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Best Resume Format: The Ultimate Guide to of reasoned action essay PDF vs Word. Prescribing Of Controlled. Getting your resume ready can be confusing. There are many options and lots of conflicting advice. Theory Action Essay. What is the does in an essay best format for of reasoned your resume? Many job seekers wonder. Counselling Essays. Whether you’re purchasing resume services or creating your own resume using a template, it’s important to keep up with resume trends. Using the best resume format can mean the action essay difference between your resume getting the attention that leads to an interview or your resume getting ignored.

It's critical to use the right resume format to get results. In this article we provide the ultimate guide to PDF vs Word resume formats. We compare the pros and diamond conclusion cons of the two formats. We also discuss other common questions you might have about organizing your resume. For example, we’ll look at action essay what resume structure to use or whether to use a template. We’ll also touch upon the tools that are commonly used to create resumes. What Does Discuss Mean. PDF versus Word: What is the best resume format?

Are you ready? Let’s get started. What Recruiters Look for theory of reasoned in a Resume. To understand what recruiters look for in a resume, it’s important to first look at what usually happens to your resume after you submit it. Prescribing Substances In. While you may imagine a dedicated human resources professional carefully reviewing your resume and theory of reasoned action application as soon as you submit them, the ethical essays reality is often quite different.

In most medium to theory essay large companies, the first review of your resume is ethical framework essays, usually done by Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. ATS software scans your resume for keywords and experience the company is looking for. Resumes that don’t meet the defined criteria are rejected and don’t go any further in the application process. Action Essay. Resumes that match the criteria are ranked according to how closely they match. The higher the prescribing substances ranking, the more likely it is that your resume will be sent on to human HR professionals. So, your resume needs to do two things.

It needs to: pass through ATS software leave a good impression for human readers. Of Reasoned Essay. As you can see, ATS software plays an important role in substances in the recruiting process. Can you bypass a company’s ATS software and get your resume looked at by a human professional? The answer is. maybe.

If you’re applying to theory of reasoned action essay a job listing online or through the company’s website, odds are that your resume will pass through their ATS software. However, if you know someone in probation vs parole essay the company through networking, you may be able to bypass the ATS software. If your contact is theory action essay, willing to vouch for college essay you and send your resume directly to the hiring manager, you can often get your resume in front of a human without going through the ATS process. To learn more about how to make your resume attractive to a human recruiter, review this tutorial: In most cases, though, the theory action ATS software plays an important role in whether your resume is considered for probation vs parole essay a position. It’s important to use the best resume format to pass through an ATS software screening. PDF Resume Format vs Word Resume Format. You may wonder what resume format to use when applying for a position online. The number one rule is to read the job listing carefully and to follow any instructions in the listing.

If the theory listing says to blood diamond conclusion attach a resume in .docx format, use a Word resume format. If the listing asks applicants to attach a PDF file, use a PDF resume format. If the job listing asks you to cut and paste resume text into the body of an email (I’ve seen listings that request this), do it. Following instructions is important. But what if you have a choice? What if the online application form accepts resumes in various formats? Is one format better than the other? Let’s take a look at theory of reasoned action the pros and cons of the counselling framework PDF resume format versus the Word resume format. Of Reasoned Action. Here’s a handy table to help you compare the advantages of the two formats: Also, let's look at the disadvantages as well: As you can see, there are advantages and disadvantages to blood diamond essay both Word format resumes and theory PDF format resumes. Counselling Ethical. It’s a good idea to keep an up to date version of action, your resume in each format so that you can provide whatever a job opening requires.

You may be wondering about other resume formats. Here are some resume formats that are sometimes used: HTML - Some job-seekers design an HTML resume to show that they are web-savvy. They may even publish it on their own site. An advantage to this format is that employers can access it any time they want and the link can be shared during networking. RTF - To get around compatibility issues, some job applicants prepare their resumes in probation rich text format (RTF). Essay. While RTF is compatible with most platforms and ATS systems, it may leave you with limited formatting options. Discuss Mean In An Essay. Graphic Image - Another tactic to draw attention to of reasoned action essay your resume is to create a graphic image. It may be an infographic or other graphic design.

This is especially common for creative professionals. However, ATS systems may have difficulty recognizing the text in an image. A non-traditional resume works best when it is presented directly to a human who can review it. If you're planning on submitting a non-traditional resume format, it’s a good idea to also include a more traditional format as well. To learn more about creative resumes, study this tutorial: When looking for the best resume doc format that works with an blood essay conclusion ATS, keep in action essay mind that ATS software may not read text inside images. While some ATS systems will use optical character recognition (OCR) software to extract text from images, it isn't reliable. So, if you are submitting a resume into an online system, it's best to avoid using logos, photos, or other graphic images. You should also be careful when creating a PDF format resume. Essay. Some PDF format resumes are created by using a document scanner to create an theory action image of a paper resume. ATS software won't reliably scan this type of resume doc.

If you decide to use a PDF format resume, the best way to create it is through Word, InDesign, or another word processor using the counselling ethical framework essays export feature. While ATS software continues to improve with optical recognition, it's better to use actual text in theory of reasoned action essay your resume doc and to stick with easy to read, common fonts like Arial, Helvetica, Verdana, or Times New Roman. Headers and literature review essay footers in a document can also confuse the ATS. It’s best to avoid using them if you can. While resume format is important, so is how you organize your resume. This article would not be complete without an of reasoned essay overview of the various ways that you can organize your resume. How Should You Organize Your Resume?

There are basically four ways that you can organize your resume. What Does Discuss Mean. The four types of resume organization are: Chronological Resume - This resume format lists your current and action essay past jobs in probation the order that you had them. The most recent job is listed first and the oldest job is listed last. Functional Resume - Instead of listing your past jobs in the order that you had them, a functional resume lists your job skills. Combination Resume - A combination resume combines some of the theory of reasoned features of a chronological and functional resume.

Creative Resume - A creative resume is an unconventional resume structure which is designed to capture an employer’s attention. It could be a graphic, a chart, or even a website or video. Each type of review essay, resume organization is discussed in detail in these tutorials: When you suspect an of reasoned ATS will be scanning your resume, does it matter how it’s organized? It could. Ethical Framework Essays. Many career experts believe that using a non-traditional resume structure (such as a functional resume or a combination resume) could make it difficult for the software to find your employment information. If you don’t want your resume to of reasoned essay be rejected by ATS software, it’s best to save these resume structures for interviews and diamond conclusion networking. On the theory action other hand, a non-traditional resume format and organizational structure could give you an advantage at a small company or a startup where resumes are still being screened by humans. Here is ethical essays, a list of some other resume mistakes that could cause your resume to be rejected even after it has passed ATS screening: We’ve talked a lot about the theory of reasoned best resume format and how to prescribing organize your resume. Let’s discuss what tools you can use to create your resume. What is the theory essay Best Resume Creation Tool? If you’re creating a Word format resume, clearly Word is a good choice.

You may also be able to what discuss mean create your resume in another word processor and export it to a .docx format. If you decide to do this, review the exported resume carefully to make sure that your formatting remains consistent. Theory Of Reasoned Essay. Learn how to make a resume in Word: If you are creating a PDF format resume, you have other options including: One of the critical literature review essay advantages of using these tools to create your resume is that you have more graphic formatting options and greater flexibility. An Illustrator resume, a Photoshop resume, or an InDesign resume is more likely to impress human reviewers. Graphic artists and other creatives, in particular, need to pay special attention to of reasoned essay how their resume looks.

Employers who hire creatives often expect a more eye-catching creative resume format. Critical Review. Making a visually impactful resume, can also make you stand out from a crowd of applicants, when a person is reviewing resumes. If you don’t have time to design a professional-looking resume yourself, a resume template could be the answer. The right template can save you hours of design time. Theory Of Reasoned Essay. Most templates can be customized to your needs. You can find professional resume templates at Envato Market (GraphicRiver) that allow you to save the blood diamond conclusion resume in your choice of theory action, resume format: Word, PDF, and more. Critical Literature Review Essay. Here is a selection of some of our best creative resume templates: 25 Creative Resume Templates: To Land a New Job in Style.

15 Creative, Infographic Resume Templates. There are great for theory essay when you're emailing a contact for a new job at a startup, networking in person, or want to make a creative impression when applying. What is the essay writing Best Resume Format for You? Choosing the best resume format and deciding how to essay organize your resume can be confusing. There are several options available. It’s important to keep in mind who you are sending the resume to. With a little preparation, you can choose the right resume format for of controlled your needs. Theory. Use this article as a guide to answer your questions about the best resume format for your needs.

Here are some key points: Make You Resume Scannable - As you are creating your resume, remember that if you're applying to an online job listing it will likely be scanned by a machine using ATS software for keywords before it is reviewed by a human. Ensuring that your resume is in a format that is machine scannable can keep it from being rejected. Keep it Organized - The way that your information is organized on your resume is also important. Organize your information in literature review essay a way that makes sense for you, keeping in mind ATS software. Use the Right Tools - Using the right tool and template to theory of reasoned action essay create your resume can also help your resume to counselling have a more professional appearance.

A template can also save you hours of design time if you don’t have well-developed design skills. Have Multiple Resume Versions Ready - Many job-seekers create two versions of their professional resume. Consider creating one resume for online job applications and another for situations when you know that a human will review your resume. Follow Application Instructions - When applying to an online job listing, always follow the instructions for which resume format to use. Employers know which format they prefer and not following directions could cause your resume to be rejected.

You’re now ready to choose the best resume format for theory your needs. Whether you choose a PDF format resume or a Word format resume depends on you. Regardless of your choice, best wishes on your job hunt! Envato Tuts+ tutorials are translated into other languages by probation essay our community membersyou can be involved too!

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LIST OF IMPORTANT TOPICS FOR ESSAYS It is the critical list of those essays which has been asked in theory previous css exams . and intend to critical literature review b most important. By practicing those essays u can achieve robust grip in theory of reasoned essay . the following essays may not repeat but surely play crucial role to does mean essay enlarge idea that how a css essay paper formatted. 01. Dilemma of the water and energy crisis in Pakistan (2003) 02. Theory Action Essay? Art critics and reviewers (2003) 03. Alleviation of poverty (2005) 04. Persecuted poor women (2005) 05. 1912 , 1913 , 1916 1592 Words | 6 Pages.

t100 ESSAY AND JOURNAL TOPICS Ken Stewart Chapel Hill High School Chapel Hill, North Carolina Journal writing is an informal . approach to developing students’ writing skills. The assessment is primarily based on improvement and completing a minimum number of pages (5 pages skipping lines) by the established deadline. Prescribing Substances In? My feedback to students is focused on interaction with what they have written as opposed to theory correcting syntax or orthography. Literature Essay? Since this is a dialogue journal, I respect the theory of reasoned action confidential. High school , School , Secondary school 1529 Words | 4 Pages. Lord of the Flies Essay Topics Topic 1. Socio-political allegory * Thesis: William Golding uses . socio-political allegory in the Lord of the Flies to blood establish a microcosm reflecting the idea that governments are not fundamentally bad, but if they are maintained poorly, it can lead to the downfall of its people. Of Reasoned Essay? As it did within the diamond story when the island’s initial democratic government the children establish revolutionizes to dictatorship which inadvertently leads to the deterioration of civilisation. Allegory , Democracy , Dictatorship 1766 Words | 5 Pages. Jesmyn Ward's The Men We Reaped, is a heart-wrenching coming of age memoir and a mourning song, as she takes us on a journey through her . Theory Of Reasoned Action? childhood and upbringing in a poor Mississippi family.

We experience the violent, tragic, and blood diamond essay premature deaths in, a span of four years of five young men, all of of reasoned essay, whom she loved and cared for, to drugs, accidents, suicide, and the unfortunate disadvantages that follow many black men who live in severe poverty. Ward, while dealing with the diamond loss of the young men. African American , Black people , Coming of age 930 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay On Research Topic. ?Narrative Essay on Research Topic If I were terminally ill, would I want to be euthanized so that I would not suffer anymore?

In . a couple of states our country, including Oregon and Washington it is theory of reasoned action, legal to literature review essay die through euthanasia also known as assisted suicide. Oregon was the first state to pass this type of law, commonly known as the theory of reasoned Death with Dignity Act. This is a debatable topic because there is several pros and cons to both, which are either pro probation vs parole essay, life or pro of reasoned action, choice. Literature Review Essay? It is a topic the average. Core issues in essay ethics , Death , Euthanasia 1052 Words | 4 Pages. Topic 1 India is the second most populated country of this world. It has its own pros and cons. You need to express your own views over probation ‘Family . Planning in India’. Essay 1 Planning is of reasoned essay, a prerequisite for vs parole essay, solving any problem.

Our country, India, is facing an acute problem of increasing population. This problem has its root in the family -level and theory action essay the solution of ethical, this problem lies in family-planning. So, family planning should be mandatory in India. According to theory action essay the ‘Malthusian Theory’, population. Alcohol , Alcoholic beverage , Economy of the United States 2521 Words | 6 Pages. Thirteen Colonies and Essay Questions Topics.

Review Chapters 1-3 Day 1 Review (Monday) * Website review: themes and vs parole essay learning objectives from of reasoned, Chapter 1 * . * includes review Multiple choice and essay questions Topics to literature review essay review: * Summarize the changes in European society that led to the era of exploration between 1400 and 1700. Theory Of Reasoned? (pg. 9-12, 23-28) * Describe the Spanish Empire in the New World during the blood diamond essay conclusion 1500s. Include political, military. British America , Colonial history of the of reasoned essay United States , Colonialism 755 Words | 3 Pages. friendship was at college writing, its end. Of Reasoned? At this very day, I am still wondering as to what happened to critical essay our perfect friendship. I may never know the reason, however, I can . bring some clarity into theory of reasoned action my understanding of this discontinued friendship. Throughout this memoir , I will describe my friendship with Anthony, analyze it through many perspectives, and compare how I felt three years ago to my current feelings. About eleven odd years ago, a special friend came into my life by the name of probation, Anthony. I met him when.

Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Pizza 1215 Words | 4 Pages. supported by legit evidence otherwise it will be dismissed without the need to prove the asserted wrong. But what really is of reasoned action essay, evidence? There are different . types of what does discuss mean, evidence, depending what areas of knowledge you would look at. For the sake of this essay , the 2 areas of theory essay, knowledge i will be using are natural sciences and what discuss mean essay human science. In natural science, evidence is theory action essay, derived from using the literature review essay scientific method. Theory Of Reasoned? Scientific method focus on hypothesis, result gathering and explanation. While in Human sciences.

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Origins of a Memoir / Autobiography I’ve read a lot of memoirs , autobiographies, personal essays , collected . Theory Of Reasoned Action? letters, and autobiographical novels in my life, but this is the first time I’ve studied the memoir / autobiographical form as a genre. An interesting fact I learned right away was that the word “ memoir ” comes down to us from the Latin “memoria,” meaning memory or reminiscence, through the Anglo-French memorie in the mid-1500s, meaning “a note, memorandum, something written to counselling be kept in. Autobiographical novel , Autobiography , Biography 1438 Words | 4 Pages. High School and Persuasive Essay Topics. 101 Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay . Theory Of Reasoned Action? topic , ora teacher looking to assign a persuasive essay , this list of 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy withthe results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. Should students be allowed to critical essay have cell phones in action essay elementary and high schools. College , Education , Fast food 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Teacher: Year-round School and Argumentative Essay Topic.

If a student knows he wants to write an argumentative essay about a topic related to school in some way, here are some potential . ideas. Should School Uniforms be Mandatory? Communities across America continue to debate this topic . What Mean? There are plenty of reasons on action, both sides of the probation vs parole debate, so a student could argue either side and write a successful paper. Reasons for mandating school uniforms include the theory essay following: Fewer distractions (there will be no distracting clothing - nothing revealing. Education , Essay , High school 651 Words | 3 Pages. ?Mercedes Smith Greg Garner English 1101 11/19/2014 Gay Marriage Why do people care if homosexuals get married? Gay marriage should be legalized in . Georgia. Blood? Gay marriage is a highly talked about of reasoned action essay topic in this world. There are people out framework essays there that support gay marriage and there are also people out there that are totally against it. That is just everybody opinion, why does not matter if you are happy?

People should not judge others for liking the same sex as themselves. I am a firm believer. Bisexuality , Gay , Homosexuality 1267 Words | 5 Pages. Plan and write an essay in which you develop your point of theory action, view on the following issue. Support your position with reasoning and examples taken . from your reading, studies, experience or observations. Official Study Guide, Second Edition 1. Is it important to prescribing substances question the ideas and decisions of theory essay, people in positions of college essays essay, authority? 2. Of Reasoned Essay? Should people take more responsibility for probation essay, solving problems that affect their communities or the nation in general? 3. Can knowledge be a burden rather. Problem solving , Truth 1416 Words | 7 Pages. have too got responsibility with equal share.People needs to cooperate fully with government and should be sincere with their own country and put all their . Theory Of Reasoned Essay? energies for eradication of critical literature review, poverty.

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Fiction , Frankenstein , Frankenstein's monster 939 Words | 3 Pages. There are many presentation topics that college students can select. However, a successful presentation is determined by action essay, a number of factors, . What Discuss Mean In An? thus it is important for a student to understand that an interesting presentation topic will not be enough. Theory Of Reasoned Action Essay? To start with, students should be armed with the what necessary skills to create a captivating presentation. Using images in your college presentation Balance of graphics in your presentation is very important. Although images and theory of reasoned action essay beautiful fonts cannot. Coca-Cola , College , Decriminalization 724 Words | 3 Pages. the story. Memoir is real, memoir is true, and memoir can range from any end of the critical literature ocean in structure and theme. . I think there are many reasons why I like first person narratives.

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anime extended essay If you are a regular reader of this blog, you’ll know I’m all about finding systems and structures to make challenging things less challenging. Or, to put it more simply, I like to do things the easy way. To that end, I want to show you how to make a few tweaks to your average extended essay and earn top marks for it. The following are some advanced techniques that many International Baccalaureate (IB) extended essay supervisors might forget to share. Theory Action! And many aren’t aware of them. Before reading this blog post, I suggest reading my post on getting started with your extended essay. That article explains how to choose a good essay question, among other things. This article is about advanced techniques, the polish that can raise your grades (to a high B or an A). But if your foundation is off no amount of polishing is going to be enough. Literature Review! So again, make sure you get off to a good start.

By now your Extended Essay contains the best sources that you could get your hands on. Theory Of Reasoned! You’ve used them to analyze and draw conclusions. You’re satisfied with them. But you shouldn’t be. Even though you included the best information you could find (and you don’t want to look lazy) you should be the one (rather than your Extended Essay grader) to point out the weaknesses in your research. This defies common sense, but do it anyway. You might think this is rather like going to a job interview and pointing out why you’re a bad employee, but it’s not like that at all. Pointing out the weaknesses in your research shows that you know how to probation, improve next time (which impresses us) and it shows that you’re taking an of reasoned academic approach (you are able to be objective) rather than a self-conscious approach. Weaker students, students that haven’t put in my effort into their work, won’t want to do this because they know there are tons of weaknesses in their research. But if you’ve done a reasonable amount of work, using primary and secondary sources, it only helps you to be critical.

To help you with this, there is a great checklist you can use called Test Before You Trust (link here) to help you ask important questions about your sources (i.e. Is the site free of advertising? Is the site one-sided or balanced). You can use the probation essay questions as prompts for theory of reasoned, your Extended Essay writing. For example, Question 14 asks, “Are sources given for statistics?” If you answer no, you can write in your Extended Essay something like, “Article X was written in an academic way and it was available on a site that was free of advertising and writing, therefore perhaps less likely to be biased. However, the article did not provide the sources or raw data they used to calculate their statistics. So it is essay, not possible to verify their accuracy.” See? 2) Dip your toe into some real academic stuff. Of Controlled! Few high school students have ever used Google Scholar (their site for research, i.e. from university professors in your subject).

Why? Because it can be boring. I’ll give you that. However, it is very, VERY impressive when high school students can read and understand and theory of reasoned action essay, explain aspects of real academic articles. So try to counselling ethical framework essays, find just one that relates to of reasoned action, your Extended Essay, print it out, take a couple of does discuss essay, hours with, Wikipedia, and Google and try to figure out what the article’s talking about. And (intelligently) use a couple of quotes from it in your Extended Essay.

It’s perhaps worth asking your parents or an older sibling to help you track down this article, because finding one that directly relates to theory of reasoned action, your Extended Essay can be quite difficult (because you don’t yet know the meaning of all of the related key words). This might seem like a lot of work, but it sends a strong signal to your marker that you’re as serious as any university student. When you hear the word “proxy” you might think of VPN’s (Virtual Private Networks) that let you surf the web more freely. Proxy sources similarly allow you to essays, research a bit more freely. Let’s say your Extended Essay is of reasoned action essay, about the launch of a new organic lettuce in Singapore. You’ve looked around and there isn’t any data about lettuce in Singapore at of controlled, all. In this case, an of reasoned essay example of proxy research would be if you could find research on the sales of probation vs parole, organic cucumbers . Of Reasoned Action Essay! You can simply point out that no info on lettuce was available, and counselling ethical framework essays, that you’ve made an assumption that the market for both items is similar. And then you can go on to make all kinds of insights into the market for lettuce, using the cucumber data.

Proxies can be used (but rarely are actually used) in of reasoned action essay most Extended Essay’s. Even if you were able to find a lot of data, there is probably a way to use a proxy to strengthen your analysis. College Essays! 4) Become an expert on the Extended Essay criteria. This one is theory of reasoned action essay, self-explanatory. Just like on critical essay, all of of reasoned essay, your exams, if you want to earn the top marks, you need to what does discuss mean in an, get into the head of the examiners. -What impresses them? -What are they actually giving marks for? -Is it possible you (and your supervisor) have overlooked (or misinterpreted) one of the criteria? -Could you tweak one of your sections (i.e. your conclusion) to make sure you’re going to theory action, get full marks for it? Talk to your friends and parents and ethical essays, teachers and your turtle about this. In reality, different examiners are going to action essay, have slightly different interpretations of the college writing criteria. So if you really want the grade be as safe as possible.

Read the criteria a few times, looking for key words that some examiners might focus on and adjust your writing so it would satisfy any marker. (That’s easy for me to say. Obviously, it’s not completely possible to anticipate all different interpretations. So just do a little of this and essay, then go back to enjoying your life.) I’m about to recommend something shocking. Ready. “ You’re going to have to read your extended essay. ” I’m sorry. I know it’s really long. Every year I read Extended Essay’s that are just horrible.

They make almost no sense. They repeast themselves. They bring tears to my eyes and not in a good way my friend. As you read your Extended Essay take a pen to it and mark it up like you were me. -Find grammar and spelling mistakes. -Cross out superfluous writing. Could you say the same thing in counselling ethical essays fewer words?

Yes. This is always true of theory of reasoned essay, your writing. And for mine. Start by deleting most of your introduction, for example. And then look for times when you say things you’ve already said before. -Look for times when you used sources (even when it’s not for what does in an essay, a quotation) but you haven’t cited it. -You know what I’m saying here. Mark it like your teacher would mark it. Don’t think that this is your teacher’s job to of reasoned action essay, do this for you. In this case it’s really not.

We can’t give you line-by-line advice. Just general feedback. And even if you’re lucky enough to have a teacher who will give you a lot of feedback, you’re wasting their time and yours. It’s much better to hand in a well-written, edited piece of work so your teacher can focus on helping you with the smart (rather than the essay silly) mistakes you’ve made. 6) Read two Extended Essays that are better than yours. Exemplar Extended Essays (ones from previous years) are a great resource. You’d be crazy to not avail yourself of these. Look for anything they’ve done well that you could emulate. For example, have they structured their work in a clever way? Does their conclusion tie together the mini-conclusions they’ve made throughout the essay? If you're doing your EE in business my videos will take you through all the advice I give my students.

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cmu resume examples Software Development Magazine - Project Management, Programming, Software Testing. A Risk-Driven Model for Agile Software Architecture. This article is essay, excerpted from Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach [6], available in hardback or as an e-book from Critical Literature Review. 2010 George Fairbanks. Developers have access to more architectural design techniques than they can afford to apply. The Risk-Driven Model guides developers to do just enough architecture by essay identifying their project’s most pressing risks and applying only architecture and design techniques that mitigate them. The key element of the substances Risk-Driven Model is the promotion of risk to prominence. Theory Of Reasoned Action Essay. It is possible to apply the Risk-Driven Model to prescribing in essentially any software development process, such as waterfall or agile, while still keeping within its spirit. As they build successful software, software developers are choosing from alternate designs, discarding those that are doomed to theory of reasoned action fail, and preferring options with low risk of failure. Probation. When risks are low, it is easy to plow ahead without much thought, but, invariably, challenging design problems emerge and developers must grapple with high-risk designs, ones they are not sure will work.

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There is much active debate about this question and theory of reasoned action, several kinds of answers have been suggested: No up-front design. Developers should just write code. Design happens, but is coincident with coding, and happens at ethical essays the keyboard rather than in advance. Of Reasoned. Use a yardstick. For example, developers should spend 10% of their time on architecture and design, 40% on coding, 20% on ethical framework integrating, and 30% on of reasoned testing. Essay Conclusion. Build a documentation package. Developers should employ a comprehensive set of design and documentation techniques sufficient to produce a complete written design document.

Ad hoc. Developers should react to the project needs and decide on the spot how much design to of reasoned do. The ad hoc approach is perhaps the what mean in an essay most common, but it is also subjective and theory action, provides no enduring lessons. Avoiding design altogether is ethical essays, impractical when failure risks are high, but so is building a complete documentation package when risks are low. Using a yardstick can help you plan how much effort designing the architecture will take, but it does not help you choose techniques.

This article introduces the risk-driven model of architectural design. Its essential idea is that the effort you spend on designing your software architecture should be commensurate with the risks faced by your project. When my father, trained in theory action mechanical engineering, installed a new mailbox, he did not apply every analysis and design technique he knew. Instead, he dug a hole, put in a post, and #64257;lled the probation vs parole hole with concrete. The risk-driven model can help you decide when to theory action apply architecture techniques and when you can skip them. Where a software development process orchestrates every activity from requirements to deployment, the risk-driven model guides only architectural design, and can therefore be used inside any software development process. The risk-driven model is a reaction to counselling ethical a world where developers are under pressure to theory of reasoned essay build high quality software quickly and at reasonable cost, yet those developers have more architecture techniques than they can afford to apply.

The risk-driven model helps them answer the two questions above: how much software architecture work should they do, and conclusion, which techniques should they use? It is an approach that helps developers follow a middle path, one that avoids wasting time on of reasoned essay techniques that help their projects only a little but ensures that project-threatening risks are addressed by appropriate techniques. In this article, we will examine how risk reduction is central to all engineering disciplines, learn how to choose techniques to reduce risks, understand how engineering risks interact with management risks, and probation, learn how we can balance planned design with evolutionary design. This article walks through the ideas that underpin the risk-driven model. 1 What is the risk-driven model? The risk-driven model guides developers to apply a minimal set of architecture techniques to reduce their most pressing risks. It suggests a relentless questioning process: What are my risks?

What are the essay best techniques to reduce them? Is the risk mitigated and can I start (or resume) coding? The risk-driven model can be summarized in three steps: 1. Identify and prioritize risks. 2. Select and apply a set of techniques. 3. Essay Conclusion. Evaluate risk reduction.

You do not want to waste time on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means addressing risks by applying architecture and design techniques but only when they are motivated by risks. 1.1 Risk or feature focus. The key element of the risk-driven model is the promotion of risk to prominence. What you choose to of reasoned promote has an impact. Prescribing Of Controlled Substances In. Most developers already think about risks, but they think about essay lots of other things too, and prescribing of controlled, consequently risks can be overlooked.

A recent paper described how a team that had previously done up-front architecture work switched to a purely feature-driven process. The team was so focused on theory of reasoned delivering features that they deferred quality attribute concerns until after active development ceased and the system was in maintenance [1]. Essays Writing. The conclusion to draw is that teams that focus on features will pay less attention to other areas, including risks. Earlier studies have shown that even architects are less focused on risks and theory action, tradeoffs than one would expect [5]. 1.2 Logical rationale. But what if your perception of risks differs from college essay writing, others’ perceptions? Risk identi#64257;cation, risk prioritization, choice of techniques, and evaluation of theory action essay risk mitigation will all vary depending on who does them. Is the risk-driven model merely improvisation? No.

Though different developers will perceive risks differently and consequently choose different techniques, the risk-driven model has the discuss mean in an essay useful property that it yields arguments that can be evaluated. An example argument would take this form: We identified A, B, and C as risks, with B being primary. Theory Essay. We spent time applying techniques X and Y because we believed they would help us reduce the risk of B. What Discuss. We evaluated the theory of reasoned action essay resulting design and decided that we had sufficiently mitigated the risk of college essays writing B, so we proceeded on theory of reasoned action essay to coding. This allows you to answer the diamond essay conclusion broad question, How much software architecture should you do? by providing a plan (i.e., the techniques to apply) based on the relevant context (i.e., the perceived risks).

Other developers might disagree with your assessment, so they could provide a differing argument with the same form, perhaps suggesting that risk D be included. A productive, engineering-based discussion of the risks and of reasoned essay, techniques can ensue because the rationale behind your opinion has been articulated and substances, can be evaluated. 2 Are you risk-driven now? Many developers believe that they already follow a risk-driven model, or something close to it. Of Reasoned. Yet there are telltale signs that many do not. One is an inability to review list the risks they confront and the corresponding techniques they are applying. Any developer can answer the of reasoned action essay question, Which features are you working on? but many have trouble with the vs parole question, What are your primary failure risks and corresponding engineering techniques? If risks were indeed primary then they would #64257;nd it an easy question to answer. 2.1 Technique choices should vary. Projects face different risks so they should use different techniques. Some projects will have tricky quality attribute requirements (e.g., security, performance, scalability) that need up-front planned design, while other projects are tweaks to existing systems and entail little risk of failure.

Some development teams are distributed and so they document their designs for others to read, while other teams are collocated and can reduce this formality. When developers fail to align their architecture activities with their risks, they will over-use or under-use architectural techniques, or both. Examining the overall context of software development suggests why this can occur. Most organizations guide developers to follow a process that includes some kind of documentation template or a list of design activities. These can be beneficial and effective, but they can also inadvertently steer developers astray.

Here are some examples of well-intentioned rules that guide developers to activities that may be mismatched with their project’s risks. The team must always (or never) build full documentation for each system. The team must always (or never) build a class diagram, a layer diagram, etc. The team must spend 10% (or 0%) of the project time on theory action architecture. Such guidelines can be better than no guidance, but each project will face a different set of risks. It would be a great coincidence if the same set of diagrams or techniques were always the best way to diamond essay mitigate a changing set of risks. 2.2 Example mismatch. Imagine a company that builds a 3-tier system. The #64257;rst tier has the user interface and is exposed to the internet. Its biggest risks might be usability and security.

The second and third tiers implement business rules and persistence; they are behind a #64257;rewall. The biggest risks might be throughput and scalability. If this company followed the risk-driven model, the front-end and back-end developers would apply different architecture and design techniques to address their different risks. Instead, what often happens is action essay, that both teams follow the same company-standard process or template and produce, say, a module dependency diagram. The problem is that there is no connection between the of controlled in techniques they use and theory of reasoned action, the risks they face.

Standard processes or templates are not intrinsically bad, but they are often used poorly. Over time, you may be able to generalize the risks on what discuss mean essay the projects at your company and devise a list of of reasoned appropriate techniques. The important part is that the techniques match the risks. The three steps to risk-driven software architecture are deceptively simple but the devil is in the details. What exactly are risks and probation vs parole, techniques? How do you choose an appropriate set of of reasoned techniques? And when do you stop architecting and start/resume building?

The following sections dig into these questions in more detail. In the context of engineering, risk is commonly de#64257;ned as the chance of failure times the impact of that failure. Both the probability of failure and the impact are uncertain because they are difficult to critical literature measure precisely. You can sidestep the distinction between perceived risks and actual risks by bundling the of reasoned concept of uncertainty into ethical framework essays the de#64257;nition of action essay risk. The de#64257;nition of risk then becomes: risk = perceived probability of failure perceived impact. A result of this de#64257;nition is that a risk can exist (i.e., you can perceive it) even if it does not exist. Imagine a hypothetical program that has no bugs. If you have never run the program or tested it, should you worry about of controlled in it failing? That is, should you perceive a failure risk? Of course you should, but after you analyze and test the program, you gain confidence in it, and your perception of of reasoned action essay risk goes down. So by applying techniques, you can reduce the amount of uncertainty, and therefore the amount of (perceived) risk.

3.1 Describing risks. You can state a risk categorically, often as the lack of a needed quality attribute like modifiability or reliability. But often this is too vague to be actionable: if you do something, are you sure that it actually reduces the categorical risk? It is better to describe risks such that you can later test to see if they have been mitigated. Counselling Ethical Essays. Instead of just listing a quality attribute like reliability, describe each risk of failure as a testable failure scenario, such as During peak loads, customers experience user interface latencies greater than #64257;ve seconds. 3.2 Engineering and theory essay, project management risks. Projects face many different kinds of risks, so people working on a project tend to pay attention to the risks related to blood diamond essay conclusion their specialty. Project management risks. Software engineering risks.

Lead developer hit by theory of reasoned action essay bus The server may not scale to critical review essay 1000 users Customer needs not understood Parsing of the response messages may be buggy Senior VP hates our manager The system is working now but if we touch anything it may fall apart

Figure 1: Examples of project management and engineering risks. Action. You should distinguish them because engineering techniques rarely solve management risks, and vice versa. For example, the sales team worries about a good sales strategy and software developers worry about a system’s scalability. We can broadly categorize risks as either engineering risks or project management risks. Engineering risks are those risks related to the analysis, design, and implementation of the product. These engineering risks are in the domain of the engineering of the system. Project management risks relate to schedules, sequencing of vs parole essay work, delivery, team size, geography, etc.

Figure 1 shows examples of theory of reasoned action essay both. If you are a software developer, you are asked to blood diamond mitigate engineering risks and theory essay, you will be applying engineering techniques. The technique type must match the risk type, so only engineering techniques will mitigate engineering risks. Prescribing Of Controlled In. For example, you cannot use a PERT chart (a project management technique) to reduce the chance of buffer overruns (an engineering risk), and using Java will not resolve stakeholder disagreements. 3.3 Identifying risks. Experienced developers have an easy time identifying risks, but what can be done if the developer is less experienced or working in an unfamiliar domain?

The easiest place to theory of reasoned start is with the critical review essay requirements, in whatever form they take, and looking for of reasoned action essay, things that seem difficult to achieve. Misunderstood or incomplete quality attribute requirements are a common risk. Of Controlled. You can use Quality Attribute Workshops [2], a Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire [4], or something similar, to elicit risks and produce a prioritized list of failure scenarios. Even with diligence, you will not be able to identify every risk. When I was a child, my parents taught me to look both ways before crossing the street because they identified cars as a risk. It would have been equally bad if I had been hit by a car or by a falling meteor, but they put their attention on the foreseen and high priority risk. You must accept that your project will face unidentified risks despite your best efforts. 3.4 Prototypical risks. After you have worked in a domain for a while, you will notice prototypical risks that are common to most projects in that domain. For example, Systems projects usually worry more about theory of reasoned performance than IT projects do, and probation essay, Web projects almost always worry about theory of reasoned essay security. Complex, poorly understood problem.

Unsure we’re solving the real problem. May choose wrong COTS software. Integration with existing, poorly understood software. Domain knowledge scattered across people. Performance, reliability, size, security. Developer productivity / expressability.

Figure 2: While each project can have a unique set of risks, it is possible to critical literature review essay generalize by theory essay domain. Prototypical risks are ones that are common in a domain and are a reason that software development practices vary by domain. For example, developers on diamond essay conclusion Systems projects tend to use the highest performance languages. Prototypical risks may have been encoded as checklists describing historical problem areas, perhaps generated from architecture reviews. These checklists are valuable knowledge for essay, less experienced developers and a helpful reminder for literature essay, experienced ones. Knowing the prototypical risks in your domain is a big advantage, but even more important is realizing when your project differs from the norm so that you avoid blind spots. For example, software that runs a hospital might most closely resemble an IT project, with its integration concerns and complex domain types. However, a system that takes 10 minutes to of reasoned action reboot after a power failure is ethical essays, usually a minor risk for action, an IT project, but a major risk at a hospital.

3.5 Prioritizing risks. Not all risks are equally large, so they can be prioritized. Most development teams will prioritize risks by discussing the vs parole essay priorities amongst themselves. Of Reasoned Action Essay. This can be adequate, but the team’s perception of counselling framework essays risks may not be the same as the stakeholders’ perception. If your team is spending enough time on action essay software architecture for it to be noticeable in your budget, it is best to validate that time and money are being spent in prescribing substances in accordance with stakeholder priorities. Risks can be categorized on action essay two dimensions: their priority to stakeholders and their perceived difficulty by developers. Be aware that some technical risks, such as platform choices, cannot be easily assessed by stakeholders.

This is the prescribing of controlled substances same categorization technique used in ATAM to prioritize architecture drivers and quality attribute scenarios [3]. Formal procedures exist for cataloging and prioritizing risks using risk matrices, including a US military standard MILSTD882D. Formal prioritization of risks is appropriate if your system, for theory of reasoned, example, handles radioactive material, but most computer systems can be less formal. Applying design or architecture pattern. Breaking point test.

Figure 3: A few examples of engineering risk reduction techniques in software engineering and other #64257;elds. Counselling Ethical Framework. Modeling is commonplace in all engineering #64257;elds. Once you know what risks you are facing, you can apply techniques that you expect to reduce the risk. The term technique is quite broad, so we will focus specifically on software engineering risk reduction techniques, but for theory of reasoned essay, convenience continue to use the simple name technique. Figure 3 shows a short list of prescribing of controlled substances in software engineering techniques and techniques from other engineering #64257;elds.

4.1 Spectrum from analyses to solutions. Imagine you are building a cathedral and you are worried that it may fall down. Theory Essay. You could build models of various design alternatives and diamond conclusion, calculate their stresses and action, strains. Alternately, you could apply a known solution, such as using a #64258;ying buttress. Both work, but the former approach has an analytical character while the latter has a known-good solution character. Techniques exist on a spectrum from pure analyses, like calculating stresses, to pure solutions, like using a #64258;ying buttress on a cathedral. Other software architecture and design books have inventoried techniques on critical literature the solution-end of the of reasoned action spectrum, and call these techniques tactics [3]or patterns [12,7], and include such solutions as using a process monitor, a forwarder-receiver, or a model-view-controller. The risk-driven model focuses on techniques that are on the analysis-end of the spectrum, ones that are procedural and independent of the review essay problem domain. These techniques include using models such as layer diagrams, component assembly models, and of reasoned action, deployment models; applying analytic techniques for performance, security, and reliability; and leveraging architectural styles such as client-server and pipe-and-#64257;lter to achieve an emergent quality. 4.2 Techniques mitigate risks.

Design is a mysterious process, where virtuosos can make leaps of reasoning between problems and solutions [13]. For your process to vs parole essay be repeatable, however, you need to make explicit what the virtuosos are doing tacitly. Theory Of Reasoned Action. In this case, you need to prescribing of controlled in be able to explicitly state how to choose techniques in response to theory risks. Today, this knowledge is mostly informal, but we can aspire to creating a handbook that would help us make informed decisions. It would be #64257;lled with entries that look like this: If you have a risk, consider a technique to probation vs parole reduce it. Such a handbook would improve the repeatability of designing software architectures by encoding the knowledge of virtuoso architects as mappings between risks and techniques. Any particular technique is good at theory of reasoned reducing some risks but not others. In a neat and orderly world, there would be a single technique to address every known risk.

In practice, some risks can be mitigated by multiple techniques, while others risks require you to invent techniques on the #64258;y. This frame of mind, where you choose techniques based on essay risks, helps you to work efficiently. You do not want to waste time (or other resources) on theory of reasoned essay low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means only applying techniques when they are motivated by probation risks.

4.3 Optimal basket of techniques. To avoid wasting your time and money, you should choose techniques that best reduce your prioritized list of action essay risks. You should seek out critical literature essay opportunities to theory of reasoned essay kill two birds with one stone by applying a single technique to mitigate two or more risks. You might like to college essay writing think of it as an action optimization problem to blood essay conclusion choose a set of techniques that optimally mitigates your risks. It is action essay, harder to decide which techniques should be applied than it appears at #64257;rst glance. Every technique does something valuable, just not the of controlled valuable thing your project needs most. For example, there are techniques for improving the usability of your user interfaces. Imagine you successfully used such techniques on your last project, so you choose it again on your current project. You #64257;nd three usability #64258;aws in your design, and theory of reasoned action essay, #64257;x them. Does this mean that employing the usability technique was a good idea?

Not necessarily, because such reasoning ignores the opportunity cost. The fair comparison is against the other techniques you could have used. If your biggest risk is that your chosen framework is inappropriate, you should spend your time analyzing or prototyping your framework choice instead of on usability. Your time is scarce, so you should choose techniques that are maximally effective at reducing your failure risks, not just somewhat effective. 4.4 Cannot eliminate engineering risk. Perhaps you are wondering why we should try to create an college essay optimal basket of essay techniques when we should go all the way and eliminate engineering risk. Essays. It is tempting, since engineers hate ignoring risks, especially those they know how to theory of reasoned address.

The downside of trying to eliminate engineering risk is time. Counselling Ethical Essays. As aviation pioneers, the of reasoned action essay Wright brothers spent time on essays essay mathematical and empirical investigations into essay aeronautical principles and thus reduced their engineering risk. But, if they had continued these investigations until risks were eliminated, their #64257;rst test #64258;ight might have been in 1953 instead of 1903. The reason you cannot afford to eliminate engineering risk is because you must balance it with non-engineering risk, which is predominantly, project management risk. Consequently, a software developer does not have the option to apply every useful technique because risk reductions must be balanced against time and cost. 5 Guidance on choosing techniques.

So far, you have been introduced to the risk-driven model and have been advised to does mean essay choose techniques based on your risks. You should be wondering how to make good choices. In the future, perhaps a developer choosing techniques will act much like a mechanical engineer who chooses materials by of reasoned essay referencing tables of college essays properties and making quantitative decisions. For now, such tables do not exist. You can, however, ask experienced developers what they would do to mitigate risks. Theory. That is, you would choose techniques based on their experience and your own. However, if you are curious, you would be dissatis#64257;ed either with a table or a collection of advice from software veterans.

Surely there must be principles that underlie any table or any veteran’s experience, principles that explain why technique X works to essay mitigate risk Y. Such principles do exist and we will now take a look at of reasoned essay some important ones. Here is a brief preview. First, sometimes you have a problem to #64257;nd while other times you have a problem to prove, and of controlled, your technique choice should match that need. Second, some problems can be solved with an analogic model while others require an analytic model, so you will need to differentiate these kinds of models. Third, it may only be ef#64257;cient to theory action essay analyze a problem using a particular type of model.

And #64257;nally, some techniques have affinities, like pounding is suitable for nails and twisting is suitable for screws. 5.1 Problems to #64257;nd and prove. In his book How to Solve It, George Polya identifies two distinct kinds of math problems: problems to essays #64257;nd and problems to prove [11]. The problem, Is there a number that when squared equals 4? is a problem to #64257;nd, and you can test your proposed answer easily. On the other hand, Is the set of of reasoned action prime numbers in#64257;nite? is a problem to essay writing prove. Of Reasoned Essay. Finding things tends to essays be easier than proving things because for proofs you need to of reasoned action demonstrate something is true in all possible cases. When searching for a technique to address a risk, you can often eliminate many possible techniques because they answer the counselling ethical framework wrong kind of Polya question. Theory Essay. Some risks are specific, so they can be tested with straightforward test cases. What Does Discuss Essay. It is easy to imagine writing a test case for Can the theory action essay database hold names up to 100 characters? since it is prescribing in, a problem to #64257;nd. Similarly, you may need to theory of reasoned design a scalable website. This is also a problem to probation vs parole essay #64257;nd because you only need to design (i.e., #64257;nd) one solution, not demonstrate that your design is optimal.

Conversely, it is theory of reasoned essay, hard to imagine a small set of counselling framework essays test cases providing persuasive evidence when you have a problem to theory action essay prove. Consider, Does the system always conform to essay the framework Application Programming Interface (API)? Your tests could succeed, but there could be a case you have not yet seen, perhaps when a framework call unexpectedly passes a null reference. Another example of theory action a problem to prove is deadlock: Any number of tests can run successfully without revealing a problem in a locking protocol. 5.2 Analytic and analogic models. Michael Jackson, crediting Russell Ackoff, distinguishes between analogic models and analytic models [8,9].

In an analogic model, each model element has an analogue in the domain of interest. A radar screen is an ethical framework essays analogic model of some terrain, where blips on the screen correspond to airplanes - the blip and theory essay, the airplane are analogues. Analogic models support analysis only prescribing of controlled in, indirectly and usually domain knowledge or human reasoning are required. A radar screen can help you answer the question, Are these planes on a collision course? but to do so you are using your special purpose brainpower in the same way that an out#64257;elder can tell if he is in position to catch a #64258;y ball. An analytic (what Ackoff would call symbolic) model, by contrast, directly supports computational analysis. Mathematical equations are examples of analytic models, as are state machines.

You could imagine an analytic model of the airplanes where each is represented by a vector. Mathematics provides an theory of reasoned essay analytic capability to relate the critical literature review vectors, so you could quantitatively answer questions about action essay collision courses. When you model software, you invariably use symbols, whether they are Uni#64257;ed Modeling Language (UML) elements or some other notation. You must be careful because some of those symbolic models support analytic reasoning while others support analogic reasoning, even when they use the counselling ethical framework essays same notation. For example, two different UML models could represent airplanes as classes one with and theory essay, one without an what mean in an essay attribute for the airplane’s vector. The UML model with the vector enables you to of reasoned compute a collision course, so it is an analytic model. The UML model without the vector does not, so it is an analogic model. So simply using a de#64257;ned notation, like UML, does not guarantee that your models will be analytic. Architecture description languages (ADLs) are more constrained than UML, with the intention of nudging your architecture models to be analytic ones. Whether a given model is analytic or analogic depends on the question you want it to answer. Literature Essay. Either of the theory action UML models could be used to count airplanes, for example, and probation vs parole, so could be considered analytic models.

When you know what risks you want to theory of reasoned mitigate, you can appropriately choose an analytic or analogic model. For example, if you are concerned that your engineers may not understand the relationships between domain entities, you may build an analogic model in UML and prescribing of controlled substances in, confirm it with domain experts. Of Reasoned Essay. Conversely, if you need to calculate response time distributions, then you will want an analytic model. 5.3 Viewtype matching. The effectiveness of prescribing of controlled in some risk-technique pairings depends on the type of model or view used. Theory Action Essay. The module viewtype includes tangible artifacts such as source code and classes; the runtime viewtype includes runtime structures like objects; and the allocation viewtype includes allocation elements like server rooms and hardware. It is substances, easiest to theory of reasoned action essay reason about modifiability from the module viewtype, performance from the runtime viewtype, and security from the deployment and module viewtypes. Each view reveals selected details of counselling framework a system. Theory Action. Reasoning about a risk works best when the college essay writing view being used reveals details relevant to that risk.

For example, reasoning about a runtime protocol is easier with a runtime view, perhaps a state machine, than with source code. Similarly, it is theory action, easier to reason about single points of failure using an allocation view than a module view. Despite this, developers are adaptable and will work with the resources they have, and essay, will mentally simulate the other viewtypes. For example, developers usually have access to theory of reasoned action the source code, so they have become quite adept at imagining the runtime behavior of the code and where it will be deployed. While a developer can make do with source code, reasoning will be easier when the counselling ethical risk and of reasoned action essay, viewtype are matched, and the view reveals details related to the risk. 5.4 Techniques with affinities. In the literature essay physical world, tools are designed for a purpose: hammers are for pounding nails, screwdrivers are for turning screws, saws are for cutting. Theory Action. You may sometimes hammer a screw, or use a screwdriver as a pry bar, but the results are better when you use the tool that matches the review essay job. In software architecture, some techniques only go with particular risks because they were designed that way and it is difficult to theory of reasoned use them for another purpose. For example, Rate Monotonic Analysis primarily helps with reliability risks, threat modeling primarily helps with security risks, and queuing theory primarily helps with performance risks. The beginning of this article posed two questions.

So far, this article has explored the #64257;rst: Which design and architecture techniques should you use? The answer is to does mean in an essay identify risks and choose techniques to combat them. The techniques best suited to one project will not be the ones best suited to another project. But the mindset of aligning your architecture techniques, your experience, and the guidance you have learned will steer you to theory of reasoned action essay appropriate techniques. We now turn our attention to the second question: How much design and what does mean in an essay, architecture should you do?

Time spent designing or analyzing is time that could have been spent building, testing, etc., so you want to get the balance right, neither doing too much design, nor ignoring risks that could swamp your project. 6.1 Effort should be commensurate with risk. The risk-driven model strives to efficiently apply techniques to theory reduce risks, which means not over-or under-applying techniques. To achieve efficiency, the risk-driven model uses this guiding principle: Architecture efforts should be commensurate with the substances risk of action failure.

If you recall the blood story of my father and the mailbox, he was not terribly worried about the theory action mailbox falling over, so he did not spend much time designing the solution or applying mechanical engineering analyses. Essays Writing. He thought about the design a little bit, perhaps considering how deep the theory of reasoned hole should be, but most of his time was spent on implementation. When you are unconcerned about security risks, spend no time on security design. Blood Diamond Conclusion. However, when performance is a project-threatening risk, work on it until you are reasonably sure that performance will be OK. 6.2 Incomplete architecture designs.

When you apply the risk-driven model, you only design the areas where you perceive failure risks. Most of the time, applying a design technique means building a model of some kind, either on paper or a whiteboard. Consequently, your architecture model will likely be detailed in theory of reasoned action essay some areas and sketchy, or even non-existent, in others. For example, if you have identified some performance risks and no security risks, you would build models to address the performance risks, but those models would have no security details in review essay them. Still, not every detail about performance would be modeled and decided. Remember that models are an intermediate product and you can stop working on theory them once you have become convinced that your architecture is suitable for addressing your risks.

6.3 Subjective evaluation. The risk-driven model says to prioritize your risks, apply chosen techniques, then evaluate any remaining risk, which means that you must decide if the risk has been sufficiently mitigated. But what does sufficiently mitigated mean? You have prioritized your risks, but which risks make the cut and which do not? The risk-driven model is of controlled in, a framework to theory of reasoned essay facilitate your decision making, but it cannot make judgment calls for what does discuss essay, you. It identifies salient ideas (prioritized risks and corresponding techniques) and guides you to ask the right questions about your design work. By using the theory essay risk-driven model, you are ahead because you have identified risks, enacted corresponding techniques, and kept your effort commensurate with your risks. But eventually you must make a subjective evaluation: will the probation essay architecture you designed enable you to overcome your failure risks? About the article. This article is excerpted from Chapter 3 of the action essay book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach [6], available in hardback or as an e-book from

2010 George Fairbanks. [1] Muhammad Ali Babar. An exploratory study of architectural practices and challenges in using agile software development approaches. Joint Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture 2009 European Conference on Software Architecture 2009, September 2009. [2] Mario R. Barbacci, Robert Ellison, Anthony J. Lattanze, Judith A. What Mean Essay. Stafford, Charles B. Weinstock, and William G. Wood. Quality attribute workshops (qaws), third edition. Technical report, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 2003. [3] Len Bass, Paul Clements, and Rick Kazman.

Software Architecture in Practice. Of Reasoned Essay. AddisonWesley, second edition, 2003. [4] Marvin J. Carr, Suresh L. Konda, Ira Monarch, F.Carol Ulrich, and what mean in an essay, Clay F. Walker. Taxonomy-based risk identi#64257;cation. Technical Report CMU/SEI-93-TR-6, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, June 1993. [5] Viktor Clerc, Patricia Lago, and Hans van Vliet. The architect’s mindset.

Third International Conference on Quality of Software Architectures (QoSA), pages 231– 248, 2007. [6] George Fairbanks.#9;Just Enough Software Architcture: A Risk-Driven Approach. Marshal and action, Brainerd, 2010. E-book available from [7] Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and of controlled in, John Vlissides. Theory Of Reasoned Action. Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software (Addison-WesleyProfessional Computing Series). Addison-Wesley Professional, 1995. [8] Michael Jackson.

Software Requirements and Speci#64257;cations. Addison-Wesley, 1995. [9] Michael Jackson. Problem Frames: Analyzing and college essays essay writing, Structuring Software Development Problems. Addison-Wesley, 2000. [10] Henry Petroski. Design Paradigms: Case Histories of Error and Judgment in Engineering. Cambridge University Press, 1994. [11] George Polya. How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method (Princeton Science Library). Princeton University Press, 2004.

[12] Douglas Schmidt, Michael Stal, Hans Rohnert, and Frank Buschmann. Pattern-Oriented Software Architecture Volume 2: Patterns for Concurrent and Networked Objects. Wiley, 2000. [13] Mary Shaw and David Garlan. Software Architecture: Perspectives on an Emerging Discipline.

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Essay Ideas: Theory of Reasoned Action

can i write a report How to Write a Good Report. Bhaskaran Raman, Apr 2004. This short document describes how to write a good report. This is based on of reasoned action, common mistakes I have observed over a period of time. While most of the college following apply in general, they have been written with BTech/MTech/PhD students in mind. The comments below apply for course projects, other semester projects, technical reports, theses (BTech/MTech/PhD). That is, technical writing in general. While a google search on the topic may churn out many hits, the following is theory essay, tailored for does discuss in an essay IIT (Kanpur) students in particular. I will first mention some general guidelines, then the structure of the report.

Towards the end, I will also describe how to refine your writing, and how to give feedback on others' writing. Based on these, I will recommend a possible strategy for producing high-quality reports which have high potential for being published . These are some general things you should know before you start writing. Theory Of Reasoned Action Essay. I will try to answer the ethical framework questions of the purpose of report writing, and the overall approach as well. Purpose of a report: writing to be read. A key thing to keep in mind right through your report writing process is that a report is written to be read , by someone else.

This is the theory essay central goal of college essays essay writing, report-writing. A report which is written for the sake of being written has very little value. Before you start writing your report, you need to theory essay have in mind the diamond intended audience . In the narrowest of possibilities, your report is meant for reading by yourselves, and by theory of reasoned action essay, your advisor/instructor, and perhaps by your evaluation committee. This has value, but only blood essay, short-term. The next broader possibility is that your report is readable by your peers or your juniors down the line.

This has greater value since someone else can continue on your work and improve it, or learn from your work. Theory Of Reasoned Action Essay. In the vs parole best case possibility, your report is of reasoned, of publishable quality. That is, readable and useful for the technical community in general. Overall approach: top-down. Take a top-down approach to writing the report (also applies to critical essay problem solving in general).

This can proceed in roughly three stages of continual refinement of details. First write the section-level outline, Then the of reasoned action essay subsection-level outline, and essay conclusion Then a paragraph-level outline. Of Reasoned. The paragraph-level outline would more-or-less be like a presentation with bulleted points. It incorporates the flow of ideas. Once you have the paragraph-level flow of prescribing in, ideas, you can easily convert that into a full report, by writing out the flow of ideas in full sentences. While doing the paragraph-level outline, think also about (a) figures, (b) tables, and (c) graphs you will include as part of the report at various stages.

You will find that many things can be better explained by using simple figures at appropriate places. Another thing to theory of reasoned nail-down while doing the paragraph-level outline is the terminology you will be using. For instance, names of various protocols/algorithms/steps in your solution. Or names/symbols for mathematical notation. The overall approach also includes multiple stages of refinement, and taking feedback from blood others (peers/advisor/instructor). I will talk about these in more detail after talking about the of reasoned essay overall report structure. Structure of a report. The following should roughly be the structure of a report. Note that these are just guidelines , not rules . You have to use your intelligence in working out the critical essay details of your specific writing.

Title and abstract: These are the most-read parts of a report. Action Essay. This is how you attract attention to your writing. The title should reflect what you have done and should bring out any eye-catching factor of your work, for good impact. The abstract should be short, generally within about 2 paragraphs (250 words or so total). The abstract should contain the essence of the report, based on which the reader decides whether to go ahead with reading the report or not.

It can contain the following in varying amounts of essays essay, detail as is appropriate: main motivation, main design point, essential difference from previous work, methodology, and some eye-catching results if any. Introduction: Most reports start with an introduction section. This section should answer the following questions (not necessarily in that order, but what is given below is a logical order). After title/abstract introduction and conclusions are the of reasoned essay two mainly read parts of a report. What is the setting of the problem? This is, in other words, the background . In some cases, this may be implicit, and in some cases, merged with the motivation below. What exactly is the counselling ethical framework essays problem you are trying to solve? This is the problem statement . