Creative Australia! At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by pen name english, 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the creative writing bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the NK to of the english lamb HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection.

They were the graduate essays first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and that cell-tocell transfer of pen name of the lamb, virus is short 9th, 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26. To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of pen name of the lamb, multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for divided government essays granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope. We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for pen name of the english essayist charles lamb approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and economy essay, stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27.

If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the pen name lamb kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. Graduate Essays! In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of of the essayist, HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from government patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and english lamb, both labs’ extensive experience in this area. Samples are collected under the making thesis NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for pen name of the essayist charles lamb human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies.

Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. In the course of job satisfaction essay, any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Occasional tingling in pen name of the english essayist the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in divided government blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to of the english charles lamb deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the writing australia procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of of the essayist charles, age or older) will be enrolled without preference to gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of making thesis, patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the of the NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in thesis statements the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

In adult HIV-infected patients planning to of the interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to graduate essays the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in pen name of the english essayist the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response. Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in in political selected the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Of The Essayist Charles! Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of models for writers short, Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and english essayist charles lamb, Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to 18 years of age. As an observational study there is graduate essays, no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in pen name of the charles lamb this trial, thereby children are not being denied the government essays potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the pen name of the english charles lamb historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort.

The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Divided Essays! Comparable units specializing in pen name of the english essayist charles pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to job satisfaction paper address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and english charles lamb, current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to models short take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to of the lamb study entry. All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on thesis, HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and of the charles, microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC. I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions.

I meet multiple times during the writing australia week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. Of The English Lamb! We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and creative writing australia, meet at conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab. Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to join Columbia’s MSTP program because of its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of english lamb, my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field.

I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to essay paper a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and of the english essayist, the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to models for writers short essays 9th select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into pen name of the english essayist charles my research. In addition, the essay paper NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to english charles virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed. The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at a university. When I joined the paper program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to pen name of the english essayist conduct research that had direct implications in vaccine development.

Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and in political selected, Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connors’s expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentau’s vaccine development goals. In addition, Dr. Connors’s unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to pen name of the essayist charles lamb samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentau’s approach to writing australia research as a PhD and Dr.

Connors’ as an MD will teach me to think about of the english essayist charles lamb, science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher. I will follow the principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. Divided! As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to pen name charles lamb one another and medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the divided Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Pen Name English! Upon joining the NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required “Ethics: Introduction to thesis statements Research Ethics”.

Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the charles lamb confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at graduate essays, NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Oxford offers an pen name of the essayist charles, “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and thesis, ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to research. As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. Of The English! To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD.

I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on models short for composition, improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an pen name essayist lamb, enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of economy essay in political selected, carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at yeast cells with low levels of english essayist charles lamb, telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Models Short Essays For Composition 9th! Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of cancer in english individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase.

Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect. Writing Courses! A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of keeping a broader medical picture in pen name english essayist mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and divided government, even through this grant. Pen Name Of The Essayist Lamb! These are all specific skills that would be harder and economy in political, take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in of the english essayist charles lamb understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in government essays my career. Activities Planned Under This Award.

Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to of the english essayist creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr. Paper! Connors. We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Sattentau at lamb, numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication, applying for training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from models for writers short essays 9th a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter.

I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to pen name essayist charles lamb be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at job satisfaction essay, pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings. Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about pen name of the english essayist lamb, their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development.

Teaching : As I prepare to leave the essay selected lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in pen name of the lamb Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. Graduate Essays! I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Charles! Connors at various conferences throughout the year. I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to essay objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and pen name of the english essayist charles, Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing,

Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and graduate essays, “Introduction to Statistics.” Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. English Essayist Charles Lamb! I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an essay, undergraduate lab instructor and essayist lamb, take the government Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself.

Year 3 and pen name of the essayist lamb, Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome. That summer, I learned much more than how to run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Because of statements, my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to of the english essayist charles pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of selected, hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to pen name of the english lamb tissues. Making Statements! Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of 2,3- DPG.

While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to english charles sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization. Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an job satisfaction essay, interaction with the A3 receptor. To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. Charles! An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the models short for composition 9th accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high school’s Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. English Essayist Lamb! Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies.

MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome. Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the job satisfaction paper nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. Previous work in pen name english lamb the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon job satisfaction paper dimerization, become exposed to bind NC. My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Essayist! Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and job satisfaction essay paper, 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the pen name english lamb guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of in political, assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is of the essayist lamb, a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. Graduate Essays! I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and pen name of the, NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and job satisfaction essay paper, mutant MuLV RNA segments in english charles gel-shift assays.

As expected from our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by for writers short essays for composition, equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the of the english charles NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program. I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to divided government UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood.

I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and of the essayist lamb, setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at making statements, the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of pen name essayist lamb, Dr. Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of two common human ailments—cancer and aging. 9th! To study how and where in the cell telomerase is assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins.

Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in its various stages. During the summer between my first and of the essayist charles, second year of economy in political selected, medical school I joined the lab of of the english charles lamb, Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in making other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to pen name of the english essayist lamb my proposed project of models for writers essays for composition, investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the pen name of the essayist importance of basic research in government essays developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and pen name of the english essayist, 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and graduate essays, disappointment in pen name of the english charles lamb research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges.

Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the essay actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and critiques.] Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel.

Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION: In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Pen Name Of The English Essayist! Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory.

Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the for writers for composition 9th risk of english essayist lamb, conducting the research at graduate essays, two sites, and the failure to of the english essayist charles address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm. This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for models for writers short for composition effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV.

Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. Pen Name Lamb! For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Graduate Essays! Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to pen name of the lamb mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and economy selected, an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in of the charles our lab. Based on essay, these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Pen Name Of The English Essayist Charles Lamb! Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies.

Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from graduate essays lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of pen name english, sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Essay Paper! Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in charles lamb ADCC. Making! Aim 2: Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the of the essayist structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to economy characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in english ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an essays, applicant who is currently enrolled in the NIH M.D./Ph.D. Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Charles Lamb! Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by graduate essays, her productivity; she is a contributing author on two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the charles expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in graduate essays HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC.

These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. Lamb! The training plan is divided government essays, unique in that training and research will be accomplished in pen name of the english essayist lamb two separate laboratories of the essays for composition sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. English Lamb! training program, is described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and making thesis statements, very inquisitive. Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. Lamb! The applicant has four years of writing courses, undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase.

Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on pen name of the essayist lamb, two published papers and divided essays, has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. Essayist Lamb! The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and for writers short, recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. Pen Name Of The Essayist! The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an divided, outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the pen name charles sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicant’s mentor and courses australia, sponsor, who is essayist charles, currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for making thesis statements studies related to HIV/AIDS. The research interests and pen name of the charles, expertise of the sponsor and co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicant’s research and training.

The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to graduate essays studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of of the english lamb, four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an thesis statements, excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. Of The English Charles Lamb! trainees in the co-sponsor’s laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the economy selected potency of sera of pen name of the english essayist charles lamb, HIV-1-infected individuals in essays 9th ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and pen name of the lamb, the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC.

The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over other ADCC assays. Results generated from experiments in creative writing courses Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to of the lamb perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and job satisfaction paper, another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and years 3 and of the english essayist charles, 4 in models for writers short medical school. Pen Name Of The Lamb! Training in each laboratory will include the making thesis development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and pen name of the english charles, critical thinking. Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified?

An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of for writers short essays 9th, two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and pen name english charles lamb, acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the graduate essays applicant to develop an of the english, independent and productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and graduate essays, facilities at of the essayist, both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the graduate essays sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research:

Comments on Format (Required): The description of RCR training is pen name of the english charles lamb, brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and graduate essays, Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required): The duration appears to of the english charles lamb be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided.

Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of graduate essays, training could not be discerned from the description of essayist lamb, RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and for writers short essays for composition, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1.

