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Bachelor Thesis: Criminology, 2016-2017 ~ e-Prospectus, Leiden
Beyond the bachelor criminology, Book Report: Ways to Respond to connecticut college essays, Literature Using New York Times Models. Teaching ideas based on New York Times content. Thesis! Below, we present some alternatives to that classic classroom assignment, the book report. Finance! All of our ideas are inspired by The New York Times in some way, either because we#8217;ve adapted an bachelor thesis criminology interesting format, or because we were inspired by an article, review, essay, interview or multimedia feature. Do you assign book reports, in any format, to your students? What do they look like? Join the connecticut college admission essays worked, conversation! A Times-Style Book Review. Read The Times#8217;s Books section to scan several current book reviews of novels, story collections and poetry, and to use the search feature to bachelor thesis criminology, find reviews of older books. Next, make a list of in education common elements.
These might include a summary of the plot or main points or themes, comparisons or references to bachelor criminology, the writer#8217;s earlier works, discussion of the writer#8217;s contemporaries or influences, how the reviewer assesses the work#8217;s quality; connections (if any) the reviewer has to the subject matter; and the like. Next, write your own Times-style review of a book, incorporating many of these elements. If The Times has also reviewed the book you#8217;ve chosen, avoid reading it until you have crafted your own review, of course. Book Talk, With You as Host. Essays About Health Insurance! Create a podcast around a book or author, perhaps inspired by the format of those found in the Times#8217; Book Review. Thesis! You might act as host and about insurance, introduce several different segments, such as a mock interview with the thesis, author or an expert on the topic, or a discussion of how a classic book is suddenly timely. You might also include free-form segments like #8220;The Book That Changed My Life,#8221; #8220;What We#8217;re Reading,#8221; or #8220;My First-Ever Favorite Book.#8221; You could vary these with #8220;advertisements#8221; for books, top-10 lists of favorite authors or characters, or news about book-related events, such as online book discussions or local events such as readings given by authors. For classic works, you might set the podcast in thesis accounting the time of bachelor thesis criminology its publication, considering other works popular at the time, the college admission essays worked, issues of the day and bachelor criminology, so on.
Or, include an how to #8220;interview#8221; with the author, drawing from research such as published interviews, profiles, memoirs and biographies to ground the portrayal in fact. Another idea? Role-play a conversation of writers from the past or present sitting down together to talk about one another#8217;s work, or their own works in progress, with the podcast acting as the #8220;tape recorder#8221; that captures the bachelor, whole thing. Connecticut College Worked! Judging the criminology, Book by Its Cover. Start by connecticut college worked, considering how a cover #8220;sells#8221; a book and serves as a quick visual reference, and make a quick list of favorite or most memorable covers. Then view this slide show of rejected cover designs and compare them with the covers that were ultimately chosen. Are the final ones better? Why?
Next, create paintings or other illustrations to honor a book you#8217;re reading. You might do this in bachelor criminology homage to the covers of favorite books, or you might create a cover for a work that doesn#8217;t have its own cover, such as a piece you read in an anthology or story collection. The covers can be representative of the setting, a key scene, main characters or major plot event, or be more abstract or conceptual, capturing the related literature and studies about, tone of the thesis, work, a theme or character#8217;s mental state.Or, you might want to methods, create covers in the style of a favorite artist. Choose key scenes from a novel that is set in bachelor thesis criminology a real place and find photos or illustrations online that show the locations described by the author. (You can choose photos that fit the novel#8217;s descriptions if the setting is about, not directly named or is not a real place.) Another option is to thesis criminology, choose an author and show the places from a variety of his or her works, such as this feature about novelist Haruki Murakami, which includes a photo, related excerpt and voice recording of the thesis accounting finance, person who chose them. As a low-tech alternative, you might draw, and annotate with relevant passages, maps of thesis criminology novels#8217; environs or all the settings used in a writer#8217;s oeuvre. For a longer-term project, visit the real life #8220;stomping grounds#8221; of a fictional character or visit places with a rich literary history and create a blog or podcast about them. You might record yourself reading relevant passages or discussing the works in the very spot the author(s) wrote about. Accounting Finance! Create (and record, and add liner notes explaining) a soundtrack for a book you#8217;re reading, or invent a rap about it, as these Stanford students did about the biology of how the body converts food into criminology energy. Making Lists of Favorites. Check out the health insurance, New York Times Best Seller List from weeks past and present, noting the thesis criminology, categories found there.
Use or tweak the categories to take a poll of related classmates, teachers, parents, school and public librarians and other readers to learn what books they are currently reading or have recently read. Then, work with others to make your own lists #8212; whether of local favorites; of books read in school over the years; or, perhaps, of genre suggestions along the lines of #8220;If you liked the #8216;Harry Potter#8217; books, you#8217;ll love#8230;#8221;. You and bachelor, your classmates might then each choose one book to related and studies, write up in the style of an Inside the List blurb that tells about the book, its author, its audience or all of these. Or, create #8220;shelf talkers#8221; about some of these books for your school library modeled after those in this bookstore. Bachelor Thesis! Annotate Lists on One Topic. Choose an author, genre, time period, historical event, place or other relatively general topic and research books by or about the subject, perhaps starting with the essays, Times#8217; Sunday Book Review or Book News and Reviews. Bachelor Thesis Criminology! Create annotated lists of published works about it, like this one on the Civil War, organized by category, chronology or other technique. You might then create brochure or Web pages, or a library display, as part of literature and studies about thesis a class collection called #8220;So You Want to bachelor thesis criminology, Know About#8230;#8221; Brainstorm thought-provoking questions about a common text, such as what might have happened five years before the essays health, events in a novel begin, 25 years after they end, or what would happen if a key plot point was changed.
Then, ask several people to weigh in and give short answers in order to create a Room for Debate- style response. Thesis Criminology! Book Report by Video. Work with others in literature and studies about thesis small groups to create short videos about a book or author you have read. You might voice-over narration and and include interviews, as in this example which is about the #8220;Babar#8221; series of children#8217;s books. Be creative about your interviewees. For instance, you might talk to fans of bachelor a book series waiting until midnight for the release of the next installment; people of the connecticut college admission essays, same generation about what a seminal book meant to them as children; or experts like teachers, professors and thesis criminology, historians who can weigh in on literature, the significance of a often-taught book, or on a book controversy. Another approach to the video is to stage key scenes from thesis criminology, novels or stories, or record dramatic readings, with sound effects.
Or, make an essays methods author and his or her works the subject of criminology a video, with an actor portraying him or her and reenacting important career and essays health insurance, life events. The Graphic Novel Version. Everything from the Bible to #8220;Twilight#8221; to #8220;The Art of War#8221; is being turned into a graphic novel. How would the bachelor, book you#8217;re currently reading be transformed by this genre? You might adapt our simple storyboarding graphic organizer (PDF) to get started with a scene or two. Book Blurbs on Blogs. Read the #8220;books#8221; category of the ArtsBeat blog for a week or more, researching the related thesis, topics mentioned there. Then, work on short blog posts of your own that go into greater detail, or give the thesis, #8220;back story,#8221; about literature thesis, each news item for your audience. For example, a recent post about new and ongoing manga series might inspire a segment on manga in general. Why Your Favorite Author Matters.
Write persuasive essays that combine research, critical analysis of major works and personal accounts that raise and answer the question #8220;Why does this author matter?#8221; You might begin by bachelor criminology, reading Sunday Book Review essays with similar aims, such as this one about Lionel Trilling, this #8220;Riff#8221; column about finance, Joan Didion, or by reading the back issues of the review. You can also search Times Topics pages which collect all the news, reference and archival information, photos, graphics, audio and video files published on topic, and thesis, find nearly any published author #8212; whether Stephen King or Shakespeare #8212;. Use them as a starting point for research. Alternatively, the essay can be about why a particular work, genre or literary era matters, using the same guidelines. The Book Report of the Future.
Has the format of the book report assignment in your school morphed over time? If so, how? What do you imagine a #8220;book report#8221; in 2025 might look like? Use our post on the the #8220;future of reading#8221; that examines how technology is changing reading, readers and books to propose new formats for presenting reader responses to literature.For instance, perhaps you and your classmates can join or create an online book sharing and connecticut college essays worked, reviewing community, design a book app, or write about the difference between reading a paper-and-ink book and an e-book or some other digital format. Bachelor! Related Lessons from The Learning Network. Other Learning Network Resources. Admission Worked! Comments are no longer being accepted. Excellent ideas! I#8217;ve always loved alternatives to the standard book report and you#8217;ve just given me some wonderful new ones to add to my arsenal. Criminology! Assignments like these are more meaningful to the student, deter cheating (aka copying/pasting), promote creative thinking, and essays on research methods, are much more interesting for the teacher (or any audience) to read and/or engage in.
Thank you for sharing! This is bachelor thesis criminology, really #8220;beyond the book report#8221;, I got assigned to a book report but in our class we can choose what we want to read, so I#8217;m currently reading a book I#8217;m enjoying so much that I couldn#8217;t put it down at night. But the bad thing is we have assigned tasks to complete, and they#8217;re boring; if every teacher used this in America I#8217;m sure reading will turn into a enjoyable thing for reluctant readers or bookworms like me. My 5th grade Reading/Language Arts classes now have a fun way to share a book they loved. Thesis Accounting! With the help of our IT teacher, they can make an bachelor thesis Animoto video that is then linked to our school#8217;s website, which can be viewed by all students. Also, we learned to make QR codes from the same video, which our librarian tapes inside the book. Other students can use iPhones or iPods to scan the code and watch the promo video. This is a great way to integrate technology skills with language arts skills!
Since my students love to do this, and they can#8217;t make a video that has been already made twice, they are encouraged to branch out in their reading genre. I#8217;ve enjoyed working on essays on research methods in education, these Animoto book trailers with Donna B. Check them out: http://tinyurl.com/wilsonbooktrailers. Sign up for our free newsletter. Bachelor Criminology! Get the latest lesson plans, contests and resources for teaching with The Times.
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Criminology Theses and Dissertations | Criminology | University of
(Guidelines for bachelor Pre-OT, PT, and PA students) As part of the on research methods primary application, most physician assistant programs, and thesis, many physical therapy and occupational therapy programs, require applicants to submit a personal essay, personal statement, or personal narrative (each term refers to the same thing). The personal essay can be thought of connecticut admission worked, as the interview before the interview, or almost a substitute for the interview for criminology programs that don't offer or require one. The average personal essay runs between 600 and 750 words, give or take, with the upper end of that range being more common (or the related literature and studies about equivalent in characters, which is how Central Application Services tend to measure things - around 4000 to 5000 characters, including spaces). Criminology. It is important you compose an essay characterized by both conciseness as well as an related literature effective level of detail and criminology, specificity. You will need to be selective and very pointed with what you choose to write about, and what you decide to describe in write article essay more detail or less detail. The guidelines on this page can help you with these choices. Establishing your credibility with admission committees.
Your transcript and GPA are meant to establish your academic credibility, as someone who manages your time well, has developed the skills to do well in challenging courses, and who follows through on commitments. Your personal essay, on the other hand, can help establish your credibility as someone who: has thoroughly researched your chosen career field has undergone a thoughtful process of self-assessment in bachelor thesis criminology choosing the profession, understands and can articulate their personal connection with the how to write essay field, and bachelor thesis, is 100% devoted to pursuing a career in the field has worked hard to develop the temperament and maturity, the desire to keep learning, and the personal and professional skills, necessary to related and studies about thesis, function well in bachelor thesis criminology graduate school and in clinical settings and who possesses the ability to thesis accounting finance, effectively, professionally, and coherently communicate ideas in writing. As another dimension of credibility that should be displayed in your essay, remember that within the health fields the focus is always on bachelor thesis providing excellent service to patients; on about insurance the caregiver-patient relationship; on effective rapport-building and communication within that relationship; on working effectively with other healthcare professionals on behalf of your patient; and on patient advocacy. Some aspect of this patient-centric approach should play a role in your personal essay. Bachelor Criminology. In other words, not to put too fine a point on it, but it's not all about what the methods in education profession can do for thesis criminology you (though certainly you want to find your career personally fulfilling), it's about the patient. Putting the personal in personal essay. Personal statements can take many different forms in terms of both style and content. It is a personal essay because it describes how your experiences, values, and sensibilities, and your witnessing of connecticut college, others' experiences through shadowing and hands-on experience, build and grow your personal connection with the particular field, and your desire to serve the needs of other people through your work as a healthcare professional within the field.
In your personal essay, you want to bachelor thesis criminology, be able to describe how and stalin and the ussr, why you yourself were summoned to this profession . Generic reasons such as I want to help people are valid on bachelor thesis the face of write, it, but you need to bachelor thesis, add depth and dimension to them, personalize them. The ideas above and below on this page are meant to help you do that. Reflect on your shadowing and hands-on patient / client experiences. What did you learn about the profession or healthcare in general? What did you learn about others and yourself? How did the interaction impact you personally ? How did it make you feel? What thoughts came to thesis accounting finance, you? What skills and which of your personal qualities came into play? How did the bachelor patient respond, and how did the moment affect them? It is a privilege to witness the struggles, suffering, and and studies, progress of thesis, other people. You want to do their experiences justice in your descriptions of them and responses to them as you write your essay . Free-write responses to the above.
Then read and reflect on what you have written, and try to describe how and and the essay, why you yourself were summoned to this profession . Bachelor Thesis Criminology. Don't strive for perfect writing at write this point; you are still in the discovery stage of writing. It is also a personal essay because something of your personality should come through, which is another good and productive aspect of drafting the essay. You also want to project the kind of ethos or temperament that any effective healthcare professional should possess. (If you don't know exactly what ethos and bachelor thesis criminology, temperament consist of, look up those words!) Stylistically, it is common practice to write the personal statement from the first person (I / me) perspective. This is your opportunity to tell admission committees the three or four most important things about yourself and your preprofessional experience. A personal essay is not merely a résumé in paragraph form. Instead, admission committees are interested to see your ability to assess your own experiences and draw conclusions from them about your goals, skills, and attributes; your ability to essays methods, learn from your experiences; perhaps your dedication to learning from your mistakes, or your willingness to bachelor criminology, challenge your own preconceptions; your ability to effectively assess your goals and your reasons for pursuing them; and, equally important, your ability to stalin essay, convey this information in a coherent, professional, yet personable manner. If you decide to incorporate a relevant personal experience into your essay, avoid including details that are too personal, or overly gratuitous. You don't want to be off-putting or show a lack of good judgment. Program-specific essay information.
Usually, applicants write one essay that they submit to many or perhaps even all of the programs to which they are applying. It is uncommon, and not generally recommended, to bachelor thesis criminology, write a different essay for literature about each program, nor is it possible to do so through the central application services (CAS). Bachelor Criminology. The only essays about health, exception is noted below, in relation to directed essays with custom questions. Consult CAS FAQs and bachelor thesis criminology, program websites for essay requirements and submission processes. There are dozens of ussr, non-CAS programs, and each will have its own essay submission process. For CAS programs: OTCAS FAQs - Click Personal Statement PTCAS FAQs - Click Essay CASPA FAQs - Click Narrative (Personal Statement) Information As part of the primary application, some programs require that you submit responses to a directed essay or custom questions posed by the program instead of criminology, or in health insurance addition to the general essay you'll submit to all programs. Therefore there's a good chance you'll need to write two or more different essays. In some instances you may need to bachelor thesis, write responses to custom questions largely from scratch, but often you can pull content and ideas from your general essay and essays in education, blend them into bachelor, your responses to essays, custom questions. Custom questions often ask applicants to write about how their goals and values align with the program's mission statement or statement of values. If so, you might incorporate values and thesis criminology, terminology from these statement into your essay. Many programs ask applicants to submit a brief autobiographical essay, sometimes explicitly asking applicants not to talk about their career choice.
It is neither feasible nor desirable to attempt a through autobiography in a page or two. There are many ways to connecticut college, approach this project. Thesis Criminology. For example, you could try to stalin, judiciously identify one or two defining moments from your life and use them as a brief autobiographical lens which offers insight into bachelor thesis, who you are, your values, a defining characteristic, or otherwise conveys something interesting about you. Another example: you could write about a challenge you overcame and how that growth experience has subsequently shaped you and your life. Again, there are many approaches, but simply writing paragraphs of thesis accounting, places and dates in your life probably won't suffice. Research your programs to thesis criminology, determine essay requirements well ahead of time. Plan accordingly, and connecticut admission worked, allot enough time to draft essays in thesis criminology a non-hurried fashion.
Pre-PT If you are applying to PTCAS programs, note that the central application requires that your personal essay be written PTCAS allows programs to require responses to school-specific (custom) questions if they choose. Applicants are automatically notified of custom questions during the application process. For additional details, read the PTCAS FAQ, School-specific Questions. Check program sites ahead of time to learn whether any of your PTCAS or non-PTCAS programs require responses to custom questions either as part of the primary / initial application or as part of a secondary / supplemental application. CASPA allows programs to require responses to school-specific custom questions. Information about and the custom questions, if any for your programs, is found within the Program Materials section of the CASPA application. Check program sites ahead of time to criminology, learn whether any of your CASPA or non-CASPA programs require responses to custom questions either as part of the primary / initial application or as part of article, a secondary / supplemental application.
Pre-OT Check program sites ahead of time to learn whether any of your OTCAS or non-OTCAS programs require responses to custom questions either as part of the primary / initial application or as part of a secondary / supplemental application. If so, you will likely submit directed essay responses directly to the program, while submitting a general essay through OTCAS (assuming you are applying to one or more OTCAS programs). Some programs may also require that you submit written responses to additional questions during a secondary or supplemental application process , once you have submitted the bachelor thesis primary application (whether through the CAS or directly to how to write essay, the program itself for non-CAS programs). In these cases, applicants can sometimes pull content or ideas from their master essay and customize them according to bachelor, secondary application questions. Other times, secondary application questions may need to be written from scratch, but should be drafted with the same care and connecticut, professionalism as the bachelor criminology personal essay itself. While some programs place more emphasis on the essay than others, you must always consider the essay, and any other written responses, to be an integral part of your application. For some programs, the health insurance essay is the interview before the thesis interview. For programs without interviews, the essay can take on even greater significance. Once you have submitted your application(s), double-check with the CAS itself as well as with non-CAS programs to confirm that your application is complete. Important: Whether you are communicating with an administrative assistant, a receptionist, a faculty member, or an admissions representative, always be perfectly polite and professional in every interaction, with everyone.
Not only is about health insurance such conduct critical in terms of your own developing professionalism, but we know of applicants whose application has been put in bachelor the Denied stack simply due to a single presumptuous or rude phone or email interaction. Always have at least one full backup copy of the latest draft of your essay, preferably two, saved on different devices , even in the earliest stages of brainstorming and writing. How To Article Essay. Investing 20 seconds in the short run to create a couple of thesis, master backups can save you hours or even weeks of misery trying to recreate what has been needlessly lost. We have seen applicants lose their entire completed essay because they did not create backups. As you write , save your document every couple of minutes, or set your word processor to auto-save every minute or two. Losing even 20 minutes of and the ussr essay, work is frustrating and thesis, unnecessary. Before making major revisions , create a new version of the article essay essay using the Save As feature, so that you can always go back to the earlier version if need be. Every time you are finished working for thesis the time being , update your backups to essays, the latest version of your master document - the bachelor criminology draft-in-progress.
There is not one correct way to write or organize a personal essay. Stalin And The Ussr. Below are some guidelines and ideas to help you get started, and ease you into the writing process: Review the notes you took during clinical observation, and bachelor thesis criminology, during pertinent volunteer and / or patient care experiences. Highlight a few moments which most helped build your knowledge and write essay, understanding of the profession, or your decision to pursue it. Jot down any personal experiences that informed your decision to pursue a career in healthcare in bachelor thesis general, or your chosen field in particular. Review formal descriptions of your chosen field. Revisit websites of the thesis finance professional organizations associated with your chosen field, and read how those already working in the profession describe it.
Reread the Description Of The Profession section at the top of the HPPLC site for your field, be it OT, PT, or PA. Perhaps visit program websites and read their program philosophy or mission statements. Doing so can give you a sense of what ideals and goals seem most important to them, which may in bachelor turn help you generate ideas, and even help clarify what is important to you as well. Important: Revisit the section, Putting the connecticut essays personal in personal essay. By making time to follow the writing guidelines there, you will develop ideas that could very well become the bachelor core of your essay. Accounting Finance. (Remember to save your notes periodically, and create backups.) Write down or word-process your thoughts with regard to bachelor criminology, each of the following questions, which often form the basis of admission essays.
For now, don't worry about sentence-level issues like punctuation, or about writing things in essay format. Even a rough bulleted list in response to each question is fine. You're simply brainstorming ideas at this point. Why do I want to be an [OT / PT / PA]? What are the reasons I have specifically chosen to pursue [OT / PT / PA] instead of essays methods, one of the hundreds of other possible healthcare careers? (Hint: be more specific than I want to help people. While this is a perfectly valid reason, it describes thousands of different professions.) What specific steps have I taken to thesis criminology, make this decision? Have I shadowed in a variety of settings? - which kinds? (Remember that OTs, PTs, and PAs do practice in methods in education a wide variety of settings!) Additional questions you might consider: Have I discovered anything interesting or impactful through reading related professional journals in the library? What kind of paid or voluntary work have I done interacting directly with patients, clients, or others in need? Have I garnered experience working with or on behalf of thesis criminology, underserved populations?
Have I been meaningfully involved in a student organization? (Not mandatory - remember, these are simply brainstorming questions.) Remember to and the, save your notes periodically, and create backups. Assessing and recounting your preprofessional experiences. It is very common for applicants to incorporate anecdotal descriptions of criminology, a few clinical observation, direct patient care, and / or pertinent volunteer experiences into article essay, their personal essays. If you do so in thesis a thoughtful, detailed manner, these experiences could even become the linchpins of your essay, and can be an effective way to related thesis, show admissions committees that you have seriously considered your chosen career path, why it is bachelor criminology a good fit for thesis accounting finance you, and what you hope to someday offer your own patients or clients. Next then, look more closely at the experiences you highlighted in your notes, as suggested above. The key at this point is to assess these experiences, and incorporate additional details into your descriptions of criminology, them. Review the writing you did for the Putting the personal in personal essay section of this page. If you have followed those guidelines, you already have a good start on what we suggest below. If you have not yet done so, do it now. It won't take more than an accounting hour or two and will help you tremendously as you draft your essay.
In relation to the clinical observation experiences you highlighted in your notes, list the variety of bachelor thesis criminology, skills, knowledge, personal attributes, and professional attributes exhibited by the professionals you shadowed. Write. What did you learn about the profession that you did not know prior to shadowing? How did your experiences refine your impressions of the bachelor thesis profession, and the kind of professional you wish to become? How did what you observe confirm your interest in pursuing the profession? Add these lists, thoughts, and ideas to your essay notes. Read through the methods notes you jotted down in response to the preparation questions and see if any of those thoughts can lend support or detail to the recounting of thesis, your experiences. Do the same kind of assessment In relation to the most impactful of the patient care and/ or volunteer experiences you highlighted in your notes. List the article essay skills, knowledge, personal attributes, and professional attributes that you yourself have begun to develop, or have strengthened. Add these lists, thoughts, and ideas to your essay notes. Bachelor Criminology. Next, in your essay notes, try writing out each experience as a kind of story - a narrative - that you are telling the reader. (Remember to save your notes periodically, and create backups.) Writers often find it easiest to write long and edit down. At this stage, write out all your thoughts and ideas without worrying about length.
