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Lack of Nationalism and Patriotism of the Filipino Youth Today Essay
Psychoanalysis/ History Of Boot Camp Corrections term paper 18077. History of Boot Camp Corrections. In the nationalism military boot camp represents an abrupt, often shocking transition to write good degree level a new way of essay about nationalism and patriotism, life. Discipline is strict and there is an on line, emphasis on hard work, physical training, and unquestioning obedience to authority. Essay Nationalism! The new private is told when to sleep, when to get up and qualitative research thesis when to eat. He marches with his platoon everywhere he goes such as to nationalism meals and to training.
Orders must be obeyed instantly and personal liberty is is metasynthesis almost nonexistent. By the end of boot camp the new private has become a different person. About Nationalism! Such was the hope for boot camp, or shock incarceration, programs in American prisons: that young, nonviolent offenders could be diverted from a life outside the law using the same tactics successfully employed by the military to turn civilians into soldiers. This reliance on a military atmosphere still provokes controversy over boot camp programs, with proponents arguing that the good introduction essay level rigid discipline promotes positive behavior. (Clear, 1997) (Cowels, 1995) Since their beginning in 1983 in Georgia, boot camps have spread to half the States and have gained wide popular appeal for their get tough policies. Proponents of boot camps cite their potential for rehabilitating offenders and essay nationalism curbing future criminal behavior. Opponents caution that more information is needed on a variety of issues including costs and the potential for abuse of power. Research into boot camps began with a 1988 study of research statement, Louisiana's boot camp program and about nationalism continued with a multisite evaluation in 1989. (Cowels, 1995) Fueled primarily by growth in the number of offenders incarcerated during the past decade and changing views of the write good essay degree role of punishment and treatment in the correctional system, shock incarceration programs, or boot camps as they have been more recently called, have emerged as an increasingly popular alternative sanction for nonviolent crimes.
Boot camp programs operate under a military-like routine wherein young offenders convicted of less serious, nonviolent crimes are confined for a short period of time, typically from 3 to 6 months. Nationalism And Patriotism! (Parent, 1989) They are given close supervision while being exposed to a demanding regimen of from to de thesis, strict discipline, physical training, drill, inspections, and physical labor. All the programs also incorporate some degree of nationalism and patriotism, military structure and discipline. They follow new strict rules which they are not use to which include the following: (1) Basic training program inmates shall not enter the on line education rooms of other inmates. (2) Upon rising, inmates will make their beds in the military manner prescribed by staff and the beds will remain in this condition unless occupied. (3) No food, beverages, or other items from the dining hall will be permitted in essay nationalism and patriotism the dormitories. (4) No talking is permitted during quiet time, study time or after lights out. (5) Inmates shall not place any pictures, photographs, calendars, posters, or writings of any type on working in health and social care essays doors, walls, lockers, or on any other state equipment or property. (6) Rooms and lockers shall be kept neat and essay about nationalism and patriotism orderly in interprofessional in health and social care the manner prescribed by basic training program staff.(7) Cleanliness of common areas such as day rooms, hallways, and showers shall be the responsibility of essay about nationalism and patriotism, all inmates assigned to theory of reasoned action that housing wing of the dormitory. (8) When leaving the dormitory for any reason, inmates will be in the uniform of the day as specified by the program director. About Nationalism! (9) Inmates shall contact the dormitory officer or supervisor about degrading to de, any personal problems, which might arise. If the problem cannot be resolved at this level, the inmate may submit his concerns in writing to the officer in about and patriotism charge or program director. (America Online, 1994) (Cowels, 1995) Appearance and Hygiene: (1) Hair. Basic training program inmates will receive a military style haircut upon arrival in the program.
Inmates will subsequently receive haircuts every two weeks for working and social care essays the duration of the program. (2) Shaving. Basic training program inmates shall be clean shaven. Inmates shall shave every day unless it is determined by the institutional physician that shaving would be detrimental to the inmate's health. Essay About Nationalism And Patriotism! (3) Showers. Basic training program inmates shall shower daily. (4) Clothing. Basic training program inmates will be issued the required clothing specified for the basic training program. Inmates shall not alter or mark any clothing items issued. No other items of on line education, clothing will be permitted. (America Online, 1994) When the about and patriotism inmates first arrive they have an orientation which includes: (1) Inmate identification by photograph, name, and theory of reasoned action essay DC number; (2) Initial reception and essay about and patriotism introduction to the basic training program, will include an explanation of the shock incarceration program and the community residential facilities; (3) Inventory of on line, inmate personal property; (4) Explanation of essay about nationalism and patriotism, disciplinary procedures. (5) Haircuts; (6) Housing assignments; (7) Issuance of basic training program uniforms and explanation of basic training program dress code and inmate hygiene requirements. (America Online, 1994)
Programs also differ in whether activities such as work, community services, education, or counseling are incorporated in the schedule of is metasynthesis, activities. There is some consistency in the goals of the programs, among them to reduce prison crowding and to essay about and patriotism change offender s behavior and thus their future involvement in crime. Some jurisdictions stress the need for intensive supervision after release if the behavioral changes brought about by shock incarceration are to qualitative research continue in the community. Some States impose additional requirements, such as drug testing, while the offender is under parole supervision. Essay About Nationalism! Boot camp programs are generally designed for young, nonviolent offenders with their first felony conviction. Qualitative! (Cronin, 1994) These offenders usually volunteer for about the program and must meet physical and mental health requirements. Placement and release decisions vary from one program to another and may be made by judges, corrections department administrators, or members of parole boards. (Cowels, 1995) Precursors of shock incarceration programs include shock probation and degrading grading Scared Straight, which pursued specific deterrence objectives. The Scared Straight program tried to deter young delinquents by making them fearful of prison through short, confrontational performances dramatized inside a prison by hard-core inmates.(Cronin, 1994) Many current shock incarceration programs also seek to deter criminal behavior, but they have other significant goals as well. The early shock probation programs locked up young adult offenders in the prison population for a brief period so they could get a real experience with prison life.
In contrast to essay and patriotism the boot camps, offenders were mixed with general population offenders, and there were no military aspects. Evaluations of the shock probation programs were not positive because participants failed at rates similar to those in comparison groups. Interprofessional Essays! In 1993 a survey sponsored by the General Accounting Office showed that 59 boot camp programs were operating in 29 States, with a total capacity of 10,065. (Cowels, 1995) Only two States--Michigan and Texas--have reduced their capacity since then. The largest programs are in New York and Georgia; together these two States account for half the nationalism and patriotism total capacity nationwide. (Cowels, 1995) Most programs accommodate 100 to 250 inmates and continue to limit participants to young, nonviolent first offenders who enter the boot camps voluntarily, primarily to shorten their prison terms. However, some States have raised the upper age limit to include offenders over 30, and some now allow more serious offenders, with only 28 percent of the States restricting boot camp eligibility to first offenders in 1993. (Cowels, 1995) Even boot camp proponents, however, believe that the criminal justice system should still proceed cautiously in implementing programs until some of the on-going research and program development efforts are completed. Discussions have centered around issues such as: (1) The projected high cost of treatment-oriented programs because it is difficult to interpret the cost data from of reasoned action, different States or make meaningful comparisons across States because of differences in methods of accounting. (2) Criteria to determine the most appropriate and about rigorous medical and psychological screening processes. (3) Acquisition of more information about from degrading to de, what actually happens in boot camp. (3) Better assessment techniques to determine how offenders change in boot camp. (4) Staff qualifications, including the about and patriotism ability to research thesis impose discipline evenhandedly while taking account of individual differences. (5) Potential abuse of power and the effect it may have on both inmates and program staff. (6) The need for clear policies governing the use of immediate punishment, force, and essay about profanity. From Grading! (Cronin, 1994) (Parent, 1989) The American Correctional Association has developed standards for adult and juvenile boot camps. Research Perspectives of the National Institute of Justice During the nationalism and patriotism mid-1980's, the Nation's prison population grew rapidly, crimes by younger offenders escalated steadily, and prisons outgrew their capacity.
Therefore, NIJ, the research arm of the Department of Justice, undertook the task of exploring the write good essay level boot camp concept. In 1988, NIJ sponsored Dr. Doris MacKenzie, then of Louisiana State University, in evaluating the shock incarceration program in that State. The Louisiana Department of Public Safety and Correction's Intensive Motivational Program of Alternative Correctional Treatment (IMPACT), implemented in 1987, was then a two-phased boot camp program. In the first phase, offenders were incarcerated for 90 to 180 days in a rigorous boot camp atmosphere. Following this, they were placed under intensive parole supervision. This second phase required offenders to have at least four contacts a week with their supervising officers, adhere to a strict 8 p.m. to 6 a.m. curfew, perform community service, and work. In establishing the IMPACT program, Louisiana's major stated goal was to create a new sentencing option that would provide placement for inmates who would otherwise be sent to the State's crowded prison.
Other program goals were to provide participants with the life skills they would need to succeed in becoming constructive members of society. The evaluation, designed to examine Louisiana's success in meeting its goals, examined how the program was implemented, changes in inmate behavior and attitude resulting from the program, and system-level changes such as costs and benefits. The evaluators found that staff saw the nationalism and patriotism program as more than a way of getting tough with the young offenders; both the staff and the inmates found their interaction to be more positive than in regular prison. Nonetheless, offenders found the boot camp regimen to be physically and mentally taxing, and many dropped out before completing the program. (Cronin, 1994) (Parent, 1989) Findings from the evaluation indicated that inmates who completed the program believed they had learned valuable lessons and education skills, and their positive attitudes grew during the essay about and patriotism time they were in interprofessional working in health care the program. By contrast, regular prison inmates had increasingly negative attitudes during their prison stays.They said they learned only that they did not want to return to prison.
Boot camp offenders were involved in more positive activities during their time under community supervision than other parolees, probationers, and boot camp dropouts, but during the 6-month supervision period, the positive activities of all groups declined. There was no significant difference among all the groups in the percentage arrested during these 6 months. (Cowels, 1995) Cost savings per essay nationalism and patriotism boot camp inmate were significant ($13,784) over the cost of the longer term incarceration that would have taken place, but these savings were somewhat offset by higher costs for write good level the community supervision phase ($5,956), thus netting a total of essay, $7,828 saved for on line education each offender who completed the essay nationalism program instead of going to regular prison. (Cowels, 1995) The evaluators concluded that programs like IMPACT might achieve the goal of creating new sentencing options for some offenders who would otherwise spend longer terms in prison. Qualitative Research Thesis! Around the same time that the Louisiana evaluation was being completed, the boot camp option was attracting considerable interest as an essay about, alternative to traditional imprisonment for young offenders. Boot camp programs were springing up in many parts of the country, but critics were calling for a guarded approach because of major concerns that needed to be thoroughly examined. (Cronin, 1994) In response, NIJ undertook a multisite evaluation of theory, boot camp programs that began with a 1989 survey of essay about, 50 State correctional jurisdictions to determine what specific program components seemed to work best and for what types of offenders. Interprofessional Working Care Essays! The survey identified 11 States with shock incarceration programs and spelled out the differences among them. For instance, in some programs judges selected offenders for this sanction. In others the essay about nationalism and patriotism decision lay with correctional department officials.
Different programs placed varying emphasis on rehabilitation, academic education, and vocational education. This information indicated a need to examine the efficacy of boot camp programs. (Cronin, 1994) This multisite evaluation studied boot camp programs in eight States (Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, New York, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas) to develop a broader picture of interprofessional in health essays, how this popular new sanction was being applied. Essay About And Patriotism! In general, the study found that recidivism rates of those completing boot camp programs were similar to those for comparable offenders who spent a longer time in prison. Introduction Degree! Lower recidivism rates were found in three States, however--New York, Illinois, and Louisiana. Programs in these States had a strong therapeutic focus and included an intensive 6-month supervision phase on release into the community. The findings suggested that the boot camp experience alone is not sufficient for reducing recidivism. (Cowels, 1995) Even though the about nationalism and patriotism boot camp experience was found not to theory of reasoned action be the total answer for the reduction of recidivism, there is still many uses for it. The data already shown shows that a lot of he inmates who first went to essay about nationalism the boot camp style of corrections were straightened out and what is metasynthesis scared to a point.
So just because the recidivism problem wasn t answered, boot camp corrections is still a very useful tool in the punishment of young offenders to hopefully scare them straight. America Online. Boot Camps. And Patriotism! (1994): n. Of Reasoned Essay! Online. Internet. Essay Nationalism! 22 Apr. Good! 1999. Available: Clear, Todd R, and Cole, George F. American Corrections. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1997.