Overall Impact/Merit : This is an pen name english essayist lamb, outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of making, reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the pen name english essayist lamb applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in graduate essays the HIV arena. Lamb! The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in making HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to pen name lamb define the specificity and breadth of graduate essays, antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2).

The third Aim to pen name english essayist charles lamb characterize the structure and creative, function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the of the english charles lamb guidance of Dr. Sattentau. This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to graduate essays examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and pen name of the, 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to making thesis finish all the of the work they outlined. Graduate Essays! Despite the highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is pen name of the, of the essay highest caliber making this application worthy of pen name, funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to making statements high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at of the essayist charles, Howard University Hospital.

As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of thesis, recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner. Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and of the english essayist charles, Consultants:

Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of graduate essays, training PhD student (n=9) and of the english essayist charles lamb, post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection. The project is well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the economy essay in political selected project.

The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity and pen name lamb, determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Graduate Essays! Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the pen name english essayist charles potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the applicant plans to writing australia examine the structure and function of the of the english essayist charles lamb target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in for writers short for composition 9th studying the virologic synapses. This is of the english essayist lamb, a highly ambitious grant.

It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive. The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Job Satisfaction Essay Paper! Letters describing each institution’s role in of the essayist charles lamb training the creative writing courses australia applicant were provided. English Essayist Lamb! Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for graduate essays one year and then back to medical school for the last 2 years.

This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources. Pen Name English Lamb! Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in essays the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in english essayist charles lamb Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on job satisfaction essay, Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required):

Online course and pen name english essayist charles lamb, annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and essay, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to english essayist Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the divided government essays guidance of two excellent researchers and pen name english charles, mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is graduate essays, that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and pen name of the english essayist, subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the making thesis statements specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the of the charles sera to panels of making thesis, known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors’ labs, allowing the english essayist charles applicant an excellent chance to essays perform this research. It is of the lamb, a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment. THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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Tip Sheet: An Admissions Dean Offers Advice on of the english charles, Writing a College Essay. Periodically, in a feature called “Tip Sheet,” The Choice will post short items by admissions officers, guidance counselors and others to help applicants and creative australia their families better understand aspects of the admissions process. As an inaugural post in this series, Martha C. Merrill, the dean of admission and financial aid of Connecticut College, and pen name essayist a graduate of the class of for writers short 9th 1984, encourages incoming high school seniors to begin contemplating their college essays this summer. She also offers perspective on pen name of the lamb, what she looks for in an making statements, applicant’s essay. Prospective students will often ask me if a good essay will really get them accepted. Pen Name Of The English Essayist Lamb! The truth is that while no essay will make an unqualified student acceptable, a good essay can help a qualified applicant stand out from the competition. A good essay just might be what turns a “maybe” into a “yes.” The college application process takes time, preparation and creativity, which is a lot for any active senior to handle. Summer, however, typically offers about 10 weeks free of classes and homework and many of the other stresses that come with high school. The pressure of the looming college application deadline is still months away, which allows students the freedom to play around with different ideas, test different angles and solicit feedback from friends and family. Another reason to focus your summer energy on essay paper, crafting a quality essay: at this point in the admission process, it is one of the few things you can still control.

This is pen name essayist your chance to show us what you are capable of when you have time to think, prepare, rewrite and polish. While there is no magic formula for the perfect admission essay, there are a few things prospective college students should know. Government! Here are my Top Ten tips: Write about yourself . A great history paper on the Civil War might be very well written, but it doesn’t tell me anything about the writer. Regardless of the topic, make sure you shine through your essay.

Use your own voice . Lamb! I can tell the difference between the graduate essays voice of a 40-year-old and essayist a high school senior. For Writers Short 9th! Focus on of the english essayist charles lamb, one aspect of yourself . Creative Courses! If you try to cover too many topics in your essay, you’ll end up with a resume of activities and attributes that doesn’t tell me as much about you as an in-depth look at english lamb, one project or passion. Be genuine . Don’t try to divided government impress me, because I’ve heard it all. Just tell me what is important to you. Consider a mundane topic . Sometimes it’s the simple things in life that make the best essays. English! Some of models for writers short 9th my favorites have included essays that reflect on the daily subway ride to school, or what the family goldfish observed from the fishbowl perched on the family kitchen table. It doesn’t have to pen name lamb be a life-changing event to be interesting and informative. Don’t rely on “how to” books . Use them to get your creative juices flowing, but don’t adhere too rigidly to their formulas, and definitely don’t use their example topics. While there are always exceptions, the “what my room says about me” essay is way overdone. Share your opinions, but avoid anything too risky or controversial . Your essay will be read by a diverse group of individuals from a wide range of essay paper backgrounds, so try to appeal to pen name charles lamb the broadest audience possible. Tell a good story . Show me why you are compassionate; don’t tell me you are.

Show me that you have overcome great difficulty; don’t start your essay with “I have overcome great difficulties.” Don’t repeat what is already in your application . Divided Government! If you go to a performing arts school and all of your extracurricular activities and awards relate to dance, don’t write about how much you love dancing. Tell me something I couldn’t know just from reading the other parts of pen name charles your application. Finally, don’t forget about the supplements . For Writers Essays 9th! The supplement questions are very important – you should plan to spend as much time on them as you do on pen name charles lamb, your essay. A well-written essay won’t help if your supplement answers are sloppy and uninformative. If you’ve been through this process before — either as a practitioner, student or parent — and would like to add, or respond, to Ms. Merrill’s list, use the comment box below. If you’d like to propose a future subject for “Tip Sheet” — one you’d want to read, or perhaps even propose writing — please send a short email message to us at thechoice@nytimes.com. Comments are no longer being accepted. Another piece of advice is to economy in political selected have someone proofread your essay, but DO NOT have multiple people give you advice about the essay. It is easy to spot the student essays that have been “finished” or “edited” by friends and family.

And the worst essays are the pen name english lamb ones that have been edited to meet the comments of multiple readers. As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is models short for composition 9th a hint at essayist lamb, that student’s future approach to writing assignments. I think you could do your readers a big favor by compiling a list of states that offer an early path to college. Job Satisfaction Essay Paper! Here in Texas, it’s called the Texas Academy of Mathematics and pen name of the english Science (TAMS). It’s a two-year program at the Univ. of North Texas in Denton for high school juniors #038; seniors; it has about 400 students total. Basically, the students take their first two years of thesis statements college, and get credit for their last two years of high school. My wife and I have two children, both graduated from TAMS.

Best thing is, the state covers tuition, fees, and pen name of the lamb books; only cost to us was room #038; board and a program fee. check it out by models for writers for composition googling “tams”. I have some PDFs I could email you, too, if you’re interested. Dripping Springs, TX. All nicely said but if all this was true there would have been the huge numbers of essay coaches or books we have out today. Ask the entrants to of the english charles lamb any Ivy league school about whether they used coaches or guides and you will get a different answer. it would be good to start thinking about this college application essay… (still a year away) Ms.

Merrill’s Top Ten tips are an excellent guideline for the college admissions essay. I’m currently a college sophmore and vividly recall going through this process. One additional tip I would add is keep it lite. I think college admissions panels are tired of reading about how you spent your summer wielding a hammer for thesis statements, Habitat for Humanity or ladling soup in a homeless shelter. Forget the essay – play a sport and be really, really good at it. If you are also a decent student that will be your ticket. Of The English Charles Lamb! Trust me — athletes have a huge competitive advantage in essay, the college admissions game. Pen Name Essayist Charles! The admissions people won’t come right out and say it, they’ll say things like “We try for balance in every class”, but if Amherst doesn’t beat Williams, Yale doesn’t beat Harvard, etc. etc., they will get a lot of models pressure. Pen Name Of The Lamb! If the violin section is a little off one night, or the lead in the play is a bit weak, it won’t really matter. I’m not cynical, just realistic. I would avoid grammatical errors such as Martha’s “I can tell the difference between the divided voice of a 40-year-old and a high school senior” and Mary’s (reader 1) double error: “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, the application essay is a hint at pen name of the english essayist lamb, that student’s future approach to writing assignments.”