You can edit things down later. Applicants will often be as specific in their essay as, . For instance, when shadowing an essays methods [OT / PT / PA] at such and such a place, I observed the [OT / PT / PA] treat a patient who was in this or that circumstance, and interact with the patient in criminology this or that manner, and here is what happened, this was the outcome. As part of the narrative, applicants will often fold in their assessment of the experience (as described above): From this experience, I learned this and college, that. or This experience helped me realize / decide this and that. Again, this level of bachelor thesis, specificity can greatly enhance a personal statement. It can reduce the chances that admission committees will have to read between the and studies about thesis lines and guess what you mean, or, worse, assume that you really have not thought much about your goals and your reasons for pursuing them.
It is certainly not mandatory that you include detailed narratives accounts of your experiences in your essay. Many applicants find that doing so helps them demonstrate their interest in the profession, and thesis, their preparedness for embarking upon essays about the intensive formal training process. No matter how you choose to present what you learned from your experiences, remember that vagueness and thesis, over-generalization are the essay enemies of a strong personal essay. The details matter. Assessing and recounting relevant personal experiences.
In a fashion similar to that described above, you have the option to include in your essay situations in your own life which, for example, taught you something important about thesis criminology life which you have found relevant to your career choice, taught you something about what does not so much interest you, or impacted you in other ways you think are directly pertinent to your essay. For example, some applicants recount an experience which helped them develop a core value which then became important to their choice of career path, or which helped them earlier on develop an admission essays interest in helping others or working in healthcare. Some applicants recount their own experience receiving care from a PT or PA, or a grandparent's experience with an OT. Remember that including pertinent personal experiences is simply one option, not a requirement. Important: If you decide to incorporate a personal experience into your essay, avoid including details that are too personal, or overly gratuitous.
You don't want to be off-putting, or show a lack of bachelor thesis, good judgment. Congratulations! - if you have made it this far, you have undertaken some preparation and brainstorming, have added additional details, and now have what amounts to a rough draft of your essay. As always, save your notes again, and update your backups. Now it's time to connect part to whole throughout your draft. In essay lingo, this is the process of creating coherence . If an essay is coherent it means it flows or progresses from one paragraph to another, one idea to related and studies about, another, one sentence to another in a way that makes sense to bachelor thesis, the reader. To gain a holistic sense of your draft thus far, read it from top to bottom, including any ideas you noted as you read program websites and other resources during your preparation, as well as your answers to related literature and studies about, the brainstorming questions, and the details you subsequently added. Identify the central ideas and bachelor criminology, themes, perhaps underlining or highlighting them. You will almost certainly see connections between different parts of your notes. For example, you may find that one section or paragraph seems more focused on admission essays your initial decision to enter the health fields, while another section serves the purpose of explaining your discovery process, and how you confirmed your specific career path. Perhaps there are sentences or paragraphs focused on bachelor thesis criminology how you discovered what you are not interested in, and how to essay, the reasons for bachelor criminology that. Maybe part of what you've written so far seems to center on your own skill development and personality attributes.
Many different central ideas or themes could emerge. Review the information about establishing credibility with the admissions committee and make sure your essay generally reflects these ideas. Convert bullets and incomplete sentences into complete, grammatical thoughts. See if there are lines you want to either expand into new paragraphs or layer into existing paragraphs, or into descriptions of literature and studies thesis, your experiences, adding new details or moving in thesis criminology related content from elsewhere in the draft. How To Article Essay. Expand or contract different sections or paragraphs according to what seems most relevant to your essay, and in a manner which will draw in readers and help them understand you and your goals better. As you re-read your draft you will also undoubtedly find yourself deleting notes that seem redundant or less useful to include.
Next, experiment with re-arranging the sections and / or paragraphs in different ways, to see what arrangement seems most coherent, offers the greatest impact, or follows the bachelor thesis criminology flow of your career decision process (it is not necessary to arrange your essay chronologically - doing so is simply one option among many). Once you have tentatively arranged the various parts of your draft in a way which seems effective, revise your paragraphs and connecticut essays worked, add transitions so as to create coherence from one paragraph to the next, and one section to the next. Avoid needless repetition or summaries. Personal essays must be coherent and bachelor criminology, well-organized, but, unlike the classic essay format, the thesis accounting introduction of this particular kind of essay need not foreshadow the main points covered in criminology the body. In fact, doing so usually detracts from the overall impact of what you've written simply because the health essay is so brief to begin with. Similarly, unlike the classic essay format, your conclusion should probably not summarize. Doing so usually results in needless repetition, and isn't necessary since the reader would have just read the summarized information in criminology the previous few paragraphs anyway. Summarizing in an essay this brief is also a waste of precious space which could be used to convey additional new information to the admissions committee. It is college worked often easier to write the introduction and conclusion last, once you have a sense of the overall content and tone of the body. In fact, once you have a solid draft of the body written (i.e., once you have gone through a drafting process similar to that described previously on this page), you may find that you can actually transform two of your existing paragraphs into your introduction and conclusion, rather than writing an introduction and conclusion from scratch. With this method, almost any paragraph conveying a specific idea, theme, point of self-assessment, or related anecdote could become your opening or closing paragraph.
Experiment with moving different paragraphs into the position of introduction and see if one seems like a compelling way to criminology, draw in how to write essay the reader. Bachelor. Do the same with the conclusion and see if any of your paragraphs can stand on their own as a way to draw the essay to a satisfying conclusion, leaving the reader with a positive impression of you or with an interesting final insight into you or your goals. Or you might also find that one of your paragraphs is particularly representative of the themes or ideas conveyed throughout the finance essay, and could serve as a kind of wrap up without actually being redundant. If you do in fact have paragraphs that seem able to thesis, become your introduction and conclusion then sometimes just rearranging a sentence or two, or adding one or two additional sentences at the end of what has become your intro, can create a segue into the body of the college essays essay. Similarly, sometimes adding a sentence or two as a parting thought to the end of what has become your concluding paragraph can serve as a sufficient outro, and bachelor thesis, bring the essay to a satisfying conclusion. If you feel doing the above doesn't seem adequate, or makes the essay less coherent, another option is to experiment with a one or two sentence conclusion; for example, re-expressing your enthusiasm for the field or thanking the admissions committee for considering your application. (This method doesn't work as well with introductions.) Before resorting to this method, try the essays about health other ideas described above, which often result in the strongest introductions and conclusions. That said, there is thesis nothing wrong with an outro which consists of just a sentence or two. Revise Into A Refined And Complete Draft.
At this stage your essay no longer looks like a set of notes, and essays on research in education, you instead have a coherent and more or less complete draft. Below you will find important reminders about the content of your essay, common mistakes to avoid, and tips to thesis criminology, help you produce the thesis accounting finance most professional, refined final draft possible. Avoid needless redundancy. Don't repeatedly state the same thought, sentence, or phrase unless there is a valid stylistic or rhetorical reason for doing so. Thesis Criminology. Remember that vagueness and over-generalization are the enemies of a strong personal essay. Thesis Finance. Specificity is bachelor key. Avoid generalities and college essays worked, clichés like, I am very passionate about. I love working with people. Bachelor Thesis. or I have always wanted to be an on research methods [OT / PT / PA].
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You know enough about it to have decided to essays, pursue it, but there is much you don't know. Bachelor Criminology. That's okay because the accounting purpose of the essay is not to define the profession or explain everything you know about it. Bachelor Thesis. Relatedly, remember that OTs, PTs, and PAs practice in a wide variety of settings, so be careful to avoid falling into a clichéd or two-dimensional understanding of the given field. For example, PTs are not just sports rehab. They can also work in wound care, burn recovery, stroke rehab, prosthetics, and many other settings. The same idea holds true for OT and PA. Article Essay. The name or title of the profession, be it occupational therapist, physical therapist, or physician assistant, is not a proper noun and so need not be capitalized. It is fine to use the abbreviation - OT, PT, PA - to refer to either the field or to someone practicing within the field (i.e., Later that summer, I shadowed another PA, this time in the emergency room of bachelor criminology, Center Hospital. Or, . the ever-expanding PT profession. ). Alternating in some fashion between the write article essay full tern and its abbreviation is a good way to avoid sounding repetitious.
Note to pre-PA students: The construct, physician assistant, tends to be fairly standard. You might also see physician's assistant (with an apostrophe s) or physicians assistant (plural s), but these are used less commonly. Bachelor. In any case, be sure to use the same construct throughout your essay, and double-check that you don't accidentally use more than one way of referring to the profession. Maintain patient privacy when describing clinical observation and any direct patient care experience. It is about perfectly fine to describe symptoms, treatments, and interactions with patients, but you should never use a person's real name. Instead, you can refer to them using pronouns (he, she, they). if this seems cumbersome or confusing, it is also standard practice to substitute a made up name for the real name if it will help your writing flow better; for example, My very first experience offering direct patient care was treating an athlete - I'll call him Ted - for heatstroke. . For additional patient privacy information visit HIPPA - Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Your essay should be perfectly free of thesis, typos and spelling / grammatical errors. Some admission committees stop reading after two or three such mistakes, and literally drop the offending essay onto the No pile. Professionalism is crucial.
Just as college is thesis finance a step up from high school, graduate school is a step (or two) up from your undergraduate degree. Some admission representatives have told us they stop reading a personal statement after the third mistake (whether spelling, typo, or grammar). Bachelor Thesis Criminology. Few things in life need to be perfect, or nearly so. Accounting Finance. The proofing of your final draft is one of bachelor, them, because it speaks to your professionalism, care, and attention to detail. Use an and studies about thesis automatic spell checker on your final draft. Then, print a hardcopy and bachelor, meticulously proofread it.
Eliminate every single typo and spelling error, and every single grammatical error. * Scrutinize your essay for usage errors that a spell checking program will often miss; for example, mistakenly using weather instead of essays about, whether , ceratin instead of certain , affect instead of effect . You can also do a Find And Replace to thesis, see if you are over ussr essay using a certain word or phrase. If you find this to be the case, replace some instances with a different way of saying the same thing. You can also search for criminology hard to spot typos. For example, to find places where you have accidentally inserted an extra space between words, in the Find box hit the connecticut college admission essays worked spacebar twice, in Replace hit it once, and click Replace All. When you think it is perfectly proofed, set your essay aside for a couple of bachelor thesis, days, and then proofread it again with fresh eyes, slowly and meticulously. * For this particular specialized document, instead of consulting IUB Writing Tutorial Services staff or documentation for essays feedback related to the actual content or style of bachelor thesis, your essay, you are best off first following the guidelines throughout this webpage. Then, once you have a pretty solid draft in process, you can meet with the accounting HPPLC pre-OT / PT / PA advisor to discuss the content, level of detail, and organization / coherence of your draft. If you need help learning to identify and correct grammatical errors, feel free to utilize Writing Tutorial Services. However, WTS is not a proofreading service! They can help you learn to solve common grammatical problems, but professional programs want to bachelor thesis, see your own work , not the work of others. Having someone else proof your essay is not ethical, but getting help learning to spot and fix grammar issues is okay.
Again, for feedback related to the actual content or style of your personal essay, you are best off first following the guidelines throughout this webpage and methods, then meeting with a HPPLC advisor if you'd like. Examples of helpful grammar sites: (Passive voice is thesis not an college essays error, but a stylistic choice. Thesis. However, because it is related and studies thesis less direct and less specific than active voice, passive voice is usually best avoided in criminology personal essays. At the above link, if you skip down to the Examples of Passive Voice section you will readily see how to find and and studies thesis, easily eliminate it.) This information was prepared for bachelor thesis criminology Indiana University Bloomington students by literature thesis the Health Professions and Prelaw Center. Please note that specific requirements and policies can change at any time without notice. Students are responsible for obtaining the most current information directly from application and testing services, and the schools and programs in which they have an interest. Thesis Criminology. Refer to each program's web pages, bulletins, and other publications for the most current information.
Students are responsible for understanding degree course requirements, as well as other requirements, policies, and procedures related to the degree(s) they are pursuing; for finance enrolling in appropriate courses; for thesis understanding IU policies/procedures; and for following through properly with regard to all of the finance preceding.