Cowels, Ernest L. Boot Camp aftercare intervention. Washington, D.C: National Institute of Justice, 1995. Cronin, Roberta C. Boot Camps for adult and juvenile offenders. About And Patriotism! Washington, D.C: National Institute of Justice, 1994. Parent, Dale. Shock Incarceration: an overview of existing programs. Research Thesis Statement! Washington, D.C: National Institute of essay nationalism, Justice, 1989.
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For Love of Country: An Essay on Patriotism and Nationalism
MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Essay About And Patriotism! Published in April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of education citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for essay about nationalism the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the qualitative statement, rules for nationalism and patriotism citing journals.
This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for is metasynthesis a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation.
These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an essay about nationalism and patriotism example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style:
Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on from grading thesis EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of essay about and patriotism “containers” in working care, citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of essay about nationalism and patriotism a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an write good introduction essay level example full citation of how to cite a book chapter using the essay about, 8th edition format:
Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and thesis statement, the Pacific , edited by and patriotism Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. Good! 91-124. 3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is about nationalism and patriotism now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on qualitative thesis statement JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Essay About And Patriotism! Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan.
2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to grading magazine and essay about nationalism, journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in interprofessional essays, periodical citations referred to the volume and essay about, issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49.
Print. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. Write Good Introduction Degree! 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. Essay And Patriotism! 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of what is metasynthesis URLs in essay about nationalism, citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition.
Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in a citation. 6. Omitting the city of publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and thesis statement, the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of nationalism and patriotism publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for theory essay all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on about nationalism and patriotism the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the theory of reasoned action, movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the essay about and patriotism, name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in education, your citation. Other writers who instead focus on essay nationalism and patriotism the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the in health, director in their works cited page.
To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about essay nationalism and patriotism, which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to working care create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. And Patriotism! Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Research Statement! Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to nationalism and patriotism read, such as Times New Roman. Education! Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header.
To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Essay About! Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading.
Double space between the theory action, title and first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it.
This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the title the same way as the title of the paper. Underneath the essay about and patriotism, table, provide the source and working in health, any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table. Use double spacing throughout.
Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is essay about and patriotism no need to include the interprofessional working care essays, citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for essay nationalism Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and what, caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the essay about nationalism and patriotism, number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds.
Here are some other formatting tips to keep in mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the interprofessional in health care, study.
The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for essay about and patriotism your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by on line the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author. Each citation should have a hanging indent. When there are two or more sources with the essay about nationalism, same author, only thesis, include the author’s name in the first citation.
In the and patriotism, second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the write introduction degree level, author’s name, followed by and patriotism a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. What! 36-43.
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Essay Nationalism! Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format:
When citing book titles, always enter the full title, in italics, followed by working in health and social essays a period. See the MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation.
The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma. If the and patriotism, name of the research, publisher differs from the name of the essay nationalism and patriotism, website, include it after the title. Of Reasoned Essay! Immediately following the nationalism, publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the interprofessional working in health essays, website’s address. The citation format is and patriotism as follows: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the what is metasynthesis, publisher, Date of publication, URL.
Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only essay about and patriotism, important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. Qualitative Thesis! In order to include the essay and patriotism, author’s name in on line, your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and nationalism, the Murder of interprofessional in health and social care essays Her Children . St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.
Place the nationalism and patriotism, authors in write introduction degree, the order in essay about, which they appear on write good level the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and essay nationalism and patriotism, then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and introduction essay, Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology.
Oxford: UP, 2007. List the essay about nationalism, author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al.
The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an of reasoned action editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the essay about nationalism and patriotism, individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and level, Mark Turin, editors. When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and nationalism, role of the write good introduction essay, person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about and patriotism, a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the education, text, include the essay nationalism, full name of the education, corporation: The American Heart Association. Treat the essay about nationalism, translator as the author.
You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is given in a text, omit this section and start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the is metasynthesis, exact source themselves.
For books, if it is essay nationalism a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. “The Auditory System and Elements of theory of reasoned action essay Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008.
When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into the citation. For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the about nationalism, rules are the same as in previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in what is metasynthesis, text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for about nationalism a natural pause while reading.
(Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the information and what, examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by essay and patriotism or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St.
Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s).
Montrose, Louis. Good Introduction Degree! “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and about nationalism and patriotism, Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to of reasoned action essay Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by about and patriotism First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R.
Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream.
MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the of reasoned, website, Name of the essay about nationalism, publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts. How to Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Introduction Degree Level! Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to essay about nationalism Cite a Journal Article found on a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. On Line Education! “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of about nationalism and patriotism any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers.
Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no. 1, Mar. Degrading! 2014, pp. 6-24. About Nationalism And Patriotism! ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print:
Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. On Line! 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the about, author of the essay, the name of the essay, the name of the collection, the from degrading to de grading, editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay.
How to Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the about and patriotism, digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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A Comprehensive Guide to and patriotism APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an qualitative research statement, APA citation generator. See more across the about and patriotism, site. Being Responsible While Researching.
When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in thesis a responsible way. This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to about and patriotism prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of theory of reasoned taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the nationalism, original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is research, illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented.
One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is about nationalism and patriotism, found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. Introduction Level? When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation.
This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. There are two types of APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the essay nationalism, information from another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on qualitative research thesis statement, the last page. And Patriotism? Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different.
In-text citations include three items: the interprofessional working care essays, last name(s) of the essay about and patriotism, author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the what is metasynthesis, title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from essay nationalism, other sources, place them into theory essay your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors.
The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and about nationalism and patriotism research information for everything psychology related. Qualitative Thesis? APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to essay about and patriotism create citations. This citation format is from degrading to de thesis, used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for essay more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in write good the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of about nationalism these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of information about a source, in a random order. Degrading To De Grading? You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of essay nationalism and patriotism research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project!
Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. From Degrading Thesis? Click here to learn more about why the essay about nationalism, American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. Introduction Degree? In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of about nationalism and patriotism access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation.
The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in interprofessional in health care essays the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to about nationalism the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and is metasynthesis complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of about a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for theory action essay APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Essay Nationalism? Scroll down to is metasynthesis find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. About Nationalism? If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself.
Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is degrading grading, when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves.
It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to essay about enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the thesis, author’s names in the sentence, only essay about and patriotism, include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in theory of reasoned action their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to essay about and patriotism help you understand and develop citations on qualitative research, your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is about nationalism, found on our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for grading thesis all of the in-text citations found in essay about nationalism the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by on line the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is essay about nationalism, indented in half an working and social, inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. Essay? (Date published). Title . Retrieved from degree level, URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in about and patriotism the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order.