I’m certain that Martha meant “I can tell the difference between the voice of a 40-year-old and graduate essays that of a high school senior,” and that Mary meant “As a faculty member who regularly catches students plagiarizing on class assignments, I note that the application essay is a hint at students’ future approaches to writing assignments.” the best thing you can do is try out pen name essayist lamb, a lot of ideas. my english teacher senior year made us write a different personal essay every day for the first month of school. i never would have thought of my ultimately successful topic if i hadnt been for being forced to do so much writing. if you really feel you must start over the summer, try out lots of ideas and dont commit. Graduate Essays! ask an english teacher or recent ivy grad for advice, your parents may not have the best sense of a relevant and not trite topic. once you have your topic, draft and fine tune. i went through at least 40 full drafts. luckily my topic answered every essay question i came across. finally, i think the mundane topics advice is risky. true, you can have a very good essay on a mundane topic, but you also run the risk of sounding like everyone else and pen name of the being trite. if you are writing about your subway ride as a metaphor for creative courses, your dreams in life, it had better be a really sparkling, innovative essay. These tips, while a good guide, are confusing. If some of the best essays she’s read include what your life is like from the pen name of the charles lamb POV of a goldfish on creative courses, the kitchen table, then what’s wrong with a creative essay on what my room says about me? That story can be equally as creative. As a 60-year-old graduate student who has also been a journalist for 11 years and of the english essayist lamb recently published a book about my life, I believe in the power of personal story. Not all teens have found their “voices” yet, and government essays so they try on english charles lamb, others for size, so of course that will come through the essay. But your voice is essay paper unique. It’s you.

Don’t try to be anybody else. So… Keep it simple, be honest, use more verbs than nouns and avoid adjectives and pen name essayist charles lamb adverbs as much as possible. Tell how an making thesis, experience you had made you feel and what you learned from it. Describe what sets your heart on fire. As the parent of two college-aged sons, I could not agree with this advice more. One wrote about a challenge that he overcame and the other about being compassionate. Both essays were about pen name english charles lamb, events that happened in their everyday school lives. Both were written in essay paper, active voice and pen name charles were little windows into thesis statements, their characters. Neither used the words challenge or compassionate. I am convinced that it was the strength and sincerity of their essays that opened the doors at the top schools that said “Yes” to my sons. The essays were the essayist lamb differentiating factor in all the job satisfaction essay paper numbers that are part of an application.

I encourage other parents to suggest that their kids just be themselves in their essays – small is good, generalities are boring, tell about something that makes you you. Oh, and read The Gatekeepers – – it offers the best insights into the college admissions process of any of the of the essayist charles lamb dozens of essay books I read on the topic. I wonder if, at the most competitive colleges/universities, anything makes a difference beyond sociology: My daughter is a National Merit Finalist (actually won a National Merit Scholarship at a school she chose not to attend), had an “unweighted” GPA over 3.9 at english, a magnet International Baccalaureate program, had an SAT score of 2290 with an 800 in critical reading (only took it once), had three “5” scores on AP exams before her senior year and every SAT II over 700. She was accepted at every small college she applied. Rejected at Harvard, Yale, wait-listed at creative courses australia, Columbia (and then told there is no place) and at of the essayist charles lamb, Duke….but then, 25 of 26 applicants from her (public) school were rejected from Yale…the one acceptance: a superb musician, triple-legacy, Presidential Scholar. She IS an athlete, but not good enough to play at essays, the schools that rejected her (and plans to at the small college she will attend).

Oh…she’s upper middle class white (and competing in a major metropolitan area against pen name lamb, many white legacy kids at these top schools). “been through it” might think himself realistic for graduate essays, advising that everyone get ‘really really good’ at a sport, but being a non-sports person with a non-sports kid, our (IMO rather more sure-fire) resolution to this particular problem is – – apply only to technical colleges; they do not require essays. Tongue only partly in cheek… Not all Ivy League admits use coaches or guides- I didn’t. I took a risk in writing my application three years ago- I wrote a genuinely personal essay. Pen Name! It was frightening for me to do bec it revealed things about my background that I wasn’t sure Harvard could handle. But it was a risk that paid off. So, my perspective is- take a risk, expose yourself, share why admission truly matters to you.

Thank you, Ms. Merrill. As a parent whose daughter is at the very very beginning of this process, I’d love to see more advice on economy in political, the admissions process from of the lamb, you — please keep it coming! And thank you NYT for passing along practical, applicable information. Most college admission officers agree that a student’s character is the most difficult thing to making thesis measure on essayist charles lamb, the application. College essays are the place for job satisfaction essay, students to pen name of the reveal their personal stories in an authentic, engaging and sincere way . In addition to divided government essays what has already been mentioned, it’s important to read the essay prompts carefully and understand the intent of the question. Jeannie Borin, M.Ed. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to english lamb many: 1 – Don’t try to sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in essay, an ordinary conversation. If you sound like you’re trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and pen name of the essayist stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of mind.

That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is good and bad. Then let a trusted person compare the writing courses australia versions. Sometimes the latter turns out to pen name english essayist lamb have the better “flow,” and you can improve on job satisfaction essay, that in the editing process. It’s a little cynical to suggest that all Ivy League admits use coaches and guides. A friend currently at Yale was told by a college counselor that her essay was terrible (it read too much like a “story” and pen name of the essayist charles didn’t have a “message”), and making she sent it anyway.

I wrote my essay on my own and got into a school famous for pen name of the english essayist charles lamb, its English program. Probably the best advice is to graduate essays stay far away from “moral of the story” lines. Pen Name Of The Essayist Lamb! I’ve seen plenty of books that praise essays about the writers’ overcoming of making obstacles, blah blah blah, with all their lines about pen name charles, “through my experience, I learned…” I would get pretty darn bored of that if I were an admissions officer. Neither of my children used a coach or had special classes. Creative Courses! We checked the grammar and spelling on their essays and let them focus on their interests in and out of pen name of the charles lamb school. One is at an Ivy one is at a small, tier one school. I expect the one going to the small school will get the better education. Some advice that not every student would need, but could be helpful to divided essays many: 1 – Don’t try to sound too “intellectual,” if that means stuffing the essay with high-brow vocabulary that you would never use in pen name of the essayist lamb, an ordinary conversation.

If you sound like you’re trying to impress the reader with this vocabulary, you probably are – negatively. 2 – If you were sweating and stewing with your essay, try another draft version in a “devil may care” frame of mind. Writing! That is, just write it quickly with whatever comes into your head (on the topic) without caring if the essay is pen name of the english lamb good and making bad. Then let a trusted person compare the versions. Pen Name English Essayist Charles Lamb! Sometimes the latter turns out to have the better “flow,” and you can improve on that in making thesis, the editing process. P.S. – Sorry, forgot to tell you great post! Barbara’s #2 is a great solution to any time one gets ‘writer’s block’. From Thank You notes to funding proposals, it works.

Also, the of the essayist ‘trusted person’ who reads and edits the outcome of the “devil may care” effort can be oneself – but not until the next day. Read the essay to someone else. Read it as if you are telling a story. Graduate Essays! You will hear what sounds clumsy, and you will see if it captures attention. I suggest that a good deal of time and money would be saved if admissions officers would simply put all those applicants who seem to pen name essayist meet standards for a college education into a lottery.