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the subjective necessity for social settlements. contents: preface · the subjective necessity for social settlements · how to cite this piece. Jane Addams (1869-1935) is, perhaps, best known as a pioneering social worker and social activist, however she was also a committed internationalist and critical intellectual. She introduced and developed the idea of the settlement house to the United States (founding Hull House with Ellen Starr in 1889); campaigned for better social conditions and led investigations into various areas of thesis criminology, health and welfare. Jane Addams saw education as the related about foundation for democracy. She also argued for women's suffrage and for the peaceful resolution of international conflicts.
Her pacifism led her to oppose US entry into the First World War. After the cessation of hostilities she was active in organizing relief supplies. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931, Jane Addams died in 1935. As becomes clear from the bachelor opening paragraph, this paper was the first of two talks Jane Addams gave at the School of Applied Ethics in Plymouth, Massachusetts in 1892. Like Samuel Barnett she believed that settlements were based on the idea of reciprocal need. On the one side there was the need of poor people for help with their 'objective problems', and on the other, the need of the more privileged to express their ideals in practical ways.
This paper was, as Jane Addams states in her introduction, 'an attempt to analyze the thesis motives which underlie a movement based, not only upon conviction, but upon genuine emotion, wherever educated young people are seeking an outlet for that sentiment for universal brotherhood'. Originally published as 'A new impulse to an old gospel' Forum 14 (1892) pp342-356 and later in thesis, Henry C. Adams (ed.) (1893) Philanthropy and Social Progress, New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell. This version is taken from (1910) Twenty Years at Hull House, New York: Macmillan. links: university and social settlements · Addams - socialized education. The full text of Twenty Years at Hull House is available on admission, the Celebration of Women Writers site. The Ethical Culture Societies held a summer school at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1892, to which they invited several people representing the then new Settlement movement, that they might discuss with others the general theme of Philanthropy and Social Progress. I venture to produce here parts of a lecture I delivered in Plymouth, both because I have found it impossible to formulate with the same freshness those early motives and strivings, and bachelor criminology because, when published with other papers given that summer, it was received by related literature and studies the Settlement people themselves as a satisfactory statement. I remember on golden summer afternoon during the sessions of the summer school that several of us met on the shores of bachelor criminology, a pond in a pine wood a few miles from Plymouth, to essays worked, discuss our new movement. Thesis. The natural leader of the group was Robert A. Woods.
He had recently returned from a residence in Toynbee Hall, London, to open Andover House in Boston, and had just issued a book, English Social Movements, in which he had gathered together and connecticut college admission focused the many [page 114] forms of social endeavor preceding and contemporaneous with the English Settlements. Bachelor. There were Miss Vida D. Article Essay. Scudder and Miss Helena Dudley from the bachelor thesis criminology College Settlement Association, Miss Julia C. Lathrop and stalin and the ussr myself from Hull-House. Some of criminology, us had numbered our years as far as thirty, and we all carefully avoided the extravagance of statement which characterizes youth, and yet I doubt if anywhere on the continent that summer could have been found a group of people more genuinely interested in social development or more sincerely convinced that they had found a clue by which the in education conditions in crowded cities might be understood and thesis the agencies for social betterment developed. We were all careful to avoid saying that we had found a life work, perhaps with an accounting instinctive dread of expending all our energy in vows of constancy, as so often happens; and yet it is interesting to note that of all the people whom I have [page 115] recalled as the enthusiasts at that little conference have remained attached to Settlements in actual residence for bachelor thesis criminology longer or shorter periods each year during the eighteen years that have elapsed since then, although they have also been closely identified as publicists or governmental officials with movements outside. It is as if they had discovered that the Settlement was too valuable as a method as a way of approach to the social question to abandoned, although they had long since discovered it was not a social movement in itself. This, however, is anticipating the stalin ussr future, whereas the following paper on thesis criminology, The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements should have a chance to speak for itself. It is perhaps too late in the day to express regret for its stilted title. This paper is an attempt to connecticut college essays, analyze the motives which underlie a movement based, not only upon conviction, but upon genuine emotion, wherever educated young people are seeking an outlet for that sentiment for bachelor criminology universal brotherhood, which the best spirit of our times is forcing from an emotion into a motive.
These young people accomplish little toward the solution of this social problem, and bear the brunt of being cultivated into unnourished, oversensitive lives. They have been shut off from the common labor by which they live which is a great source of health, moral and physical health. They feel a fatal want of harmony between their theory and their lives, a lack of coordination between thought and action. I think it is hard for us to realize how seriously many of thesis, [page 116] them are taking to the notion of human brotherhood, how eagerly they long to give tangible expression to the democratic ideal. Related About Thesis. These young men and women, longing to socialize their democracy, are animated by certain hopes which may be thus loosely formulated; that if in a democratic country nothing can be permanently achieved save through the masses of the people, it will be impossible to thesis criminology, establish a higher political life than the people themselves crave; that it is difficult to see how the notion of a higher civic life can be fostered save through common intercourse; that the blessings which we associate with a life of refinement and cultivation can be made universal and must be made universal if they are to be permanent; that the good we secure for ourselves is literature and studies thesis, precarious and uncertain, is floating in mid-air, until it is secured for all of us and incorporated into our common life. It is easier to state these hopes than to formulate the criminology line of motives, which I believe to constitute the stalin trend of the subjective pressure toward the Settlement. There is something primordial about bachelor these motives, but I am perhaps overbold in designating them as a great desire to share the race life. We all bear traces of the starvation struggle which for so long made up the life of the race.
Our very organism holds memories and glimpses of that long life of our ancestors, which still goes on among so many of our contemporaries. Nothing so deadens the sympathies and shrivels the thesis accounting power of enjoyment as the persistent keeping away from the bachelor thesis great opportunities for essays in education helpfulness and criminology a continual ignoring of the starvation struggle which makes up the life of at least half the race. To shut one's self away from that [page 117] half of the race life is to shut one's self away from the how to write most vital part of it; it is to live out but half the humanity to which we have been born heir and to use but half our faculties. Bachelor Thesis Criminology. We have all had longings for a fuller life which should include the use of these faculties. These longings are the physical complement of the Intimations of Immortality, on which no ode has yet been written. To portray these would be the work of a poet, and it is hazardous for any but a poet to attempt it.
You may remember the forlorn feeling which occasionally seizes you when you arrive early in the morning a stranger in a great city: the stream of laboring people goes past you as you gaze through the plate-glass window of your hotel; you see hard working men lifting great burdens; you hear the driving and jostling of huge carts and your heart sinks with a sudden sense of futility. And Studies. The door opens behind you and you turn to the man who brings you in your breakfast with a quick sense of human fellowship. You find yourself praying that you may never lose your hold on it all. A more poetic prayer would be that the great mother breasts of our common humanity, with its labor and suffering and its homely comforts, may never be withheld from you. You turn helplessly to bachelor thesis criminology, the waiter and thesis accounting finance feel that it would be almost grotesque to claim from him the sympathy you crave because civilization has placed you apart, but you resent your position with a sudden sense of snobbery. Literature is full of thesis, portrayals of how to write article essay, these glimpses: they come to shipwrecked men on rafts; they overcome the differences of an incongruous multitude when in bachelor thesis, the presence of a great danger or [page 118] when moved by a common enthusiasm. They are not, however, confined to such moments, and if we were in the habit of telling them to each other, the recital would be as long as the tales of children are, when they sit down on the green grass and confide to each other how many times they have remembered that they lived once before.
If these childish tales are the stirring of inherited impressions, just so surely is the other the thesis finance striving of inherited powers. It is true that there is nothing after disease, indigence and a sense of guilt, so fatal to health and to life itself as the want of a proper outlet for active faculties. I have seen young girls suffer and grow sensibly lowered in criminology, vitality in the first years after they leave school. In our attempt then to give a girl pleasure and freedom from care we succeed, for and the ussr essay the most part, in making her pitifully miserable. She finds life so different from what she expected it to be. She is besotted with innocent little ambitions, and does not understand this apparent waste of herself, this elaborate preparation, if no work is provided for her. There is a heritage of noble obligation which young people accept and thesis criminology long to and studies about thesis, perpetuate. The desire for action, the wish to right wrong and alleviate suffering haunts them daily.
Society smiles at it indulgently instead of making it of value to bachelor thesis, itself. The wrong to them begins even farther back, when we restrain the first childish desires for doing good, and tell them that they must wait until they are older and better fitted. We intimate that social obligation begins at a fixed date, forgetting that it begins at birth itself. Essays About Health. We treat them as children who, with strong-growing limbs, are allowed to use their legs [page 119] but not their arms, or whose legs are daily carefully exercised that after a while their arms may be put to high use. Thesis Criminology. We do this in essay, spite of the protest of the best educators, Locke and Pestalozzi. We are fortunate in the meantime if their unused members do not weaken and disappear. They do sometimes.
There are a few girls who, by the time they are educated, forget their old childish desires to thesis criminology, help the world and to essays health, play with poor little girls who haven't playthings. Parents are often inconsistent: they deliberately expose their daughters to knowledge of the bachelor thesis criminology distress in the world; they send them to write article, hear missionary addresses on famines in criminology, India and connecticut essays China; they accompany them to lectures on thesis, the suffering in Siberia; they agitate together over the forgotten region of on research methods, East London. Bachelor Thesis. In addition to this, from babyhood the altruistic tendencies of these daughters are persistently cultivated. They are taught to be self-forgetting and self-sacrificing, to consider the good of the whole before the good of the ego. But when all this information and culture show results, when the daughter comes back from and the ussr college and begins to bachelor, recognize her social claim to the submerged tenth, and to evince a disposition to fulfill it, the family claim is strenuously asserted; she is told that she is unjustified, ill-advised in her efforts. If she persists, the family too often are injured and how to write article unhappy unless the efforts are called missionary and the religious zeal of the family carry them over their sense of abuse. When this zeal does not exist, the result is perplexing. Thesis Criminology. It is essays about health, a curious violation of what we would fain believe a fundamental law–that the final return of the deed is upon criminology, the head of the doer. The deed is that of exclusiveness [page 120] and caution, but the return, instead of falling upon the head of the exclusive and cautious, falls upon admission essays, a young head full of bachelor thesis, generous and unselfish plans.
The girl loses something vital out of her life to which she is entitled. She is restricted and stalin ussr essay unhappy; her elders meanwhile, are unconscious of the situation and we have all the elements of a tragedy. We have in America a fast-growing number of cultivated young people who have no recognized outlet for their active faculties. They hear constantly of the great social maladjustment, but no way is provided for them to change it, and their uselessness hangs about them heavily. Huxley declares that the sense of uselessness is the severest shock which the human system can sustain, and that if persistently sustained, it results in atrophy of function. These young people have had advantages of college, of European travel, and of economic study, but they are sustaining this shock of inaction. Thesis Criminology. They have pet phrases, and they tell you that the things that make us all alike are stronger than the things that make us different. College. They say that all men are united by bachelor thesis needs and sympathies far more permanent and radical than anything that temporarily divides them and related thesis sets them in opposition to each other. If they affect art, they say that the decay in artistic expression is due to the decay in ethics, that art when shut away from the human interests and bachelor from the great mass of literature, humanity is self-destructive. They tell their elders with all the bitterness of youth that if they expect success from them in business or politics or in whatever lines their ambition for thesis them has run, they must let them consult all of humanity; that they must let them [page 121] find out what the people want and how they want it. It is only the stronger young people, however, who formulate this.
Many of them dissipate their energies in connecticut admission essays worked, so-called enjoyment. Others not content with that, go on studying and go back to college for criminology their second degrees; not that they are especially fond of study, but because they want something definite to do, and their powers have been trained in the direction of mental accumulation. Many are buried beneath this mental accumulation with lowered vitality and discontent. Walter Besant says they have had the vision that Peter had when he saw the great sheet let down from heaven, wherein was neither clean nor unclean. He calls it the sense of humanity. It is not philanthropy nor benevolence, but a thing fuller and wider than either of these. This young life, so sincere in its emotion and good phrases and yet so undirected, seems to essays about health insurance, me as pitiful as the other great mass of destitute lives. One is supplementary to the other, and some method of communication can surely be devised. Mr. Barnett, who urged the first Settlement,–Toynbee Hall, in East London,–recognized this need of outlet for the young men of Oxford and Cambridge, and hoped that the Settlement would supply the communication. It is easy to see why the Settlement movement originated in England, where the years of thesis criminology, education are more constrained and definite than they are here, where class distinctions are more rigid.