Include the initials for the first and middle names. Grading? End this information with a period. About? When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. Qualitative Thesis? M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. About? M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. Qualitative Statement? J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. Essay Nationalism? C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on statement, using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an essay about nationalism, APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for on line you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Essay About Nationalism? Include the full date for newspapers, the good degree, month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and essay about nationalism all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . What? If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically.
When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the nationalism and patriotism, first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Degrading Grading? Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the essay about nationalism and patriotism, title. The Seattle Times. What? A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not.
Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and essay about nationalism is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of theory of reasoned action larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in essay nationalism your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines.
Additional Information about the what is metasynthesis, Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to about the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and interprofessional working and social capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). Essay Nationalism And Patriotism? (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. Degrading? For books and and patriotism reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location.
Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the action, United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May).
A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Essay About? Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and introduction essay degree publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. Essay About And Patriotism? New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in write introduction level your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by essay nationalism and patriotism publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and essays URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and about will never change.
Because of essay its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of nationalism electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the working in health care, information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is about nationalism, longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. Qualitative Thesis Statement? - It is nationalism and patriotism, not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the on line, source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of essay about nationalism databases. From To De Thesis? When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by essay the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).
Title of education work . Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Essay About And Patriotism? Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. From Degrading To De? D., Katz, L. F. (2008).
The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Nationalism And Patriotism? Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the interprofessional, following format: Structure for about Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Write Introduction Degree Level? Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of essay about nationalism Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher.
APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). Research? The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published).
Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of essay nationalism and patriotism Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about how to interprofessional working in health care essays cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Nationalism And Patriotism? Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. Is Metasynthesis? I. (Year Published).
Title of work [E-reader Version]. Essay About Nationalism? http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. Theory Of Reasoned Action Essay? (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab.
Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article. About? Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. Education? P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. R. (2013). The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.
This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. Essay And Patriotism? (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Degrading To De Grading Thesis? Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Essay About Nationalism? Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx.
If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for research thesis electronic sources. Author, F. Essay Nationalism? I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range.
Frost, L. Interprofessional And Social Care Essays? (2006, September 14). About And Patriotism? First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to on line education do if you find your newspaper article on a database. About Nationalism And Patriotism? Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Interprofessional Working In Health And Social Care? Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published).
Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. About? (Year, Month Date Published).
Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. Working Care? (Year, Month, Date of nationalism blog post).
Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into theory research with the third graders [Blog post]. About And Patriotism? Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs.
Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. Education? In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. And Patriotism? I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture].
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Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text.
Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for nationalism and patriotism you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the working care essays, name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of essay about nationalism and patriotism songwriter. (Year created). Interprofessional In Health Essays? Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. About? Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from from degrading to de, URL.
Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Essay Nationalism? Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to education automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on about and patriotism, a Database: Last name, First initial. Write Degree? Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx).
English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of nationalism and patriotism podcast [Audio podcast]. Write Good Introduction Level? Retrieved from URL.
Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. Essay About Nationalism? [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10).
Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Good Introduction Essay? Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is essay about and patriotism, another useful link to follow. What? An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the essay and patriotism, full reference citations in addition to good essay degree a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source.
When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to essay about and patriotism create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and thesis choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in essay about print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic.
A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.
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essays in bankruptcy and firm finance. Author by : Cesar E. Tamayo. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 872. File Size : 48,8 Mb. Description : This dissertation investigates the role that capital market imperfections play in shaping the behavior of firms along several dimensions: capital structure, investment policies, bankruptcy decisions and life-cycle dynamics. The dissertation puts together two separate but closely related papers, both of about nationalism, which are concerned with bankruptcy and firm financing under asymmetric information and limited enforcement.
In Chapter 2, I present a model of statement, firm finance that encompasses imperfect investor protection, risk aversion and costly state verification. Imperfect investor protection is introduced through the limited liability clause of the financial contract, and captures the essay nationalism, maximum fraction of returns that the what, investor can seize from the entrepreneur. Essay About Nationalism? A positive lower bound on consumption then interacts with entrepreneurial risk aversion in non-trivial ways. I characterize optimal contracts and study the conditions under which standard debt is qualitative optimal. Under suitable assumptions about the essay about and patriotism, structure of the problem, standard debt contracts (SDCs) are optimal if and only if investor protection is sufficiently low. Introduction Level? On the other hand, low investor protection results in higher funding costs and about nationalism and patriotism, bankruptcy probabilities. From Thesis? In my setting, this implies that when SDCs are optimal, lowering investor protection reduces the entrepreneur's welfare. Numerical examples show that moderate changes in essay about nationalism and patriotism, investor protection can have large effects on the terms of the contract and on theory of reasoned action essay the entrepreneur's welfare. Finally, I study the about, role of leverage and consider the welfare consequences suboptimally implementing standard debt contracts. In Chapter 3 I study firm dynamics and industry equilibrium when firms under financial distress face a non-trivial choice between alternative bankruptcy procedures.
Given limited commitment and asymmetric information, financial contracts specify default, renegotiation and reorganization policies. Default occurs in equilibrium and from to de grading, leads to and patriotism either liquidation or renegotiation. Renegotiation entails a redistribution of social surplus, while reorganization takes the qualitative thesis, form of enhanced creditor monitoring. Firms with better contract histories are less likely to default, but, contingent on default, firms with better outside options successfully renegotiate, in line with the essay and patriotism, empirical evidence. Unless monitoring is too costly, renegotiation leads to to de reorganization, which resembles actual bankruptcy practice. And Patriotism? I calibrate the model to match certain aspects of the data on degrading bankruptcy and firm dynamics in the U.S. My counterfactual experiments show that, compared with an essay and patriotism, economy with liquidation only, the from thesis, rehabilitation of firms (renegotiation and reorganization) has a sizable negative effect on exit rates and size dispersion, and positive effects on average size and productivity. Three Essays On Financial Contracting. Author by : Christopher J. Tamm. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 347.
File Size : 51,9 Mb. Description : In these essays, I examine the characteristics of financial contracts around Chapter 11 bankruptcy. In the first essay, I document significant changes firms make in the type and characteristics of its debt and nationalism, equity securities during bankruptcy. The changes I find indicate that firms are using Chapter 11 to increase their financial flexibility after emergence. On Line Education? In the second essay, I compare the characteristics of warrants issued by firms during initial public offerings with those of warrants issued by firms emerging from bankruptcy. About And Patriotism? I show that the characteristics are very different for the warrants issued in each category. Warrants issued by thesis firms emerging from Chapter 11 tend to have very little managerial flexibility, and are instead designed to placate junior creditors to allow a faster emergence from bankruptcy. In the third essay, I examine the financial covenants and restrictions in debt securities issued shortly after emerging from about nationalism chapter 11. I find the firms with more covenants and qualitative research, restrictions are less likely to refile for bankruptcy. Essays On Capital Structure And Trade Financing. Author by : Klaus Hammes.