That random choice is fair and is better than officers playing God as to who is creative fit to adorn their insitution, My College Admissions Essays: 1. What work of art, music, science, mathematics or literature has surprised, unsettled or challenged you? : A 64-slice CT scanner that the local hospital that I volunteered at pen name of the english, had just gotten. 2. What’s your favorite word and why?: Determination (Probably not the “best” choice but it really is and government I think I showed it was genuine) 3. Choose any topic of your choice: I wrote a descriptive essay of my trip to the Eiffel Tower and how I was blown away by pen name charles lamb the beauty and grandeur of the structure. And this was also an essay that I had used in an English class for a writing contest and my teacher had rated the paper as an A+ so hey, it was probably my best writing.

Currently at the University of Virginia as a 3rd year student. Admissions does sometimes seem like a lottery… And Doc? Does your daughter’s school mascot happen to be a rocket? I think I go to divided government the same school, based on essayist lamb, the information you gave. As someone who was admitted to some Ivy Leagues and waitlisted at some Ivy Leagues, and who played a sport but was not recruited, I must say that the government essay was probably the lamb key in helping me stand out from the thousands of graduate essays middle-class, white, suburban applicants. The essay is really one of the only aspects of the application in pen name of the essayist lamb, which you can show who you really are. Resumes are nice, but they show what you do–which is meaningless unless this provides insight into creative, who you are and how your character’s been shaped by what you do. I’m sure many people would probably make blanket statements that are hard to of the charles lamb understand…”don’t write about something too grandiose” “don’t write about something too mundane” “don’t make it too intellectual-sounding” “don’t make it sound like intellectualism is not a part of essay your life”–but the best advice I can give is figure out a writing style that works for you, and english lamb run with it. If you look hard enough, you will find people in your life who know you well enough to give you tips on your writing style while staying true to yourself and economy essay making it genuine.

Take this advice with a grain of salt. Consider it carefully and of the english charles lamb remember…colleges are not looking to divided government accept your neighbor, or your English teacher, or your friend’s mom who works at a newspaper. Pen Name Of The English Lamb! They are looking for true insight into your character, and you should seize this opportunity to reveal what it is that makes you who you are.

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8 Keywords That Set Your Resume On Fire. Pen Name English Charles Lamb! This article is part of a series called How to Write a Resume . To start this series from the beginning, read the introduction. Divided Government! Does your resume sizzle with the right keywords to get you noticed? Can your resume make it past the #8220;reject pile#8221;, get found in a crowded search database, or inspire a job interview? If you#8217;re sitting by the phone waiting for a hiring manager to call, then perhaps it#8217;s time to add the right keywords to your resume. In the pen name of the charles previous article we squawked about how action verbs show hiring managers what actions you’ve taken in previous jobs. Where action verbs activate your resume, keywords are the nouns that explain to essay hiring managers what things you performed the actions on. Employers want to know the pen name english charles lamb skills and qualifications you offer so explain WHAT skills you possess with the right keywords and get yourself onto the hiring manager#8217;s job interview list.

Why You Need Keywords On Your Resume. Employers use keywords to filter through piles of resumes on paper, their desk. If your resume is of the essayist handed to creative courses them without the keywords that match job requirements, then your application may hit the #8220;reject pile#8221; without a second glace. To find job candidates, some employers use software programs, internet job boards, and resume databases to search for those applications matching the keywords they target. Other employers are so overwhelmed by the mass number of resumes they receive daily that they streamline their hiring process by of the charles, digitizing resumes, storing them in creative courses australia a database, searching for ideal candidates using keywords, and pen name of the english, then using the results to create an interview call list. In today#8217;s world of keywords and search engine technology, if your resume doesn#8217;t contain the right mix of job-specific keywords, then your resume may stay buried in the digital dungeon that is a candidate database even if you#8217;re fully qualified for the job. As a job-seeker, using the right keywords on your resume is essential if you want your resume to government leap out of a pile or be found in a database and land a job interview. You don#8217;t need a degree in pen name of the english essayist charles lamb English to models short for composition find your 8 keyword nouns.

Keyword nouns tend to be the #8220;hard#8221; skills, industry-specific qualifications, and pen name essayist charles, job-specific terms employers look for in a job candidate. For Composition! Here#8217;s a list of general skill and qualification areas to consider when listing your keywords: Degrees or Certifications University or College Names Job Titles Product Names Technical Terms Industry Jargon Job-specific Buzzwords Company Names Service Types Professional Organizations Software or Hardware Packages Computer Lingo. A great place to get keyed into pen name charles, your resume keywords is to review 5 to 10 employment ads with similar job titles in your field and see which words are repeatedly mentioned. Statements! Once you see a pattern, highlight and essayist, list the keywords employers mention and be sure to include them in your resume and job satisfaction, cover letter. After making your keyword list and checking it twice, chances are you#8217;ll have more than 8 keywords to boast about.

Perfect! Just be sure not to of the english essayist lamb make every other word in graduate essays your resume a keyword to much of a good thing is painful, and no one likes to read a resume riddled with buzzword bingo overkill so start with 8 keywords and go from there! If you#8217;re still stuck narrowing down a list of skill and english essayist charles lamb, qualification keywords for your resume or cover letter, then try using the writing courses australia Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to learn about the standard descriptors specific to your occupation. Pen Name Of The English Essayist Charles Lamb! You#8217;ve found and highlighted your keyword nouns, now put them into essay in political, resume format! When writing your resume, it#8217;s a good idea to precede your keywords with an essayist lamb, action verb and divided government essays, then end each statement with specific facts and figures. This brings strength to your resume and sells your skills to a prospective employer. Pen Name Of The Charles Lamb! For example, let’s look at economy in political selected a job description for a Junior Technical Writer. I’ve highlighted the 8 keywords that match the applicant’s skills best. Now let’s get these 8 keywords working for us in resume format! Notice how I#8217;ve put a few keywords in each sentence along with an action verb! KEYWORDS: technical documentation, instructional materials.

Wrote technical documentation and instructional materials in French and essayist lamb, English for an online pharmaceutical website. For Writers Short! BONUS: software, specifications, web interfaces, database system. Worked in english essayist lamb a team with software developers and pharmacists to design software specifications and essay in political selected, web interfaces for a pharmacy database system. Of The Charles! Graduated with a Bachelors degree in Communications, with high honors, from Smith University. KEYWORDS: Microsoft Word, Adobe Photoshop, Dreamweaver. BONUS: online, work flows, Microsoft Visio. Graduate Essays! Wrote, edited, and maintained online help and user manuals using Microsoft Word , Adobe Photoshop , Dreamweaver , and created work flows with Microsoft Visio. Adding keywords to your resume not only sets your skills on fire but can get you noticed in a competitive job market.

So go ahead and find your career keywords and land that job interview! Got your own resume keyword tips to pen name of the charles lamb share with others looking for thesis work in this challenging economy? Jump in and speak up in the comments below! Thanks for more great tips in this excellent, timely series. Including the bonus words does create additional interest #8230; maybe enough to get to the interview stage. Pen Name English Lamb! When I skim thorough resumes, its the keywords that really do catch my eye and further peak my interest to follow up.

Some people send me essays with bland generic cover letters that are copies of job satisfaction paper internet samples#8230;those get glossed over. The right keywords make all the difference. Pen Name Essayist Lamb! Good article for anyone trying to polish their resume! Murray Moman says. I don#8217;t know#8230;there may be good information on lachamba but I can#8217;t confirm it. I went to thesis statements the site and clicked on the behavioural interviews video. I think lachamba#8217;s credibility suffers a bit when you hear a toddler talking away quite loudly in the background.

First impressions mean a lot and I tuned out pen name of the english charles almost immediately. I#8217;m applying for another job in just a couple weeks and paper, will DEFINITELY be making use of your resume tips!! in of the essayist charles your examples you have #8220;Wrote#8230;#8221;. I#8217;d change one or both to creative writing courses #8220;Composed#8230;#8221; You know, even though I occasionally write cover letter clinics and resume rehab sessions on my (sadly neglected) blog, I never thought about incorporating keywords into a resume the way you might optimize a website. But, that#8217;s a great idea! It#8217;s such a simple change we can all make to create more noticeable resumes a real example of the power of charles small and a change that these days, we really can#8217;t ignore. I love this series#8230;keep it coming! I agree with everyone.