The necessity of it was greater there, but we are fast feeling the pressure of the need and meeting the necessity for admission Settlements in America. Our young people feel nervously the need of [page 122] putting theory into action, and respond quickly to the Settlement form of activity. Other motives which I believe make toward the Settlement are the result of thesis, a certain renaissance going forward in Christianity. The impulse to share the lives of the poor, the desire to make social service, irrespective of propaganda, express the spirit of Christ, is as old as Christianity itself. We have no proof from the records themselves that the early Roman Christians, who strained their simple art to the point of grotesqueness in their eagerness to record a good news on the walls of the catacombs, considered this good news a religion.
Jesus had no set of truths labeled Religious. On the contrary, his doctrine was that all truth is one, that the appropriation of it is freedom. His teaching had no dogma to mark it off from essays about health truth and thesis criminology action in general. He himself called it a revelation–a life. Related And Studies About. These early Roman Christians received the Gospel message, a command to love all men, with a certain joyous simplicity.
The image of the Good Shepherd is bachelor thesis criminology, blithe and gay beyond the gentlest shepherd of essays about, Greek mythology; the hart no longer pants, but rushes to the water brooks. The Christians looked for the continuous revelation, but believed what Jesus said, that this revelation, to be retained and made manifest, must be put into terms of action; that action is the only medium man has for receiving and appropriating truth; that the doctrine must be known through the will. That Christianity has to be revealed and embodied in the line of social progress is a corollary to the simple proposition, that man's action is found in thesis, his social [page 123] relationships in the way in which he connects with his fellows; that his motives for action are the zeal and affection with which he regards his fellows. By this simple process was created a deep enthusiasm for humanity; which regarded man as at once the organ and the object of related literature thesis, revelation; and by this process came about the wonderful fellowship, the true democracy of the early Church, that so captivates the imagination. The early Christians were preeminently nonresistant. They believed in love as a cosmic force. Criminology. There was no iconoclasm during the minor peace of the Church. They did not yet denounce nor tear down temples, nor preach the end of the world. They grew to a mighty number, but it never occurred to them, either in their weakness or in health insurance, their strength, to regard other men for an instant as their foes or as aliens. The spectacle of the Christians loving all men was the most astounding Rome had ever seen.
They were eager to sacrifice themselves for the weak, for children, and for the aged; they identified themselves with slaves and did not avoid the plague; they longed to share the common lot that they might receive the thesis criminology constant revelation. It was a new treasure which the early Christians added to the sum of all treasures, a joy hitherto unknown in the world–the joy of finding the health Christ which lieth in each man, but which no man can unfold save in fellowship. A happiness ranging from the heroic to the pastoral enveloped them. They were to possess a revelation as long as life had new meaning to unfold, new action to bachelor thesis criminology, propose. I believe that there is write article essay, a distinct turning among many young men and criminology women toward this simple acceptance of Christ's message. They resent the [page 124] assumption that Christianity is a set of ideas which belong to the religious consciousness, whatever that may be.
They insist that it cannot be proclaimed and instituted apart from the social life of the community and connecticut worked that it must seek a simple and bachelor thesis natural expression in the social organism itself. The Settlement movement is only one manifestation of that wider humanitarian movement which throughout Christendom, but pre-eminently in England, is endeavoring to embody itself, not in a sect, but in society itself. I believe that this turning, this renaissance of the early Christian humanitarianism, is going on in America, in Chicago, if you please, without leaders who write or philosophize, without much speaking, but with a bent to express in how to write article essay, social service and in terms of action the spirit of Christ. Certain it is that spiritual force is found in bachelor thesis criminology, the Settlement movement, and it is also true that this force must be evoked and must be called into play before the success of any Settlement is assured. Stalin And The Ussr. There must be the overmastering belief that all that is noblest in life is common to men as men, in order to accentuate the likenesses and ignore the differences which are found among the bachelor people whom the Settlement constantly brings into and the juxtaposition. It may be true, as the Positivists insist, that the thesis criminology very religious fervor of man can be turned into love for his race, and his desire for a future life into content to live in the echo of his deeds; Paul's formula of seeking for the Christ which lieth in each man and founding our likenesses on him, seems a simpler formula to many of us. In a thousand voices singing the Hallelujah Chorus in Handel's Messiah, it is possible to distinguish [page 125] the in education leading voices, but the bachelor differences of stalin ussr essay, training and cultivation between them and the voices in the chorus, are lost in the unity of purpose and in the fact that they are all human voices lifted by a high motive. This is a weak illustration of what a Settlement attempts to do.
It aims, in a measure, to develop whatever of social life its neighborhood may afford, to focus and give form to that life, to bring to bear upon it the results of cultivation and training; but it receives in bachelor, exchange for the music of isolated voices the volume and strength of the chorus. Literature And Studies. It is thesis criminology, quite impossible for me to say in what proportion or degree the subjective necessity which led to the opening of Hull-House combined the three trends: first, the on research methods desire to interpret democracy in social terms; secondly, the bachelor thesis criminology impulse beating at the very source of our lives, urging us to accounting finance, aid in the race progress; and, thirdly, the Christian movement toward humanitarianism. It is thesis criminology, difficult to analyze a living thing; the analysis is at best imperfect. Many more motives may blend with the three trends; possibly the desire for a new form of social success due to the nicety of imagination, which refuses worldly pleasures unmixed with the joys of self-sacrifice; possibly a love of approbation, so vast that it is not content with the treble clapping of delicate hands, but wishes also to hear the bass notes from toughened palms, may mingle with these. The Settlement then, is an experimental effort to aid in the solution of the social and essays on research methods in education industrial problems which are engendered by bachelor thesis criminology the modern conditions of life in essays insurance, a great city.
It insists that these problems are not confined to any one portion of a city. Thesis. It is an thesis finance attempt to bachelor thesis, relieve, at the same time, the overaccumulation at [page 126] one end of society and the destitution at the other; but it assumes that this overaccumulation and essays in education destitution is most sorely felt in the things that pertain to social and educational privileges. From its very nature it can stand for no political or social propaganda. It must, in a sense, give the warm welcome of an inn to all such propaganda, if perchance one of them be found an angel. The only thing to be dreaded in the Settlement is that it lose its flexibility, its power of quick adaptation, its readiness to change its methods as its environment may demand. It must be open to conviction and must have a deep and thesis abiding sense of thesis, tolerance. It must be hospitable and ready for experiment. It should demand from its residents a scientific patience in the accumulation of bachelor thesis, facts and the steady holding of essays methods, their sympathies as one of the best instruments for that accumulation. It must be grounded in a philosophy whose foundation is on the solidarity of the human race, a philosophy which will not waver when the race happens to be represented by criminology a drunken woman or an accounting idiot boy. Its residents must be emptied of all conceit of criminology, opinion and thesis all self-assertion, and ready to arouse and criminology interpret the public opinion of their neighborhood. And Studies. They must be content to live quietly side by side with their neighbors, until they grow into a sense of relationship and mutual interests.
Their neighbors are held apart by criminology differences of race and language which the residents can more easily overcome. They are bound to see the needs of their neighborhood as a whole, to furnish data for legislation, and to use their influence to secure it. In short, residents are pledged to devote themselves to the duties of good citizenship and to accounting finance, the arousing of the social energies [page 127] which too largely lie dormant in every neighborhood given over to industrialism. They are bound to regard the entire life of their city as organic, to make an bachelor thesis effort to unify it, and to protest against write essay, its over-differentiation. It is always easy to make all philosophy point one particular moral and all history adorn one particular tale; but I may be forgiven the reminder that the thesis criminology best speculative philosophy sets forth the solidarity of the human race; that the highest moralists have taught that without the advance and improvement of the whole, no man can hope for any lasting improvement in his own moral or material individual condition; and that the subjective necessity for Social Settlements is therefore identical with that necessity, which urges us on toward social and ussr essay individual salvation. Note: The full text of the book is available on the Celebration of Women Writers site: Twenty Years at Hull-House with Autobiographical Notes.
Acknowledgement : The picture of Jane Addams was taken in bachelor criminology, 1914 and is held by the Library of Congress and released into the public domain under a Creative Commons licence. How to write article, cite this piece : Addams, J. Bachelor Thesis. (1893) 'The subjective necessity for social settlements' in Henry C. Adams (ed.) (1893) Philanthropy and Social Progress , New York: Thomas Y. Cromwell. Republished as chapter six of Jane Addams (1910) Twenty Years at Hull House , New York: Macmillan. Also available in the informal education archives : http://www.infed.org/archives/e-texts/addams.htm. This piece has been reproduced here on the understanding that it is essays about health, not subject to bachelor thesis, any copyright restrictions, and that it is, and how to write article will remain, in the public domain.
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A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to Electrical Currents. © Justin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2011. Received: 23 September 2010. An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC) for biofuel cell (BFC) applications is described. WBCs isolated from whole human blood were suspended in PBS and introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Bachelor Thesis? The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 ?A cm -2 and open circuit potentials (V oc ) between 83 and stalin ussr essay, 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to bachelor thesis criminology, investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to literature and studies, elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the cells and electrode. Bachelor Thesis Criminology? Voltammograms were obtained for how to article essay, the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on bachelor thesis criminology, a Ficoll gradient), a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL), and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester) activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed.
Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the PMA activated primary cells. It is believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to the observed BFC currents. Presently, there are few options for accounting, supplying power to implantable medical devices. The ultimate goal of this preliminary work is to develop an implantable biofuel cell device that may be used within the physiological environment for low-power implantable medical device applications (such as miniature biosensors) [ 1 – 3 ]. Bachelor? A biofuel cell (BFC) is an electrochemical or galvanic device that couples the essays oxidation of a biofuel (such as glucose) at the anode to the reduction of molecular oxygen to criminology, water at the cathode. Through this reactive coupling, electrical currents can be generated to power an implanted device. With the movement of health insurance, electrons through the circuit from the anode to the cathode through the device, it is necessary to criminology, also have the simultaneous movement of positive charge between the two electrodes to satisfy the requirements of a closed circuit. About? This positive charge takes the form of protons that travel from the anode through an electrolyte to criminology, the cathode where water is the final byproduct. Microbial organisms have previously been used as miniature bioreactors for electricity generation from ussr essay BFCs.
The microbes metabolize a substrate (such as glucose or acetate) and subsequently transfer high energy electrons to the anode of the thesis BFC [ 4 – 14 ]. Electrons derived from essays about health these biofuels are subsequently transferred to the anode across the plasma membrane of the cells, while protons are also simultaneously released by the cells into the extracellular space. Criminology? In another type of BFC - referred to here as an enzymatic biofuel cell (EnzBFC) for differentiation - specific enzymes are immobilized at the anode and cathode [ 15 – 21 ]. At the related literature and studies about thesis anode, glucose oxidase may be used to bachelor thesis, oxidize glucose to gluconolactone, while a laccase enzyme or bilirubin oxidase may be tethered to the cathode surface to college, reduce oxygen to criminology, water. Electron transfer between cellular metabolic processes and electrodes has previously only essays on research methods, been observed for thesis, microbes confined to health, the anode of a biofuel cell (BFC). Electron mediators, such as neutral red, have been employed to increase the efficiency of bachelor thesis criminology, electron transfer between the stalin ussr essay microbes and the electrode surface [ 6 ]. Other microbes, such as Geobacter, have been shown to be capable of directly transferring electrons to an electrode without the aid of mediators and bachelor thesis, are often termed metal-reducing bacteria [ 11 – 13 ]. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of transducing the biochemical energy of white blood cells into electrical energy, essentially utilizing these eukaryotic cells as bioreactors at a biofuel cell anode. A. Measurement of open circuit potential and current from accounting finance BFC device. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for thesis criminology, Human Subject Research of the University of Pittsburgh.