Publisher by : Dept. of Economics School of essay, Economics and Commercial Law Go. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 820. File Size : 51,9 Mb. Author by research : Felipe Cortes. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 749.
File Size : 46,6 Mb. Description : This dissertation seeks to understand the effect of information asymmetries on corporate liquidity choices and efficiency of bankruptcy resolution, and the role of pooling and essay nationalism and patriotism, reputational concerns on an originator's incentives to invest in signal precision. The first chapter identifies and provides a causal estimate of the economic importance of write degree level, information asymmetries between corporate insiders and outsiders in equity markets on small public firms decision to hoard liquid assets. The second chapter develops a theory of essay about nationalism, securitization in which the originator's incentives to on line education screen are endogenized and affected by essay about nationalism reputational concerns to investigate the effect of the on line education, pooling of assets on screening and systematic risk. About Nationalism And Patriotism? In the third chapter, we investigate the impact of relative bargaining power of firms over creditors during bankruptcy on ex-post firm performance, once the firm emerges out of bankruptcy.
Although existing theories predict a causal link between firm opaqueness and firm cash holdings, endogenous and coarse measures of theory of reasoned action essay, opaqueness hinder the identification of this link. Using the essay about and patriotism, discontinuous requirement of financial reporting introduced by Sarbanes-Oxley Act, Section 404, we estimate the causal effect of opaqueness on cash holdings. We show that firms that comply with Section 404 and provide more reliable information exhibit lower cash holdings compared to observationally similar firms. Further, compliant firms that hold less cash exhibit higher R D expenditures relative to non-compliant firms. This difference sheds light on on line the opportunity costs of holding cash.
In the second chapter, we develop a theory of securitization in about nationalism and patriotism, which the securitization of qualitative research thesis statement, large asset pools leads to and patriotism a reduction in idiosyncratic risk but an increase in systematic risk, and the originate-to-distribute model of securitization is not sufficient for this result. The model is write level one in which the originator's screening incentives are endogenized, and screening and pooling of loans in securitization have both idiosyncratic and systematic risk consequences. The originator's screening incentives are affected by career concerns as well as by about and patriotism the impact of screening on the risk of the what is metasynthesis, securitized portfolio. The effect of securitization on essay about nationalism and patriotism idiosyncratic risk and on line, systematic risk occurs via a dilution of the originator's screening incentives, with greater dilution occurring as more loans are added to the pool being securitized. Further, when we endogenize the information acquisition incentives of the investors who purchase securitized claims, we find that there is an interaction between these incentives and essay nationalism and patriotism, the screening incentives of originators. A weakening of the issuer's screening incentives leads to weaker incentives for investors to become informed and a higher valuation uncertainty, creating a feedback effect that further weakens the issuer's screening incentives. In the third chapter of my thesis evaluates the impact of bargaining between management and creditors on bankruptcy outcome and ex-post efficiency of bankruptcy resolution.
We find that firms in which creditors (management) exerts greater (lower) influence in the negotiation process are more likely to be liquidated. Increase in power of creditors during the bankruptcy negotiations is associated with lower likelihood of re-filing and superior post-bankruptcy profitability among firms that emerge. However such ex-post efficiency gains come at a cost as increase in power of what is metasynthesis, creditors also leads to a lengthier bankruptcy. The unique aspect of and patriotism, our analysis is our ability to correct for the selection bias engendered by our focus on firms that emerge out of bankruptcy using the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act (BACPA) passed in 2005 as an exogenous shock to the likelihood of liquidation. Collectively, our results lend credence to the idea of allocating greater power to creditors in good degree level, bankruptcy proceedings.
International Finance And Financial Crises Essays In Honor Of Robert P Flood Jr. Author by : Robert P. Flood. Publisher by : International Monetary Fund. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 294. File Size : 45,8 Mb. Description : This book contains the proceedings of a conference held in essay and patriotism, honor of Robert P. Flood Jr. Contributors to the conference were invited to qualitative research address many of the topics that Robert Flood has explored including regime switching, speculative attacks, bubbles, stock market voloatility, macro models with nominal rigidities, dual exchange rates, target zones, and rules versus discretion in monetary policy.
The results, contained in this volume, include five papers on topics in international finance. Essays In Honor Of Edwin Mansfield. Author by : Albert N. Link. Publisher by : Springer Science Business Media. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 844. File Size : 47,9 Mb. Description : Edwin Mansfield was a research pioneer into the economics of essay and patriotism, R and D and write essay degree, technological change. As appreciation and remembrance for his scholarly contributions, eminent scholars have contributed original papers for this edited volume.
The authors have followed the essay nationalism and patriotism, Mansfieldian” approach of emphasizing economic insight and write good degree, intuition over mathematical rigor and as a result are very accessable. Essays in essay and patriotism, Honor of Edwin Mansfield has the potential to serve as a reader in introduction degree, all advanced undergraduate and essay about and patriotism, graduate classes/seminars in the economics of R and D and technological change. This edited volume will be the definitive work in the field. Author by : Jagdeep S. Bhandari. Publisher by of reasoned action essay : Cambridge University Press.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 529. File Size : 43,9 Mb. Description : This collection is the first comprehensive selection of readings focusing on corporate bankruptcy. Its main purpose is to explore the nature and efficiency of corporate reorganization using interdisciplinary approaches drawn from law, economics, business, and finance. Substantive areas covered include the role of credit, creditors' implicit bargains, nonbargaining features of bankruptcy, workouts of agreements, alternatives to bankruptcy, and essay and patriotism, proceedings in what, countries including the United States, United Kingdom, Europe, and Japan. The Honorable Richard A. Posner, Chief Judge of the essay about and patriotism, U.S. Court of Appeals for theory of reasoned action the Seventh Circuit, offers a foreword to the collection. Author by : Thomas Max Safley. Publisher by : Routledge.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 834. File Size : 52,9 Mb. Description : This volume takes up bankruptcy in early modern Europe, when its frequency made it not only an economic problem but a personal tragedy and a social evil. Using legal, business and personal records, the essays in this volume examine the impact of failure on and patriotism business organizations and practices, capital formation and circulation, economic institutions and ethics, and of reasoned essay, human networks and relations in the so-called transition to modern society, from the early-sixteenth to about nationalism and patriotism the early-nineteenth century. One group of essays concentrates on the German-speaking world and shows a common concern for the microeconomics of of reasoned, bankruptcy, that is, for such issues as the structure of the firm, the nature of its capital, and the practices of essay about nationalism and patriotism, its partners, especially their assessment of risk.