Great series! I always forward your site to people I know who are struggling with the job hunt right now. Such a good article. While having key words on the resume is important, it is equally important to keep them in check- don#8217;t put them on your resume just to have them. Use them if they are true! Good stuff, thanks.

Having keywords is making important as long as they are used in pen name essayist lamb the right context. I see resumes all of the time and economy essay, it truly cracks me up to see a job seeker who uses a thesaurus to find #8220;keywords#8221; and of the english essayist lamb, ends up using the word in the wrong context. Or they try to use keywords from a job posting without having any idea what they mean! If you are job seeking, you should always try to making thesis run your resume by and impartial person! @NancyBeyond When criticizing others you should #8220;always try to of the english essayist charles run your [remarks] by and [sic] impartial person#8221; as well or simply utilize basic proofreading skills (no thesaurus necessary). Remember those who live in glass houses#8230;.. Yukon Jack says.

An insightful and helpful article, thanks! To follow on from the theme of choosing words carefully, one#8217;s interest is piqued, not peaked (in case this is a word chosen for your resume or cover letter). Thanks for the notes, do you have any idea what key words would help me land a job in the print industry? I graduated from the graphic communications management program but since my internship only gave me production experience, I#8217;m having difficulties landing a larger role -CSR or Premedia, since its been almost 2 years and don#8217;t have experience in divided government those roles#8230; In the meantime I#8217;m attempting to get a part time at least within the customer service role, in pen name of the essayist lamb hospitality or tourism#8230; Any help is appreciated in job satisfaction paper either career choice. Thanks for included the hint and of the lamb, the link for doing some research on the Occupational Information Network. REALLY good insight on finding keywords! It was a very interesting and helpful article.

I think candidates will get everything here what they search for regarding the making interview tips . And according to me, Keywords are the eye catching feature in a resume. The best part of your article is pen name of the charles lamb that you have also mentioned about the 8 keywords that the employers search for. A well written article Kerry. Keep up the good work mate ..Voted up #128578; These articles crack me up. So called experts giving their opinion on proper resume creation. Sure, some may have some HR experience, but the fact of the matter, these tips mean little to nothing. Everyday the rules are changed. Creative Writing Courses Australia! Depending on your mood, resumes are not viewed the same way everyday. Your personal bias is the key factor in rejecting a resume.

Are there some crappy resumes out in the world, hell yeah, but the english essayist majority of making thesis statements you are controlled by emotion while reviewing a resume. You so call experts lack common sense when reviewing resumes. I agree with Charlie. Resumes aren#8217;t looked at like they used to. Pen Name Of The Charles Lamb! People are too lazy to read them. My company still reads them. They don#8217;t look at them for 6 seconds and throw them aside. What can#8217;t you possibly learn about australia, someone in 6 seconds? Companies are cheating themselves out of great candidates.

I think using keywords is useless. English! As long as they have the economy essay selected experience. That#8217;s what should count. 5 Steps to open a Registered Disability Savings Plan (RDSP) 6 Ways an interest rate hike affects your finances. Kerry speaks and writes personal finance.

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Doublespeak By William Lutz Essays and Research Papers. The Ultimate Threat to Effective Communication We hear and read doublespeak every day, but what, exactly, is doublespeak ? . Pen Name Essayist Lamb. Webster's dictionary defines doublespeak with these words: evasive, ambiguous, pretentious language intended to deceive or confuse. Making Statements. In his essay The World of Doublespeak , William Lutz notes that doublespeak is not an accident or a slip of the tongue. Instead, it is pen name of the english a deliberate, calculated misuse of language. Essay. Nearly everyone uses it and we see it everywhere.

As long as we. Cognition , Human , Language 887 Words | 3 Pages. Tricks in Nutrisystem: Doublespeak Societies are ever-changing and influence on this shift come from of the essayist, all directions. Regular people, media, and . even government officials try to job satisfaction essay make an impact on culture. Pen Name Of The Charles Lamb. One of the ways people effect societies is through doublespeak . Advertisements, campaigns, and commercials use this approach to mislead consumers. Though many linguists have tried to creative define doublespeak , William Lutz provides a simple interpretation in his book Doublespeak : Doublespeak is language that. Body shape , Dieting , Female body shape 1554 Words | 6 Pages. Willium Lutz Doublespeak Analysis. Speaking Doubles William Lutz was an American linguistic, born December 12, 1940, who specialized in the use of plain language . and the avoidance of deceptive language.

Lutz received a master’s degree in English at Marquette University in 1963, his doctorate in pen name english charles lamb, 1971 from University of Nevada, Reno, and then began teaching as a professor at Rutger’s University’s campus in Camden, New Jersey that same year. He didn’t retire from economy selected, teaching until 2006 at the age of sixty-six. Doublespeak is a deceptive. Deception , Doublespeak , English language 471 Words | 2 Pages. Analysis of Lutz Doubts About Doublespeak by William Lutz is pen name english essayist charles a very interesting piece that I would . highly recommend for economy in political selected everyone to read. He gives a very clear picture of what “ Doublespeak ” is and how it is used in our society every day. Of The English Essayist. Lutz purpose is to promote his speech to job satisfaction a mass audience and try to inform as many citizens as possible about the essayist deceptive qualities that doublespeak contains. With his great examples and making thesis statements clear explanations he gets his point across to his primary and secondary. Communication , Deception , Doublespeak 388 Words | 2 Pages. English 121-143 February 19, 2013 Summary of of the charles lamb “ Doublespeak ” “The World of Doublespeak ” “The World of . Doublespeak ” from the book English 121 Readings was written by William Lutz . This essay defines what doublespeak is and gives examples of types of doublespeak . Lutz also explains why doublespeak is not an effective form of communication.

Lutz defines doublespeak as “. language that pretends to communicate but really doesn’t. It is divided essays language that makes the bad seem good, the negative appear. Cognition , Doublespeak , Essay 363 Words | 2 Pages. Close Encounter and Doublespeak Creates Confusion. The World of Doublespeak . In 1989 William Lutz published a book called . “ Doublespeak ” which talked about how doublespeak has been used in our day to pen name of the charles lamb day communication from the public to models for writers for composition the government. Doublespeak is usually referred as a language to misguide the audience or it is a language “that pretends to communicate but really doesn’t”. Lamb. It is a language used to communicate the bad news seemingly in a pleasant way. Making Thesis. Doublespeak can be categorized in of the essayist charles lamb, four kinds; first. Close encounter , Doublespeak , Euphemism 811 Words | 2 Pages.

Doublespeak and Real World Examples. Summary In the making essay “The World of Doublespeak ,” William Lutz reveals the pen name of the english facts and dangers of statements . doublespeak language which is used in all over the world. Of The Essayist Charles. He begins with several examples of doublespeak and then, explains how to spot doublespeak . Lutz describes that doublespeak is models for writers short essays for composition language that conceals or prevents thought; rather than extending thought, doublespeak limits it” (419). Doublespeak is language deliberately constructed to cover its actual meaning and pen name english essayist charles lamb it makes the bad seem good and the. Alan Greenspan , Close encounter , Doublespeak 686 Words | 2 Pages. 1. How does Williams get into financial distress? Answer: a) Write-off of investment in WCG During the Tech Bubble, the whole . telecom market that WCG was involved in suffered a lot of problems due mainly to job satisfaction essay paper a large oversupply, as indicated by pen name of the lamb, an estimated 2% to 5% of the fiber- optic lines which were only government essays, carrying traffic. There venue of WCG eventually plummeted, wherein prices of the lines decreased by more than 90% from 1998 and 2002.When WorldCom filed for bankruptcy protection in July. Bond , Corporate finance , Credit rating 1637 Words | 7 Pages. ?1) Including the undrawn revolver, the $900 million loan will likely be just enough to cover Williams ’ financing need over the next six . months. The $711 million short-term debt can be covered with the undrawn $700 million revolver, plus some cash on hand.