White blood cells (WBC) were isolated from 5 healthy adult human subjects using a red blood cell (RBC) lysis technique (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Approximately 10 mL of anticoagulated peripheral blood was mixed with three volumes of connecticut college, RBC Lysis solution and bachelor, incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. WBC was recovered by centrifugation at how to write article essay, 930 g for 10 minutes at 4°C. The supernatant containing the lysed RBC was transferred to bachelor thesis criminology, a new tube and subsequently either saved for later study or discarded. The remaining WBC pellets were washed multiple times (at least thrice) in 1 ? phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and resuspended in PBS to a final volume of 15 mL. For specific isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a Ficoll-Paque™ density gradient was used. Whole blood was gently added to an equivalent volume of the on research methods Ficoll-Paque™ solution to obtain two clearly defined layers. After centrifugation at 930 g for 20 minutes, four layers can be discerned - red blood cells at thesis, the bottom, followed by a larger volume of the Ficoll solution, then a thin layer of white blood cells - the PBMCs (consisting primarily of B and T lymphocytes and monocytes) - and finally a larger volume of blood plasma. The PBMCs were carefully recovered and washed twice in PBS (pH 7.4) by centrifugation at 800 g for admission, 15 minutes and were finally resuspended in 15 mL PBS. (A) WBC biofuel cell experimental setup; (B) SEM of bachelor, carbon fiber electrode . Cyclic voltammetry was performed using the Gamry Potentiostat, FAS2/Femtostat under control of the essays health insurance Gamry Framework Software from Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). A three-electrode setup was used, where carbon fiber and platinum served as the working and counter electrodes, respectively, while a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) served as the reference.
PMA (5 ng mL -1 ) and calcium ionomycin (500 ng mL -1 ) were used to thesis criminology, activate the white blood cells. PBMC isolated from the healthy volunteers, K562, Jurkat and related literature thesis, a primary human B lymphoblastoid cell line were analyzed in this study. Human white blood cells were isolated from approximately 12 mL of whole blood using a Ficoll-Paque™ density gradient as described previously. Cell density was determined using a light microscope and thesis criminology, hematocytometer. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also cultured over a period of connecticut college, one week in RPMI with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Thesis? The cells were isolated from the culture medium by health centrifugation, washed twice with PBS and finally resuspended in bachelor criminology, 1 ? PBS. Cell density was determined as described above. The WBC suspended in essay, PBS solution was scanned within a potential range of -0.5 V to 1.2 V vs. SCE at bachelor criminology, a scan rate of thesis finance, 100 mV s -1 . The total working volume employed for the cyclic voltammetry setup was 15 mL.
The white blood cells were activated by addition of 1 ?L each of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin per 1 mL of the total working volume to achieve final concentrations of bachelor criminology, 5 ng mL -1 and 500 ng mL -1 , respectively. The effect of variable glucose concentrations was investigated. Current-potential (i-V) curve acquired from the cyclic voltammetry of activated human WBCs suspended in PBS . An oxidation peak is observed at ca. 400 mV. Stalin? In vitro microdialysis [ 22 ] was used in these experiments to thesis, extract the essays about health insurance released biochemical content from the cell suspension, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection was subsequently used to validate whether or not serotonin was released by the cells, as well as to quantify the amount of serotonin released upon cell activation. The microdialysis probe was constructed from 23-gauge stainless steel tubing, with a hollow fiber that ran through the length of the tubing. A small length of the hollow fiber (approx 1.5 - 2.0 mm) was allowed to protrude from the thesis end of the stainless steel tube and remained in contact with the surrounding solution. Within the hollow fiber was vitreous silicate tubing. This silicate tubing served as an inlet section for the perfusing buffer, while the outlet section was housed in the 23-G steel tubing. Since the stalin and the ussr cells were suspended in PBS, a PBS buffer solution could also be used for perfusion.
White blood cells were isolated as described previously. The cell samples were placed on ice for later microdialysis and HPLC analysis. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also analyzed. 1.5 mL samples (at cell densities of approximately 10 6 cells mL -1 ) were placed in microcentrifuge tubes. Thesis Criminology? The hollow fiber to be used for microdialysis was allowed to stalin and the ussr, equilibrate in thesis, fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) for a period of 30 minutes to connecticut college worked, one hour. PMA and ionomycin were introduced for 20 - 30 minutes for cell activation prior to the isolation of 5-HT released by the cells using microdialysis. Three samples were collected from microdialysis of the cell suspensions and controls (perfusion rate of thesis criminology, 5 ?L min -1 for 2 minutes) in autosampler tubes. The hollow fiber of the microdialysis probe was made approximately 1 cm long to improve the rate of recovery. For washing, the hollow fiber was placed in fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) and allowed to dialyze at a rate of thesis accounting finance, 20 ?L min -1 for 2 minutes. It was then placed in fresh dH 2 O for 3 minutes between samples to criminology, wash out any residual 5-HT.
8.2 ?L sample volumes were injected into the HPLC by a FAMOS autosampler. Detection of health, any 5-HT was determined electrochemically using an Antec-Leyden Intro amperometric detector (Zoeterwoude, The Netherlands). A. Measurement of Open Circuit Potential and bachelor criminology, Current from BFC device. Currents produced from the PEM fuel cell following introduction of activated WBCs and subsequent replacement of the WBC suspension with PBS (n = 3) . A significant decrease in the current output occurs, indicating that the essays on research in education WBC suspension is the primary contributor to the observed currents (p 0.05). Comparison of currents obtained from WBCs and PBMCs . Comparison of open circuit potentials (bars) and currents (lines) obtained from the supernatant (PBS used to bachelor thesis criminology, wash the cells during the initial Ficoll isolation procedure) for both the essays methods in education WBCs (top) and PBMCs (bottom) . Relatively small currents to no currents were observed for the PEM fuel cell apparatus. These results imply that within the general WBC population, certain cells or the molecules released by certain cells are electrochemically active at the electrode surface. These can be attributable to the oxidation of electrochemically active species that are either released by the cells into the extracellular environment (such as serotonin) or by redox active species that are present in the cell membrane (such as flavohemoproteins of the NADPH oxidase complex, coenzyme A). In order to be able to produce a current from the BFC, protons must also be released by the cells into the extracellular space.
The increase in proton concentration in the anode compartment is important to bachelor criminology, create a diffusion gradient, whereby the and the protons can traverse the PEM to react with molecular oxygen to form water at bachelor thesis criminology, the cathode. Stalin And The Ussr Essay? Placing either PBS solution or deionized water in both the anode and cathode compartments did not produce any detectable currents and bachelor criminology, were associated with open circuit potentials that were less than 20 mV. Cyclic voltammetry studies of white blood cells. Nakamura et al. (1991) [ 23 ] Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.33 V and 0.68 V (leucocytes) and literature and studies about thesis, 0.68 V (erythrocytes) 0.36-0.58 ?A per thesis criminology, 10 6 cells for E p = 0.33 V. Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) Matsunaga et al. (1989) [ 24 ] Rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1) and mouse lymphocytes.
Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.34 V and 0.68 V (RBL-1) 0.65 V (mouse lymphocytes) 0.76 ?A per 10 5 cells for E p = 0.34 V. Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) White rabbit leukocytes and essays, erythrocytes. Bachelor Criminology? 0.32 V (leukocytes) 0.73 V (erythrocytes) 1 ?A per 10 5 cells for E p = 0.32 V. All measurements were made in PBS with a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode. where i p is peak current, ? is the electron transfer coefficient, n is the number of electrons transferred, A is and the ussr, surface area, D o is the diffusion coefficient, C o * is the concentration of the species in the bulk solution and v is the scan rate [ 28 ]. Bachelor Thesis? Variation in about health insurance, the amplitude of the oxidation peak current is plotted with PBMC density . Increasing the cell density is associated with an thesis, apparent non-linear increase in the oxidation peak. Essays Methods? It is well known that several types of bachelor, cells contain protein complexes in their cell membranes that function as electron transport chains. The NADPH oxidase complex, for example, comprises structures within the plasma membrane that upon association in an activated state transfer electrons between the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism and extracellular oxygen. Many types of white blood cells, particularly human PMLs (neutrophils [ 29 , 30 ] and eosinophils [ 31 – 33 ]), express this enzyme complex. NADPH oxidase is similar to the electron transport chains found in several microorganisms. Previous research performed by others demonstrated the stalin essay electron transfer ability of microbial organisms. It is known that these microorganisms can transfer electrons to thesis criminology, electrodes by various mechanisms, including: i) the write use of bachelor, artificial electron mediators (electronophores) such as neutral red; ii) using mediators produced by the microorganisms themselves; iii) direct electron transfer across the bacterial cell membrane [ 6 ]. Without an electron mediator, the accounting electron transfer process is very inefficient. Release of serotonin from activated WBCs and more specifically, PBMCs . Following the microdialysis (dial) of criminology, 5-HT (500 nM), PBS, PBMCs and write, activated PBMCs, 5-HT was determined using HPLC.
A recovery estimate of 9% (+/- 1%) was determined for the microdialysis probe (as calculated from 5-HT standard and dial 5-HT in A). Based on this estimate, a 5-HT concentration of approximately 291 nM (+/- 34 nM) was calculated to bachelor thesis, be associated with the activation of PBMCs at write article, a cell density of bachelor criminology, 10 6 cells mL -1 (B). 5-HT HPLC peaks for dial PBS and dial PBMC is likely due to residual contamination of the microdialysis probe. Electron transport, pervasive in the plasma membranes of microbes, is generally not observed across the extracellular membranes of eukaryotic cells. The presence of an electron transport chain in the extracellular membranes of microbes provides a likelihood of electron tunneling occurring between the membrane-bound species and the electrode surface. In eukaryotic cells, electron transport is a process that is normally relegated to the membranes of connecticut admission essays, intracellular mitochondria.
However, a number of criminology, research articles have been published demonstrating that such electron currents do in fact also exist among certain white blood cells. Schrenzel et al. (1998) showed that small currents can be measured across the plasma membranes of human eosinophil granulocytes [ 29 ]. The experiments were performed based on the hypothesis that the essays about health membrane associated enzyme NADPH oxidase, found in blood phagocytes (e.g. neutrophils and eosinophils), generates superoxide through electron transfer from NADPH to extracellular oxygen. The magnitudes of the currents recorded across the extracellular membranes were on the order of 10 to 20 pA per cell in these studies. Bachelor Criminology? NADPH oxidase is a complex of several proteins that associate with each other upon stalin essay, cell activation [ 32 , 33 ]. Activation in vitro is normally achieved by application of a phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) [ 29 , 30 , 33 ]. Activation most likely occurs through the bachelor thesis criminology protein kinase C (PKC) pathway [ 34 , 35 ]. The enzyme complex and its analogs have also increasingly been found in a variety of different cell types including microglia [ 36 ], vascular smooth muscle [ 37 ], hematopoietic stem cells [ 38 ], and essays on research methods, endothelial cells [ 39 ]. The presence of an electron transport chain in the plasma membranes of white blood cells means that it may be possible to bachelor, hijack these high energy electrons in order to divert them to a nearby electrode. Under such a situation, a biofuel cell based on white blood cell glucose metabolism could theoretically be designed. The electrical interactions between the cells and the electrode surface become important for on research methods in education, such a direct electron transfer process to bachelor, take place. The idea of using electrons derived from NADPH oxidase to power a biofuel cell was first proposed by related and studies thesis Justin and thesis criminology, colleagues [ 1 – 3 , 40 – 45 ] and write article, then more recently by Sakai and bachelor thesis, colleagues [ 46 ]. In the ussr studies performed by Justin and colleagues, including this one, human white blood cells were isolated directly from whole human blood. Bachelor Thesis Criminology? The vast majority of the cell population isolated comprised PBMC cells (B and T lymphocytes).
The activity of K562 and Jurkat white blood cell lines were also investigated. However, in the Sakai study, the connecticut essays specific cells used were THP-1 human monocytic cells stimulated to differentiate into bachelor criminology macrophages. The Sakai study demonstrated that the current output from a BFC incorporating macrophages at the anode could be disrupted by stalin and the ussr essay application of NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as diphenylene iodinium (DPI). The current study described in this paper suggests; however, that other electron transfer processes may occur between the cell and the electrode. As demonstrated in bachelor thesis, this work, serotonin released from activated white blood cells is a likely mediator for electron transfer between the essays on research cells and the electrode. Despite confirmation of bachelor, this by employing electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and health insurance, HPLC for validation, it is difficult to dispute the possibility that NADPH oxidase is also active.
One of the reasons that our studies did not reveal CV redox peaks due to NADPH oxidase may have been due to NADPH oxidase not being as active among PBMCs compared to macrophages such as neutrophils and criminology, eosinophils. Only very low levels of macrophages would normally be isolated from healthy individuals, as was the case in essays methods in education, our study - a necessary requirement for Institutional Review Board (IRB) compliance. Therefore, the effect of NADPH oxidase activity specifically on criminology, the biofuel cell currents would not have been as predominant as culturing differentiated macrophages onto electrodes as performed by Sakai and colleagues. It is surprising that in finance, the work by Sakai and colleagues that a larger background current associated with serotonin was not observed. This suggests that serotonin may not be produced by the differentiated monocytes, unlike the phenomenon of release demonstrated by thesis the cells used in connecticut college worked, our studies. Thesis Criminology? Vastly different mechanisms of electron transfer for the specific white blood cells used in how to write article essay, the two studies are very likely. The idea of harvesting electrons from whole cells is not a new one. Previous studies performed by other researchers on microbial fuel cells suggested that under normal conditions, it is very difficult to achieve direct electron transfer between the cell membrane components of the microbes and an interfacing electrode [ 14 ]. An important reason for this is the bachelor criminology fact that the redox active groups are generally embedded within integral membrane proteins, resulting in methods, a significant energy barrier that increases with increased distance between electron donor and receptor pairs.
Electron tunneling between the membrane components and bachelor criminology, the electrode surface is further discouraged because of the thermodynamically unfavorable conditions surrounding the movement of and the ussr, free electrons through an aqueous solution. In order to overcome this challenge, many microbial fuel cell researchers employed electron mediators that were capable of shuttling electrons between the membrane-bound redox active components of the microbes and the electrode. Electron mediators such as neutral red [ 6 ] have previously been employed. The use of these electron mediators significantly increased the efficiency in electron transfer and thus the current output of the microbial fuel cells. A future goal in continuing the work described in bachelor criminology, this paper would be to explore means of enhancing the electron transfer efficiency of human leukocytes for enhancing current and power densities in implantable biofuel cell applications.
In this study, we proposed the development of a novel biological fuel cell that can utilize the body's own resources to generate electricity, through specific electrochemical interactions between cells and electrodes in close proximity. Connecticut College Essays? The motivation of criminology, this study is to develop a BFC that can be used to methods, power implantable medical devices, including micro- and thesis criminology, nano- biosensors for either therapeutic or physiological monitoring purposes. The study seeks to demonstrate that electron transfer between human white blood cells and an interfacing electrode can occur through any or all of three possible mechanisms: 1) direct electron transfer through membrane bound redox species (such as the flavocytochrome of NADPH oxidase); 2) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed non-metabolic biochemical species (e.g. serotonin); and 3) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed metabolically relevant biochemical species. Our results indicate that activated white blood cells can generate small electrical currents when introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, with ferricyanide in the cathode compartment. Cyclic voltammetry of the white blood cells reveal oxidation peaks at about 360 mV vs.
SCE. Peaks at this potential have been attributed to serotonin release. Essays On Research Methods? HPLC has been used to verify that human white blood cells release serotonin upon activation. Various white blood cell lines do not release serotonin, indicating that the isolated cells may uptake serotonin from the blood stream rather than metabolize it themselves. The authors would like to thank Dr. Bachelor? Harvey Borovetz and Dr. David Waldeck for their helpful thoughts and insights throughout the course of essays on research, this work. Special thanks also to the past and current members of the Laboratory for Computational Neuroscience (LCN) and thesis criminology, the Neural Tissue/Electrode Interface and Neural Tissue Engineering Laboratory at connecticut, the University of Pittsburgh.
This research was supported in part by the National Institutes of thesis criminology, Health grant No. R01EB002099, US Army SBIR W81XWH-05-C-0047, and how to write article, Computational Diagnostics, Inc. Bachelor Thesis? Authors' original submitted files for essays worked, images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. GJ performed the BFC current and criminology, potential measurements, electrochemical measurements and microdialysis and HPLC as well as drafted the accounting manuscript. YZ was responsible for culturing the cell lines. Thesis? XC helped in accounting finance, the design and implementation of the electrochemical experiments. CB helped in the design and bachelor thesis, implementation of the literature microdialysis and HPLC experiments.
MS and RS conceived of the study and participated in the design and coordination of the overall study. Bachelor Criminology? All authors helped to draft the manuscript and have read and approved the final manuscript. Admission Essays Worked? Sclabassi R, Liu Q, Hackworth S, Justin G, Sun M: Platform technologies to support brain-computer interfaces. Neurosurgery Focus 2006, 20: E5. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Justin G, Zhang Y, Cui X, Sun M, Sclabassi R: An Investigation of the Ability of White Blood Cells to Generate Electricity in Biofuel Cells. Proc of the IEEE 31st Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Hoboken, NJ 2005. Google Scholar Sun M, Justin G, Roche P, Zhao J, Wessel B, Zhang Y, Sclabassi R: Harnessing the Body's Own Energy and Communication Resources. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine: Clinical Engineering 2006, 39-46. Google Scholar Park D, Zeikus J: Improved Fuel Cell and Electrode Designs for Producing Electricity from Microbial Degradation. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2003, 81: 348-55.
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essay tempest Copyright Ian Johnston, Malaspina University-College, 1996. [The following is the text of a short lecture delivered, in part, in bachelor thesis Liberal Studies 302 on February 28, 1996] Today I wish to stalin ussr essay provide something of bachelor thesis a short introduction to accounting finance Shakespeare's Tempest, first, by acknowledging some of the interpretative richness of bachelor thesis this play and, second, by finance, proffering an approach which I find particular interesting and appealing. Then, we will have two other initial takes on the play, so that by bachelor, the end of these short lectures you should have a better idea of some of the ways in which one might begin to shape an interpretation.
Let me begin by acknowledging an interesting point about this play: interpretations of the Tempest tend to be shaped quite strongly by the particular background which the interpreter brings to it. This point sounds like a truism (and it is), but I simply want to point to the fact that this play, more so than many others, tends to bring out in interpreters what their particular interests are in thesis accounting finance a way that other plays often do not. At least that has been my experience. In part, this happens because this play puts a good deal of pressure on us to treat it allegorically, that is, to find a conceptual framework which will coordinate our understanding of what goes on in the play. I think we feel this mainly because there is little complex characterization in the Tempest (except perhaps for bachelor thesis criminology, the figure of Prospero himself) and there are many elements which we cannot simply account for by taking the connecticut college essays worked action naturalistically. So we want to know what they stand for: What exactly is Prospero's magic? What does Caliban represent? Is the bachelor thesis criminology island a representation of the new world or a world of the imagination or something else? And so on.
The answers to methods in education these questions, in my experience, tend to depend upon criminology the major interests of the person seeking to understand the play. So, for example, those, like me, with a strong interest in reading Shakespeare and a lively interest in theatrical productions of Shakespeare, tend to emphasize the extent to which the main focus in related the Tempest is on the nature of art and illusion, especially theatrical art. This tendency is powerfully reinforced by the fact that this play is almost certainly Shakespeare's last full work, that the Tempest is, in criminology effect, his farewell to the stage. No doubt there is a certain sentimentality in this view (certainly in my case there is). People with a strong interest in politics, however, often take a different slant, and see the play as having less to do with an exploration of theatre than with a probing artistic analysis of important political issues, especially those relevant to the oppression of the inhabitants of the new world or to the relationship between the intellectual and the political world. So, for example, the play has been presented as a statement about college admission worked colonial attitudes in the third world or as an exploration about the thesis role of the intellectual in post-glasnost Poland. Other interpreters dismiss those suggestions and see in methods the play a vital exploration of education (the nature versus nurture dispute) or theories of politics or knowledge or whatever. What we want to do today is give you a sample of three different short takes on thesis criminology, the play.
None of essays methods these will be elaborated at length, but the talks may provide some useful topics for thesis, the seminar groups to pursue. This lecture is thus the lead off in a trio of initial possibilities. The Tempest as an Exploration of the Nature of Art. I want to begin with a very obvious point. The Tempest is a very theatrical play, that is, it is obviously a wonderful vehicle for displaying the essays on research methods full resources of the theatre: action, special effects, music, dancing, storms, and so on. Anyone who wants a Shakespearean play to produce mainly as an extravagant theatrical tour de force (say, a rock and roll extravaganza or an opera) would turn naturally to this play, which is rivaled only by Midsummer Night's Dream in bachelor thesis criminology this respect. And a number of modern productions have stressed mainly that element, without bothering about anything else (McTheatre approach to on research methods the play).
That is clearly a legitimate approach; after all, a well delivered theatrical extravaganza can make a satisfying night of theatre. And it is bachelor thesis criminology, clear that The Tempest does depend for much of its effectiveness on a wide range of special effects- -sound, lighting, fantastic visions, a whole realm of connecticut college admission magic. But I think there's more to the theatricality of the bachelor thesis play than just its style. In my view, a central issue of the connecticut admission worked Tempest is an bachelor criminology exploration into the nature of theatre itself. To give you a sense of what I mean, let me mention two questions that puzzled me about this play when I first read it.
The first is this: If Prospero's power is so effective against how to his opponents as it appears to be, then why didn't he use it back in criminology Milan to avoid having to be exiled in the first place? And the second one, which arises naturally from that first one, is this: Given that Prospero is so keen on his magic and takes such delight in it and how to write article, that it gives him so much power, why does he abandon it before returning to Milan? I puzzled over these questions until I came to what seems to me the bachelor most satisfying answer. It is a very obvious one: the magic does not work in Milan; it is effective only on the island, away from the Machiavellian world of the court, where plotting against each other, even against one's own family, for related literature about thesis, the sake of political power is the order of the day and where, if you take your mind off the political realities for bachelor, very long, you may find yourself in a boat with a load of books heading to an unknown exile. Prospero's magic can only become effective in a special place, a world of spirits, of illusion, song, and enchantment, on a magic island--in other words, in the theatre. After all, look what happens in this play. A bunch of political types from the busy court of Naples and Milan are lured away from their power political business into and studies a world of thesis criminology illusion, where they are led around by strange powers (above all, music and apparitions) they do not fully comprehend but whom they cannot resist until they all come together inside Prospero's magic circle. Prospero controls the entire experiment through his ability to related about create and sustain illusions. He is bachelor criminology, throughout the master of the action, and related literature and studies, there is bachelor, never any suspense (well, almost none), since he has such absolute control of connecticut college admission human beings through his control of what they see and hear and experience.
If we accept this possibility as an interpretative metaphor, then we need to thesis criminology explore how that might make sense of other elements in the play. Remember that in literature and studies about such questions the Principle of Inclusiveness is an important guiding rule: the interpretation should make sense of as much of the play as possible, and in any conflict between rival interpretative possibilities one important criterion for judgment is the adequacy of each interpretation at providing a coherent and consistent sense of as much of the criminology play as possible. In order to admission worked pursue this idea of the Tempest as an exploration of the nature of theatrical art, I want to turn for a while to what happens in the play. C. Thesis. Prospero's Experiment. The Tempest, it is clear, features an experiment by related literature thesis, Prospero. He has not brought the Europeans to the vicinity of the bachelor thesis island, but when they do come close to it, he has, through the power of illusion, lured them into his very special realm. Finance. The experiment first of all breaks up their social solidarity, for criminology, they land in different groups: Ferdinand by himself, the court group, and Stephano and Trinculo by themselves. The magic leads them by separate paths until they all meet in the circle drawn by Prospero in front of literature about thesis his cave. There he removes the spell of the illusions; the bachelor thesis human family recognizes each other, and together they resolve to return to methods Italy, leaving behind the powers of the thesis magic associated with the essays island.
What is the thesis purpose of Prospero's experiment? He never gives us a clear statement, but it seems clear that one important element in connecticut college admission essays that purpose is Miranda. He wants to arrange things on her behalf, and of all the people in the play, her situation is the most transformed: she is going back to Europe a royal bride, filled with a sense of enthusiasm and joy at the prospect of criminology living among so many fine people in a society that, quite literally, thrills her imagination.. I'm going to come back later to consider the question whether Prospero's experiment is a success or not. But however we judge it, it seems clear that one great success is the marriage of Ferdinand and Miranda. The experiment brings them together, awakens their sense of wonder at the world and at write article essay, each other, and is sending them back to Milan full of the finest hopes for the world. Bachelor. These two young people carry with them the major weight of the optimistic comic hopes of the play's resolution. Another success in Prospero's experiment is the change of heart which takes place in Alonso. Prospero's actions bring Alonso face to face with his past evil conduct and prompt him to repent and reconcile himself with Prospero, even to the point of surrendering the article political power he took away so long ago. Moreover, we might want to argue that there's is the beginning of a similar change in Caliban, who at least comes to realize something of his own foolishness in resisting Prospero in bachelor thesis criminology favour of two drunken European low lifes. The most complex change in the play takes place within Prospero himself.
In considering his motives for undertaking the experiment, we cannot escape the sense that Prospero harbors a great deal of resentment about his treatment back in Milan and is never very far from wanting to methods exact a harsh revenge. Criminology. After all, he has it in his power significantly to injure the parties that treated him so badly. What's very interesting about this is that Prospero learns that that is not the appropriate response. And he learns this central insight from Ariel, the worked very spirit of illusion, who is not even human. Speaking of the fact that all of Prospero's enemies are now in his power and are painfully confused, Ariel says:
Ariel: . . . Thesis Criminology. if you beheld them now, your affections would become tender. Prospero: Does thou think so spirit? Ariel: Mine would, sir, were I human. Prospero: And mine shall. Hast thou, which art but air, a touch, a feeling. Of their afflictions, and admission worked, shall not myself,
One of their kind, that relish all as sharply. Passion as they, be kindlier mov'd than thou art? Though with their high wrongs I am struck to th' quick, Yet with my nobler reason `gainst my fury. Do I take part. The rarer action is. In virtue than in vengeance. (5.1. 18-28) This is bachelor thesis, a key recognition in the play: virtue expressed in literature about forgiveness is a higher human attribute than vengeance. And in criminology the conclusion of the play, Prospero does not even mention the list of crimes against him.
He simply offers to forgive and accept what has happened to him, in a spirit of reconciliation. Prospero's Magic as the World of the about health Theatre. It makes sense to me to see in criminology this Shakespeare's sense of his own art--both what it can achieve and what it cannot. The theatre--that magical world of connecticut admission worked poetry, song, illusion, pleasing and threatening apparitions--can, like Prospero's magic, educate us into criminology a better sense of ourselves, into a final acceptance of the world, a state in which we forgive and on research methods, forget in the interests of the greater human community. The theatre, that is, can reconcile us to the joys of the human community so that we do not destroy our families in a search for thesis criminology, righting past evils in a spirit of personal revenge. It can, in a very real sense, help us fully to understand the central Christian commitment to how to article charity, to bachelor thesis criminology loving our neighbour as ourselves. In the same way, Prospero's world can awaken the how to article essay young imagination to the wonder and joy of the human community, can transform our perceptions of criminology human beings into a brave new world, full of beauty, promise, and love, and excite our imaginations with the prospects of living life in the midst of our fellow human beings. In the world of the Tempest, we have moved beyond tragedy. In this world Hamlet and Ophelia are happily united, the write article old antagonists are reconciled. This is not a sentimental vision, an easily achieved resolution. Thesis. It takes time--in this case sixteen years--and a measure of faith in the human community that one is prepared to hold onto in the face of on research methods in education urgent personal demands.
This play seems to be saying that theatrical art, the magic of Prospero, can achieve what is bachelor, not possible in the world of Milan, where everyone must always be on guard, because it's a Machiavellian world ruled by the realities of thesis accounting finance power and bachelor, injury. But the play is not without its sobering ironies. And there is a good deal of discussion of just how unequivocal the celebration is at the end. Write Article Essay. For Prospero is no sentimentalist. He recognizes the silence of Sebastian and Antonio at the end for what it is, an indication that they have not changed, that they are going to return to Naples and Milan the same people as left it, political double dealers and ambitious and potentially murderous power seekers, just as Stephano and Trinculo are going back as stupid as when they left. Prospero's theatrical magic has brought them together, has forced them to see themselves, but it has had no effect on some characters (unless the staging of the end of the play conveys in non-verbal ways that the two noble would-be killers are as contrite as Alonso appears to be).
That's why in bachelor thesis acknowledging the most famous single line quotation from the about play, one needs also to examines the thesis criminology four words which immediately follow: Miranda: O brave new world. That has such people in't! Prospero: `Tis new to thee. Those four words of Prospero are wonderfully pregnant. In them he acknowledges his earned awareness into the nature of human beings, into the complexity of human life. But he is not about to deliver Miranda another sermon, for he knows that the sense of joyful and how to article essay, optimistic wonder which she, as a young woman, is carrying back to Italy is the world's best hope. It may be, as he well knows, naive, for thesis criminology, Miranda has, as yet, no sense of the evils that lurk back in the political world of the city.
She sees only the attractive exterior of her human surroundings with no sense yet of the potential deceptions within. But she is as well equipped as he can make her, and write, it is not up to him to sour her youthful enthusiasm with a more complex and less affirming mature reflection. That is something she is going to thesis discover in her turn. In fact, one might even argue that if Prospero's experiment is designed to make everyone better, then it's a failure in large part. And it may be that Prospero recognizes that fact. It is not unusual to stage this play in such a way that the conventional comic structure of the ending is seriously undercut by the sense of sadness in Prospero, who is returning to about health Milan to bachelor criminology die. I'm not pressing this interpretation. All I want to call attention to at this point is that the ending of this play may not be the stalin and the ussr unalloyed triumph of the comic spirit that we are tempted to see there. Prospero's sober awareness of what the silence of Sebastian and Antonio means qualifies our sense that the eternal problem of human evil has been solved.
One major interpretative decision any director of the play has to make concerns this ending. Just how evident and serious should those ironies be: non-existent, a light shadow under the communal joy, or a heavy reminder of what is in store back in Italy. Prospero's Farewell to the Stage. That's why, in the last analysis, Prospero has to surrender his magical powers. Life cannot be lived out in the world of illusions, delightful and educative as they can often be. Life must be lived in thesis criminology the real world, in Milan or in Naples, and in education, Miranda cannot thus entirely fulfill herself on bachelor criminology, the island. The realities of life must be encountered and dealt with as best we can. The world of the theatre can remind us of things we may too easily forget; it can liberate and encourage youthful wonder and excitement at all the diverse richness of life; it can, at times, even wake people up to more important issues than their own Machiavellian urge to self-aggrandizement, and, most important of all, it can educate us into forgiveness. But it can never finally solve the problem of evil, and it can never provide an acceptable environment for a fully realized adult life. Prospero, as I see it, doesn't start the play fully realizing all this.
He launches his experiment from a mixture of motives, perhaps not entirely sure what he going to health insurance do (after all, one gets the sense that there's a good deal of improvising going on). But he learns in the play to avoid the twin dangers to his experiment, the two main threats to the value of his theatrical magic. The first I have already alluded to, namely, to use of his powers for purposes of vengeance. Prospero, like Shakespeare, is a master illusionist, and thesis, he is tempted to how to write article channel his personal frustrations into his art, to exact vengeance against wrongs done in Milan through the power of his art (perhaps, as some have argued, as Shakespeare is doing for unknown personal reasons against women in Hamlet). But he learns from Ariel that to do this is to deny the moral value of the art, whose major purpose is to reconcile us to thesis criminology ourselves and our community, not to even the stalin and the essay score. The second great threat which we see in this play is that Prospero may get too involved in his own wonderful capabilities, he may become too much the showman, too proud of showing off his skill to bachelor attend to how to article the final purpose of what he is doing. We see this in the scene in bachelor thesis which Prospero puts on a special display of his theatrical powers for Ferdinand and Miranda--his desire to about health insurance show off makes him forget that he has more important issues to attend to, once again putting his art in the service of the social experiment. And it's interesting to note that it was his self-absorption in his own magic that got Prospero in trouble in the first place. There's a strong sense in this play, that whatever the powers and wonders of the illusion, one has to maintain a firm sense of thesis what it is for, what it can and cannot do, and where it is most appropriate. It can never substitute for or conjure away the complexities of life in the community.
This approach helps me to understand, too, the connecticut worked logic behind Prospero's surrender of his magic. He has done all he can do. Having wrought what his art can bring about, having reached the zenith of bachelor thesis criminology his skill, he has nothing left to achieve as an artist. He is going home, back to the human community, perhaps to die, perhaps to enjoy a different life, now able to appreciate more fully what he did not understand so long ago, the connecticut essays worked proper relationship between the world governed by magic and bachelor thesis, illusion and the world in which most of stalin and the ussr us have to live most of the time--the compromised world of politics, alcohol, buying and thesis, selling, family strife. Of course, it is critically illegitimate and no doubt very sentimental to link Prospero's giving up of his art with Shakespeare's decision to give up writing plays and to return to Stratford to enjoy life with his grandchildren. But it's a very tempting connection, especially in the light of the wonderful speech in 4.1, one of the most frequently quoted passages in the play, a speech which has come to connecticut worked be called Shakespeare's Farewell to the Stage. I'd like to bachelor thesis conclude by reading this speech, urging you to remember that Shakespeare's theatre, called the Globe, was destroyed by fire very soon after the Tempest was first performed (a facsimile is now being reconstructed on the banks of the Thames and will open next spring). Prospero: Be cheerful, sir. Our revels now are ended.
These our actors, As I foretold you, were all spirits and. Are melted into air, into essays on research thin air; And, like the baseless fabric of criminology this vision, The cloud-capp'd towers, the gorgeous palaces, The solemn temples, the great globe itself, Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, Leave not a wrack behind. We are such stuff. As dreams are made on, and our little life.
Is rounded with a sleep. Dreams may be the stuff of life, they may energize us, delight us, educate us, and reconcile us to each other, but we cannot live life as a dream. We may carry what we learn in the world of illusion with us into life, and perhaps we may be able, through art, to learn about how to deal with the evil in the world, including our own. And The. But art is not a substitute for life, and it cannot alter the bachelor fundamental conditions of the human community. Connecticut Worked. The magic island is bachelor criminology, not Milan, and human beings belong in Milan with all its dangers if they are to be fully human.
As I said at the start of this lecture, the above interpretation is just one possibility, and we are going to hear more; there are some sections of the play, particularly Prospero's treatment of Caliban, which this approach may not account for so successfully. Stalin Ussr Essay. But I find this approach particularly compelling, in large part, I suspect, because it makes such a wonderful conclusion to Shakespeare's total work. It seems an entirely fitting last word from the world's greatest dramatic poet, who leaves the sources of his power on the stage which he made famous, so that the last thing we see are the instruments of the most powerful theatrical magic and are left with the criminology question: Who will now arise to how to article essay claim them? The Careington Dental Plan with more than 5 million satisfied members - since 1979.