Another group of essays shifts the focus from Central to Western and Northern Europe and away from the microeconomics of the early modern firm to an institutional consideration of bankruptcy. The final group of essays turns to Southern Europe, especially the Mediterranean basin, to assess bankruptcy not as an unfortunate result of theory action, crisis, but as an intentional response to crisis. About And Patriotism? All of the interprofessional working in health and social care, contributions are the result of essay about nationalism, original research; many of the scholars publish in English for the first time. Thesis? All of the chapters are founded on close archival research, offering insights not only into business organization and practice but also into social and cultural aspects of economic life from the late sixteenth to the early nineteenth century. Author by : Baris Korcan Ak. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 591. File Size : 49,8 Mb.
Description : Financial statement analysis has been used to essay about nationalism and patriotism assess a company's likelihood of degrading to de grading, financial distress - the probability that it will not be able to repay its debts. In the essay about nationalism and patriotism, dissertation at hand, I provide two essays that add to the literature on the application of financial analysis to distressed firms. Interprofessional And Social Care Essays? The first chapter is titled Predicting Extreme Negative Stock Returns: The Trouble Score. This chapter examines the about nationalism and patriotism, ability of accounting information to predict large negative stock returns. The Trouble Score addresses an important gap in interprofessional working and social care, the literature. Existing distress risk measures focus on predicting the nationalism and patriotism, most extreme negative events such as bankruptcy.
However, such events are extremely rare and capture only the most financially distressed firms. There are many firms that experience financial distress but do not declare bankruptcy. By analyzing firms that experience a stock price decline of 50 percent or more, the T-Score enables researchers to capture extreme negative outcomes for corporate shareholders beyond commonly used financial distress measures such as bankruptcies and technical defaults. The second chapter is titled Relative Informativeness of Top Executives' Trades in Financially Distressed Firms Compared to Financially Healthy Firms. This chapter examines the informativeness of trades by top executives in firms experiencing varying levels of financial distress. Open-market transactions become differentially costly for the top executives of qualitative research statement, firms in financial distress. Essay About Nationalism? If insiders in a financially distressed firm buy the firm's stock, they expose their financial capital and their human capital to the risks associated with the firm, thus making their trade differentially costly. It is conjectured that if the managers sell, they are subject to higher litigation risk. These differential costs increase the credibility and therefore the informativeness of the signal extracted from top executives' trades in financially distressed firms. On Line Education? Consistent with this, I find that there is nationalism and patriotism a positive association between top executives' trades and qualitative research statement, future fundamental firm performance only in the presence of financial distress.
In addition, these trades provide incremental information about the likelihood of survival over the existing distress risk measures. I find that the investors' reaction to the disclosure of top executives' purchases increases with the level of financial distress. And Patriotism? The reaction is of reasoned action most negative following top executives' sales in the most financially distressed firms. About And Patriotism? Finally, I show that there is a delay in the price reaction following top executives' trades. A trading strategy that takes a long position in financially distressed firms in which insiders are net purchasers, earns future monthly abnormal profits of between 1.43 and 2.08 percent. This finding suggests that top executives' trades reveal information that can be used to distinguish financially distressed firms that have good future prospects. Econometrics Econometrics And The Cost Of Capital Essays In Honor Of Dale W Jorgenson. Author by : Dale Weldeau Jorgenson. Publisher by : MIT Press. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi.
Total Download : 420. File Size : 44,9 Mb. Description : This volume summarizes the economic theorythe econometric methodology and the empirical findings resulting from the new approach to econometric modelling of producer behaviour. Three Essays On Financial Distress Earnings Management And Post Earnings Announcement Drift. Author by write degree level : Shin-Ying Mai. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 749. File Size : 49,9 Mb. Description : Essay I: Alternative Approaches to Business Failure Prediction Models The main purpose of this essay is to compare the prediction accuracy of the widely used bankruptcy forecasting models: Altman's Multivariate Discriminant Analysis (MDA) (1968), Ohlson's Logit model (1980), Zmijewski's Probit model (1984), and Shumway's Hazard model (2001).
Since Hazard model is able to solve theoretically and about nationalism and patriotism, empirically the inconsistency sample selection problem and to capture the time-varying covariates in the bankruptcy data, our empirical results show with cautiously chosen cutoff at 0.021 implied bankruptcy probability level, the out-of-sample hazard model with stepwise methodology results in classifying 82.7% of default firms and 82.8% of non-default firms. Essay II: The Relationship between Financial Distress and Earnings Management: An Empirical Evidence Prior research on the explicit incentives for earnings management has been inconclusive. From To De? This essay approaches this question with the association between earnings management and independence of audit committees. To this end, we test the essay nationalism and patriotism, monitoring effectiveness of earnings management by fully and/or partially independent audit committees especially for financially distressed firms, for which managers have a strong motivation to manipulate reported earnings to camouflage the on line, firm's weak performance. Our results show that independent audit committees monitor earnings management, especially upward adjustment of reported earnings, of financially distressed firms more strictly than that of about nationalism, financially non-distressed firms.
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This book compliments Alfred S.Eichner's The Macrodynamics of interprofessional care essays, Advanced Market Economies, also published in essay nationalism and patriotism, 1991, and is appropriate for scholars and upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. The Effects Of Restructuring Charges On Stock Price And Analyst Forecast Accuracy. Author by : Mary Hilston Keener. Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 219. File Size : 51,5 Mb.
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File Size : 52,8 Mb. Description : This collection of papers on and patriotism financial instability and its impact on macroeconomic performance honours Hyman P. Minsky and his lifelong work. Write Good Introduction Essay Degree Level? It is essay about nationalism based on a conference at Washington University, St. In Health And Social? Louis, in 1990 and includes among the authors Benjamin M. Friedman, Charles P. Kindleberger, Jan Kregel and essay about nationalism and patriotism, Steven Fazzari. These papers consider Minsky's definitive analysis that yields such a clear and working in health care essays, disturbing sequence of about nationalism and patriotism, financial events: booms, government intervention to prevent debt contraction and new booms that cause a progressive buildup of qualitative statement, new debt, eventually leaving the economy much more fragile financially. The Fall And Rise Of Freedom Of Contract. Author by : F. H. About Nationalism And Patriotism? Buckley. Publisher by : Duke University Press.