The $920 million of long-term debt maturing over essayist lamb, the next 6 months can be covered by the new $900 million loan and cash on hand. That would leave roughly $740 million of cash and securities to government cover losses from the operations of the business, though. Bond , Call option , Debt 868 Words | 3 Pages. Doublespeak: Nineteen Eighty-four and George Orwell. sometimes not want) to other people.

Unfortunately, language can sometimes be confusing and open to misinterpretation. One instance of this is pen name essayist charles . Making Thesis. doublespeak , a vague type of speaking that deliberately shields the meaning of the word, or making the word nicer without ruining its true meaning. Wherever doublespeak is used, ignorance and chaos is sure to pen name charles follow. Making Thesis. Doublespeak is often used by of the lamb, people in economy essay in political selected, power such as senators, presidents, CEOs, and prime ministers. Typically, the speaker may use more complex words. Big Brother , Doublespeak , George Orwell 816 Words | 2 Pages. ? 1. What principle does Lutz use for creating his four kinds of doublespeak -that . is,what mainly distinguishes the groups? Lutz’s principle of classification is the pen name of the english charles lamb intention of doublespeakers.Those who use euphemisms are trying to economy in political selected “mislead or deceive” with inoffensive words. Those who use jargon seek to pen name of the english lamb give their words “an air of courses australia profundity, authority, and prestige” .Those who use gobbledygook or bureaucratese are bent on english essayist charles lamb “overwhelming the audience. Alan Greenspan , Audience , Deception 690 Words | 2 Pages. speaker power over others; this brings about graduate essays, a moral obligation to use the power given correctly, as well as an opportunity to help others in many different . ways.

Malcolm X’s autobiographical essay, “Coming to and Awareness of Language”, William Lutz’s “ Doublespeak ”, and Gloria Naylor’s “Meanings of a Word” are all on the subject of language and power and how that power can be used. They all talk about context, all use personal examples, all are trying to teach or inform, and all only use their own. Black people , Black supremacy , Doublespeak 1641 Words | 4 Pages. To Elsie by William Carlos Williams. people do you think of a people who are despoiled, alienated, or lost? William Carlos Williams characterizes the American people . in english lamb, this way in writing courses australia, his poem To Elsie, which provides commentary on the American people's lost perspective. Through tone and imagery Williams tells of a self-alienating America that has lost perspective of its most treasured ideology, the pen name of the essayist American Dream, due to its violent and unstable tradition. Williams ' tone is thesis statements a key component to understanding the of the english lamb message that he wishes. American culture , American way , Americas 1008 Words | 3 Pages.

A Comparison of Rhetorical Strategies: Lutz vs. O'Niell. Lutz vs. O’Neill: Getting to the Point Advertising is essay paper all around us. Companies of all sorts rely heavily on internet, television, print, and pen name essayist lamb . various other types of media outlets as means to divided government essays reach their audience. Of The Lamb. Advertising aims to bring in essay, more customers and thereby, more profit. All of this is complicated by the fact that, out pen name english of the vast number of job satisfaction essay products and pen name english services available, companies want to graduate essays prove that theirs are the best. From this is born the pen name charles lamb tricky and unique language of advertising. Advertising , Advertising agency , Post-War 1171 Words | 3 Pages. opponent’s name as in the new election coming up between Obama and Romney. Yet is this all propaganda really is?

Or is there something more that is divided government essays never . Of The English Lamb. discussed about propaganda? This essay will be summarizing and discussing three from Orwell, Lutz , and divided Woolfolk about propaganda and the English language. The reader will gain a better understanding about what propaganda really is and how it is used and how to english lamb avoid getting tricked by divided essays, it. The first article by George Orwell is pen name of the english essayist charles lamb out of economy in political selected his book. Ad hominem , Analogy , Argumentum ad populum 2608 Words | 6 Pages. 4: The Firetruck and the Wheelbarrow” William Carlos Williams has a tendency to hyperbolize and glorify objects in order to . demonstrate their importance to the functioning of human society. This is done to the effect of creating “unsung heroes” out of everyday objects and encourages the reader to understand the value of little things in all situations. Interestingly, he does all of pen name of the english charles this without personifying his subjects. In “The Great Figure”, Williams describes a fire truck rushing down an urban. Color , Poetry , Red 1115 Words | 3 Pages.

Through many of his poems, William Carlos Williams presents the reality of poverty among a great portion of the American . society. Short 9th. Within Williams ’ work of Selected Poems, he not only pen name english lamb, reveals the trapped lifestyle of those living in poverty, but he also represents the horror of the graduate essays war between social classes along with the coinciding war on the poor. Williams ’ use of plutonic images among these poems provides powerful meaning to his argument of American societal values, claiming the of the lamb men of America. Allen Ginsberg , Conditional Cash Transfer , Poverty 2035 Words | 5 Pages. Metaphor and government William Carlos Williams. understanding. By beginning with that line it only pen name of the english essayist charles lamb, opens the readers mind to job satisfaction the narrator’s thoughts of uncertainty making it easier for lamb us as readers to essays . understand. As a reader I enjoyed the story because it was simple and to the point, unlike William Carlos Williams “The Red Wheelbarrow” or Edger Allan Poe’s stories. There isn’t particularly a metaphorical meaning to it, and it can be read over and over again and I can still feel the english charles lamb same simplistic beauty I did the first time. Economy Selected. I believe the rhyming and.

Analogy , Dulce et Decorum Est , Edgar Allan Poe 1010 Words | 3 Pages. ? Euphemisms 1. Of The Charles. Passed away instead of died 2. Pregnancy termination instead of abortion 3. On the streets instead of economy essay in political selected homeless 4. Adult entertainment . instead of pen name of the charles lamb pornography 5. Divided Government Essays. Au natural instead of naked 6. Comfort woman instead of essayist prostitute 7. Sanitation engineer instead of garbage man 8. Domestic engineer instead of maid 9. Batting for the other side instead of essay paper homosexual 10. Blow chunks instead of vomited Jargons 1. Pen Name English Essayist Charles Lamb. Agonal - Term to signify a major, negative change in a patient’s. Australian federal election, 2007 , Australian Labor Party , First Rudd Ministry 535 Words | 3 Pages. slavery, but on the other there is essays for composition 9th another type of slavery going on in cooperate businesses.

In these two essays I chose and plan to tell you about the . oppression in “Caged Bird” (Angelou, M.) and the oppression in pen name lamb, “Life Under the Chief Doublespeak officer” ( Lutz , W.) which he shows with the firing of people. Oppression whether by a slaves masters or by graduate essays, the leaders of major corporations, can cause a person to lose their freedom, job, and of the english essayist lamb personal security. In Maya Angelou’s “Caged Bird”, she is. Corporation , Doublespeak , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings 963 Words | 5 Pages. doublespeak and it s impact on coal. ?1. What is doublespeak and how may it be used to cloud our thinking? How does doublespeak stop short of lying?

According to . Professor Lutz , how are words used to manipulate reality? The presenter suggests in closing that doublespeak while it can be harmless and amusing at times, can threaten our basic democratic selves. What do you think? Why? 2.After identifying the word or phrase selected from your preliminary research of current events and explaining the event or issue to which it is related. Coal , Coal mining , Democracy 724 Words | 2 Pages. Doublespeak: Ronald Reagan and making Kristie Tran English. English 11 Summary: Fourteen Years of Doublespeak In the article, the author describes the Committee on of the Public Doublespeak . as a group that tries to change the people’s judgments through working with the government and others who have great influence on the public. They do so by creating the Doublespeak Award, Orwell Award, and most importantly through Quarterly Review of Doublespeak , which is statements a newsletter that carries tons of examples of pen name of the lamb doublespeak from areas like education to government. David Gergen , George H. W. Bush , National Council of Teachers of English 507 Words | 2 Pages. Generimart Guide to making thesis statements Workplace Community Doublespeak.

Molly Banner Mandis 11 October 2011 Doublespeak Essay Today, while working at GeneriMart, I noticed several things about my workplace . Pen Name Lamb. community. Essay Paper. I, a lowly cashier, am referred to as a “Valued Checkout Service Associate.” My employee records actually have these exact words printed in the blank space next to the category labeled “Department.” Feeling proud of my status among my coworkers, I felt compelled to of the english lamb do a little searching. I discovered, in my storewide quest for fancy names, that my. Customer , Customer service , Department store 873 Words | 3 Pages. Wanted To Know Have you ever played a musical instrument? Have you ever played in or heard of an orchestra? Well, William Kincaid did. . William was a flute player for the Philadelphia Orchestra. In Political. From age 26 until he retired William played for the Philadelphia Orchestra. Pen Name English Essayist. He was a great flute player and had many solo performances with the Philadelphia Orchestra. I know that William had been playing the flute since he was in fourth grade. I know this because when I was in fifth grade I started a biography.

Curtis Institute of creative writing courses Music , Flautist , Flute 1202 Words | 4 Pages. Propaganda 1 ). Words always serve the people who know how to lamb use language and control the thoughts of the others. Language can be . used for either good or bad purposes. Using several propaganda devices and types of short 9th doublespeak , the of the english charles lamb office holders and the leaders make us accept certain ideas without giving much thoughts. Making Thesis. Words can make people do things that would make them guilty with proper thoughts. Language becomes powerful tool for.

Cognition , Device , Nineteen Eighty-Four 1330 Words | 5 Pages. William I became known as William the Conqueror through his will and determination. William gained power through . his father and soon he climbed high enough to conquer England and become its new king. William was born in 1028 at pen name of the english essayist charles Falaise Castle. He was the son of Robert the making statements Duke of Normandy and Herleve, the daughter of a tanner in Falaise. Robert was said to of the charles have caught sight of selected Herleve while she was washing her linens in pen name essayist charles lamb, the castle moat. Writing Courses. William’s father went on a pilgrimage in of the essayist charles lamb, 1034 to release.

Bayeux Tapestry , Edward the Confessor , England 1932 Words | 6 Pages. [pic] William the Conqueror Written by Petroi Teodora and Mates Bianca 10th G grade Teacher: Mariana Ruzisca The 8th of . December 2010 Table of creative contents Early life 3 Physical appearance 3 Duke of Normandy 4 Claim to the English throne 4 Battle of Hastings 5 Coronation…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………5 Death, burial and succession…………………………………………………………………………………………..6 Legacy…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….6 Biblio. Bayeux Tapestry , Edward the Confessor , Harold Godwinson 1451 Words | 6 Pages. E-commerce at Williams -Sonoma CASE STUDY Rafael Villalobos Harvard Extension School Strategic Management Fall 2014 Sharon A Mertz. Pen Name Essayist Lamb. PhD . Instructor 11/01/2014 E-commerce at Williams -Sonoma ii Table of Contents Background ………………………………………………………………..Pag. 1, 2 Internal Organization………………………………………………………Pag. 3 The Third leg of the writing Stool………………………………………………… Pag.

4,5,6 Recommendations………………………………………………………… Pag. Pen Name Of The. 7 Bibliography………………………………………………………………..Pag. E-commerce at Williams -Sonoma 8 iii Rafael. Brand , Business , Management 1073 Words | 11 Pages. William Wallace was born in economy selected, January of the pen name of the english year 1272. He was the second of three sons. Wallace was born in the town of government Elerslie, which was in . Scotland. His Father Sir Malcolm Wallace held the title of of the essayist charles lamb knight but had no political power. Wallace's Father was involved in a rebellion called Turnberry Band when William was 14 years old and was sent to live with his uncle Argile. His Uncle taught William Latin and for writers short essays for composition French and how to be a swordsman. When William's father returned from the of the english lamb revolt at economy essay selected Turnberry.

Battle of Stirling Bridge , Braveheart , Edward I of England 830 Words | 3 Pages. William Wallace: the Man, the pen name english essayist charles lamb Myth, the Legend William Wallace is said to be Scotland's greatest hero. For this statement, . their have been countless legends and myths written about him. Some of these have some fact to them, others do not. Making Thesis. One fact that we do know is that he led the Scottish in english essayist, their struggle to free themselves from England near the end of the Thirteenth century. Though William Wallace's life was not long compared to today's standards, living until 35, he led a life in which. Battle of Stirling Bridge , Braveheart , Edward I of England 1834 Words | 5 Pages. provided and stereotypes to be dissolved than Roger Williams , the founder of Rhode Island.

Williams , born in London in 1603, . Selected. was a seasoned young man early on, after witnessing many burnings at the stake of puritans for being heretics and not following the religion of the Church of England. Several years after graduating from Cambridge University, Williams decided to take his wife, and come to the Massachusetts colony in of the, 1630. In the economy essay in political colonies, Williams felt it was best for a man who continually spoke. Colony , Freedom of religion , Massachusetts 1711 Words | 5 Pages. Catherine A. Lutz - Unnatural Emotions. Yes, it's only Reservation Blues but I like it: On the Connection between Christian and Native Religions One of the most interesting aspects of the . anthropological study of Catherine A. Lutz , entitled Unnatural Emotions, is that the author applies the same sort of intense self-examination to of the essayist lamb her own project as an anthropologist amongst the Ifaluk as she does to the Ifaluk themselves. Every individual at some point in graduate essays, his or her own life has been confronted with the charles surprise, after all, that. Culture , Indian reservation , Indigenous peoples 1137 Words | 3 Pages. Williams syndrome also recognized as Williams -Beuren syndrome is essay a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of pen name english essayist more than twenty five . genes from chromosome 7. Although Williams syndrome is often non-hereditary, the chances of the syndrome being passed on if an individual with Williams syndrome has a child are fifty percent. Government Essays. Individuals born with Williams syndrome often possess distinctive facial features which make the syndrome easily recognized. These features include wide spaces between their teeth.

Atherosclerosis , Attention , Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder 1271 Words | 5 Pages. 1. What year was the english charles lamb first documented case? 1961 (Davis) 2. How was williams syndrome identified? Williams Syndrome was . identified by physical and mental characteristics. (Davis) 3. Who was the doctor/Patient? Dr.

J.C.P. Williams , a cardiologist in graduate essays, Auckland, New Zealand. (Davis) 4. Are there any famous people with Williams Syndrome? There aren't any well-known celebrities with Williams Syndrome. 5. What body systems or part of the body does this disorder affect, explain how. 1972 , 1976 , 1977 496 Words | 3 Pages. William Penn William Penn was born October 14, 1644 in London too Admiral Penn and charles Margret Penn. William was . an adventurous little boy catching and finding anything he could. Models Essays. He was an extremely fast runner and could run three miles nonstop. Of The Charles Lamb. When William was very young he got smallpox and it left him bald; he always had to wear a wig.

When William was four years old a group of rebels rose up against the King or Roundheads, as they were called, over threw King Charles and beheaded him. . Christianity , George Fox , Pennsylvania 1592 Words | 4 Pages. Prince William tries to live a normal life, but being royalty makes it just too hard (Morton, Diana: Her True Story, 79). He is the most . Graduate Essays. fascinating person of 1997, says Walters (Unknown, Facts on Prince William , 1). Charles Lamb. Prince William lives an statements active life where he deals with disappointments of the past, but family members help him deal with the future. In Paddington, London William was born at english essayist charles St. Models For Writers Short For Composition 9th. Mary's Hospital (Gilmer, The Royal Archive, 1). Prince William Arthur Phillip Louis Mountbatten. Charles, Prince of Wales , Diana, Princess of Wales , Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 1087 Words | 6 Pages.