Format Available : PDF, ePub, Mobi. Total Download : 352. File Size : 50,6 Mb. Description : Declared dead some twenty-five years ago, the idea of freedom of contract has enjoyed a remarkable intellectual revival. In The Fall and Rise of Freedom of research thesis statement, Contract leading scholars in the fields of contract law and law-and-economics analyze the new interest in bargaining freedom.
The 1970s was a decade of regulatory triumphalism in North America, marked by a surge in consumer, securities, and environmental regulation. Legal scholars predicted the “death of contract” and its replacement by regulation and reliance-based theories of liability. Essay Nationalism And Patriotism? Instead, we have witnessed the reemergence of free bargaining norms. This revival can be attributed to the rise of law-and-economics, which laid bare the intellectual failure of anticontractarian theories. Scholars in this school note that consumers are not as helpless as they have been made out to qualitative thesis be, and that intrusive legal rules meant ostensibly to help them often leave them worse off. Contract law principles have also been very robust in areas far afield from traditional contract law, and the essays in this volume consider how free bargaining rights might reasonably be extended in tort, property, land-use planning, bankruptcy, and divorce and family law.
This book will be of particular interest to essay about and patriotism legal scholars and specialists in contract law. Economics and public policy planners will also be challenged by its novel arguments. Contributors. Gregory S. Alexander, Margaret F. Brinig, F. H. Buckley, Robert Cooter, Steven J. Eagle, Robert C. Ellickson, Richard A. Epstein, William A. Fischel, Michael Klausner, Bruce H. Kobayashi, Geoffrey P. Miller, Timothy J. Muris, Robert H. Nelson, Eric A. Posner, Robert K. Rasmussen, Larry E. Ribstein, Roberta Romano, Paul H. From Degrading Grading Thesis? Rubin, Alan Schwartz, Elizabeth S. Scott, Robert E. Scott, Michael J. Trebilcock.
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Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive To Learn. This study Compare and contrast the essay nationalism, perspectives on learning presented by Zimmerman (2000), Wenger (2000) and Engestrm (2001). It provides conclusion that can be drawn from these learning theories and of reasoned essay they how these influence human resources development. The study also investigates the different styles of and patriotism, continuous learning system and different approaches of adopting them. Authors Wenger (2000), Zimmerman (2000), and education Engestrom (2001) present the relation between social learning system, self- efficacy of nationalism, employees and expensive learning at work. It also shows that the success of organization depends upon two significant factors first how they design it and second how they acclimates the continuous learning processes into their routine. Etienne Wenger highlighted different methodologies of social learning system in an organization. Zimmerman deliberated the what is metasynthesis, significance of self- efficacy and how it helps in motivating the employees in about nationalism, order to from grading thesis achieve their desired goals.
Yrjo Engestrom suggested that learning models are used in order to essay about evaluate the value of expensive learning at qualitative research thesis work place. Learning fosters creativity and innovative ideas and essay and patriotism improves the old conventional approaches by adopting the continuous learning system for essay achieving the essay nationalism and patriotism, desired goals. In all these articles, authors mainly concentrated on three areas and how they are related to each other Role of Self-Efficacy among employees, Communities of qualitative thesis statement, practice and social learning system, and Theoretical models of Expensive learning. Author's prime focus is to describe the importance of continuous learning system and benefits of employee's development. 3.Self-Efficacy: An Essential Motive to essay about nationalism Learn. According to author Zimmerman Self Efficacy helps the students to motivate and take up new challenges in life by constant learning.
Self-Efficacy is different from several motivational concepts such as outcome expectations, self-concept and locus of control. From Degrading To De Grading Thesis? It helps students to participate in their own choice of activities. Student with self-efficacy are more emotionally stable and can face and better handle any difficult situation in their life as compared to the students without self-efficacy. Self-efficacy helps student in accomplishing goals and their desired targets by providing ways of superior performance. Zimmerman further added that student's self-belief about their academic capabilities play a vital role in motivating them to achieve the desired goals. Zimmerman used references from different authors to explain the concept of self-efficacy. Essay About Nationalism? Bandura (1977, 1987) described self-efficacy as individual capabilities to achieve the of reasoned, outcome or desired goals on the basis of his own personal judgment.
Moreover Self-efficacy also enables students to and patriotism control their own learning activity. He also discussed human motivation in terms of interprofessional care, outcome expectations. Author analyses that self-efficacy and outcome expectation both helps to motivate but self-efficacy plays significant role in the human motivation as compared to the outcome expectation as the type of outcome people anticipated depends on about, their judgment on how well they will be able to perform in any situation. He further described that Self-efficacy is personal judgment of ones own capabilities to execute task in order to accomplish desired goals. The level of Self-efficacy depends upon the difficulty of task. Strength of self-efficacy depends upon the amount of ones certainty about performing a given task. Zimmerman also specified that self-efficacy focus on individual performance capabilities rather than focusing on the individual qualities. Self-efficacy beliefs are not single character but are multidimensional. Shell, Marphy, and Burning (1989) described self-efficacy as individual capabilities to theory of reasoned perform any task or activity like reading or writing activities depending upon his social hobbies, family life, educational background and cultural diversity. He considered these elements as founding structure for essay nationalism and patriotism accomplish any specific task. This supports Bandura theory that Self-efficacy plays vital role than outcome expectation in interprofessional working in health essays, motivation.
Smith theory (1989) theory proposed that self-efficacy helps in reducing the stress and anxiety in students thereby improves the academic performance unlike the locus of control. 3.1Role of Self Efficacy in academic motivation. Zimmerman indicated that self ' efficacy play a important role for academic motivation as it helps students to participate in their choice of activities, enhances effort level, and personal achievement. Zimmerman take references from about nationalism, different theories to support the relationship between self- efficacy and academic motivation. Bandura (1997) stated that students with self-efficacy can participate more readily, works harder, persists longer and are more emotionally stable as compared to students without self-efficacy. They have fewer emotional reactions when they face difficult situations. They can handle difficult tasks more easily. Schunk(1981) revealed that students with self efficacy have higher choice of arithmetic activity. Zimmerman and on line Kitsantas (1997; 1999) added that self-efficacy is highly correlated with students' inherent interest.
Self-efficacy beliefs comprises of students effort of rate of performance and about nationalism expenditure of energy. Salmon (1984) revealed that self-efficacy is directly proportional to student's intellectual efforts. It helps students to achieve the desired goals which is apparent difficult for students without self-efficacy. He further added that self-efficacy provides different approaches of learning and helps in motivate. 3.2 Self-Efficacy and self-regulation of learning. Self-efficacy beliefs also helps student to control and regulate their own activities by introducing certain self monitoring activities like goal setting, self-monitoring, and self-evaluation. Students take roles depending upon their self-judgment. Students with self-efficacy beliefs can monitoring their activities well and research are better at solving conceptual problems as compared to nationalism and patriotism one without self-efficacy belief in introduction essay, spite of having same abilities.
Author further categorizes self-efficacy into four types of and patriotism, experience: enactive attainment, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and physiological states. Enactive experiences are the most important source of efficacy belief because they are based on the outcomes of personal experiences. Vicarious experiences depend on an observer's self-comparison. Qualitative Research Statement? Verbal persuasion experience depends on the credibility of the persuader and has less impact on self-efficacy. Students made their self-judgments on the basis of essay about, physiological reactions, such as fatigue, stress, and interprofessional care other emotions. 4. And Patriotism? Communities of Practice and working and social care essays Social Learning Systems. Wenger (2000) stated that success of any organization depends on how they design and adopt the social learning system in about nationalism, their daily routine. He proposes three 'modes of belonging' by which an organization participates in social learning systems. Then he further introduced key elements of in health essays, Social learning system: communities of practice, boundary processes among these com- munities, and employee's identities. According to Wenger, personal experience and individual competency helps an individual to align with organization-desired goals.
4.1 Communities of Practice. Wenger defines communities of about nationalism and patriotism, practice as the basic building blocks of research statement, a social learning. Communities of essay, practice are based on fundamentals of social learning and stress on shared cultural values and interprofessional working in health care essays norms, background history, and social environment of the organization. Wenger (1998) defines the communities of practices by combing the following three dimensions: Engagement, Imagination and Alignment. 1. Engagement: The ways of how an individual get along with one another and with the world gives ones own identity.
It helps in essay about, gaining and learning new opportunities and how gives an idea of how other respond to working in health and social care essays our actions. 2. Imagination: Constructing self Image helps in interpreting self-participation in the social world. 3. Alignment: local activities are aligned with other processes so that they can be effective beyond ones own engagement. Furthermore Wenger (1998) defines the essay about nationalism and patriotism, communities of essay level, practices by combing the three dimensions: 1. Joint enterprise- the level of learning energy. 2. Mutuality- the essay about, depth of social capital. 3. Shared Repertoire- the from to de grading, degree of self-awareness. All above three elements work together in essay, social learning system. Engestrom (2002) and Zimmerman (2000) discussed that individual background history, academic profile, and life style have high impact on the culture of organization. 4.2 Boundary of community of Practice.
Coordination, transparency and negotiability are the key elements for any boundary. The boundary of community of write good introduction essay degree, practice is directly linked with the social learning system in the organization. It provides different kinds of learning opportunities for their communities. Boundary of community of practice helps the communities in gaining and sharing knowledge and utilizing it within the organizational boundary and helps in connecting to essay about nationalism and patriotism the other communities as well. It also promotes the innovation. Boundaries are important to learning systems for two reasons. They connect communities and they offer learning opportunities. 4.3 Employees Identities. Employees Identity is crucial to social learning systems mainly for three reasons. Firstly Individual competency and personal experience both helps communities in gaining and sharing knowledge and from degrading to de develop trust between employees.
It help in gaining learning opportunity thereby enhances social interaction and shows path of getting along with each other. Not but the least Employee identities give new approaches and promote innovative thinking in organization. Employees foster and play a very vital part in nationalism and patriotism, the social learning in the organization, which in turn helps organization to of reasoned action develop new approaches of fitting in an environment. Engestrom (2001) focused on multifaceted relation between the individual entity and their community. He also highlighted that expensive learning promotes innovative thinking in an organization. 5. Expansive Learning at Work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization.
Engestrom (2001) explained the expensive learning at work with the help of Cultural-historical activity theory. He further examined the theory by proposing four questions: Subjects of nationalism and patriotism, Learning, Reason of Learning, Content of Learning, and Approaches of Learning. Engestrom also summarized theory of activity with the help of five principles: unit of analysis, multi-voicedness of activity, historicity of on line, activity, contradictions, and expansive cycles. The first principle relates the activity theory as a key element of analysis; second principle is multi- voicedness that relies on multiple views of community. Third principle states that every activity system change and shape there proper image over the period of time. The fourth principle highlights the and patriotism, contradiction view and on line defines development and change within the activity system occurs due to contraction and defines it as driving force of change. The fifth principle announces the probability of expansive transformations in activity systems. Bateson distinguished between three levels of learning.
Level one of learning stresses on classroom training. Level two emphasizes on hidden curriculum in the classroom training that helps participants to think out of box by gaining and sharing the knowledge with each other. Last level of learning focuses on collective efforts of participants and it help individuals to essay about nationalism learn from different work activities. Level two emphasizes on hidden curriculum in the classroom training that helps participants to think out of box by gaining and sharing the knowledge with each other. Last level of learning focuses on collective efforts of participants and it help individuals to learn from different work activities. Each article gives the different perspectives of learning and provides the capability of of reasoned action, thinking different thereby fosters innovative thinking in the organization. These theories provide the importance of social learning system, motivation, and self- efficacy in any organizational processes and introduce new ways of adopting it into their daily routines. They enhance the competencies to adopt and survive the transformational change and enhance the individual skills by gaining and sharing knowledge.
All authors Wenger, Zimmerman and Engestrom discussed the different perspectives and different approaches to analyze effective learning in an organization. They mentioned that organization could be successful when they adopt continuous learning approach in their system. 1. Engestrom, Y. (2001), Expansive Learning at essay about nationalism work: toward an activity theoretical reconceptualization. Journal of education and work, 14(1), 135-155. 2. Wenger, E. Qualitative Thesis Statement? (2000), Communities of practice and social learning systems. Organization Articles, 7(2): 225-246. 3. Zimmerman, B.J. (2000) Self Efficacy: An Essential to learn.
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