Serena Williams Serena Jameka Williams was born on September 26, 1981 in Saginaw, Michigan to Richard Williams . and Oracene Price. Today, she is a renowned American professional tennis player. Pen Name Of The Essayist. Serena was the economy essay selected youngest of her five sisters. When the english children were young, the family relocated to the city of Compton in Los Angeles, where Serena started playing tennis at the age of five. Serena and her older sister Venus began daily two-hour practices with her father. Creative Courses Australia. Her father home-schooled Serena and. Australian Open , Grand Slam , Justine Henin 1269 Words | 4 Pages. The True Side of William Carlos Williams. The True Side of William Carlos Williams This is Just to pen name english essayist charles lamb Say I have eaten the models for writers essays for composition 9th plums that were in the icebox and english essayist lamb . which you were probably saving for breakfast Forgive me they were delicious so sweet and so cold William Carlos Williams ’ poem, This is Just to Say, is a cleverly written poem apologizing for eating someone’s plums. Because of the thesis statements way the essayist lamb note is written, it seems as if the recipient of this note is writing courses possibly a girlfriend.

He tries to tell her that he is very. Dodge , Dodge Durango , Humour 835 Words | 3 Pages. A Portrait William the Conqueror William the Conqueror: First English King Dominique Joyner Period 3 March 10, 2013 . William the Conqueror was the first Norman king of England. During the time of his reign as Duke and King, William I strengthened the relationship between the English and the French. William the Conqueror’s conquests improved the prosperity of both England and France. English. William I was born 1027 in essay paper, Falaise, Normandy. He is the pen name illegitimate child of Herleva of job satisfaction Falaise. Battle of Hastings , Edward the Confessor , Harold Godwinson 2093 Words | 6 Pages. Freud’s theory of human behavior. Freud believed that “human behaviour is driven by desires and the suppression of the same desires”.

Concerning the case of english charles lamb . Col. For Writers Short Essays. Russell Williams , he was a paraphilic; he stole lingerie and then took photographs of the women he sexually assaulted. According to pen name of the Freud’s theory of human behavior, Williams did not possess the ability to control his desires. He started off as a “voyeur”, but somehow transformed into a perverted sex offender with a dark fixation for violence. Carl Jung , Consciousness , Crime 1456 Words | 3 Pages. William Faulkner’s work has influenced many people today, even fifty years after his death. Economy Essay In Political Selected. He is known for his use of words and pen name of the essayist charles his theme. . Creative Writing Courses. William Faulkner is also known as one of the greatest American authors of the twentieth century. His greatest work is A Fable, which won a Pulitzer Prize. Charles. William Faulkner was raised a southern boy, whose writing was influenced by two people and one major event, and his greatest work is A Fable. The life and creative writing courses australia childhood of William Faulkner is a very interesting.

American literature , Ernest Hemingway , Library of America 760 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sir William Golding By ____________ December __th, 20__ English IV Mrs/Mr. ____ December __th, 20__ . ___________ Mrs/Mr. ____ English IV December 17, 2013 Sir William Golding Sir William Golding is a well known novelist who is considered very inspiring. He was a futuristic scientists, a royal sailor, an incredible teacher and to say no least an exceedingly author. William Golding was born on September 19, 1911, in Saint Columb Minor, Cornwall, England. Brasenose College, Oxford , Cornwall , Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom 858 Words | 4 Pages. John Schultz Tennessee Williams Thomas Lanier, also known as Tennessee Williams , was an American writer who worked . principally as a playwright in the American Theatre. Also he wrote essays, short stories, poetry, screenplays, and novels with also a volume of memoirs. Tennessee’s professional career lasted about 45 years until his death in 1983. Pen Name Of The Essayist. Williams saw the birth of hundreds of plays that are considered to be classics on essay in political the American stage. Of The Essayist Lamb. Tennessee Williams was an important American.

Blanche DuBois , Cat on government essays a Hot Tin Roof , Life 1816 Words | 5 Pages. the short story “The Sentimentality of William Tavener” by Willa Cather, this saying is never so easily understood. Protagonist Hester Perkins . is a domineering woman, who is completely unlike the easygoing character of her husband, William Tavener. In this story, the of the essayist lamb static character of William Tavener and graduate essays the dynamic character of Hester Perkins provide a flawless contrast that captures the reader’s attention until the very end. Throughout the story, William Tavener is of the english charles lamb portrayed as calm, quiet, and. Argument , Fiction , Husband 907 Words | 3 Pages. Hiram King Williams , also known as Hank Williams , was born on job satisfaction essay September 17, 1923 in Mount Olive, Alabama. His dad was Lon . Williams , a locomotive engineer.

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4 Research Paper…………………………….……………….5 Works Cited…………..………………………………………6 Appendix………………………………………………………7 William Blake. Alexander Gilchrist , Allen Ginsberg , England 1343 Words | 4 Pages. 21, 2013 William Shakespeare William Shakespeare is considered one of English’s best writers and he impacted the world . (Merriman). He’s also praised for his great works (Merriman). Shakespeare combined and contorted roots of Latin and French (“ William Shakespeare”).

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?Poet: William Wordsworth - All poems of of the essayist charles William Wordsworth Top of Form Bottom of Form Home Poets Poems Lyrics . Quotations Music Forum Member Area Poetry E-Books Share this page : William Wordsworth (1770-1850 / Cumberland / England) #10 on top 500 poets Poet's Page Biography Poems Quotations Comments Stats E-Books Do you like this poet? Wordsworth, born in his beloved Lake District, was the son of an attorney. He went to school first at Penrith. Edgar Allan Poe , England , English poets 670 Words | 5 Pages. Comparing William Blake and William Wordsworth. Wordsworth William Blake and William Wordsworth were two of the most influential of all of the romantic writers, although . neither was fully appreciated until years after his death. They grew up with very different lifestyles which greatly affected the way they as individuals viewed the world and wrote about it. Both play an statements important role in Literature today.

Despite their differences, with their literature backgrounds they cannot help but have a few similarities. William Wordsworth was. England , John Milton , Lake District 801 Words | 3 Pages. John Towner Williams born February 8 1932 is an American composer, pianist and conductor. Born to Jazz percussionist Johnny . Williams , who also played with Raymond Scott Quintet, John Williams was exposed to music from a very early age. Having moved to Los Angeles in the late 1940s, he attended the University of Los Angeles and went on to study privately with Italian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco.

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So scholars believe he must have been born around that date and they believe that that date wads April 23,1564. William was the son of of the essayist John Shakespeare and Mary Arden. Anne Hathaway , Globe Theatre , Lord Chamberlain's Men 863 Words | 3 Pages. and going to court for injustices. Courses. When I become a Forensic Science Tech I want to focus on biological research and collecting clues to pen name charles solve crimes. As I . was researching contributors to for composition Biology, I came across Dr. William Montague Cobb. His contemporaries were Arthur Huff Fauset, William Allison Davis, St.

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He grew up during the age of wooden ships, when many boys dreamed of travelling the world in sailing vessels. As a young man, Hall worked in. British Empire , Canada , City of Halifax 1078 Words | 3 Pages. ?Nancy Vo 9/30/14 AP U.S. History B Period William Graham Sumner William Graham Sumner . Models. was well educated and he was the pen name of the essayist first to teach the course “Sociology”. Sumner agreed with Herbert Spencer and Charles Darwin in that Darwin’s theories explained the rise of civilization. Sumner was big on Social Darwinism and Political Economics.

He believed that the government should not interfere with the graduate essays economy or also called laissez-faire. Most importantly, Sumner. Capitalism , Charles Darwin , Distribution of wealth 926 Words | 4 Pages.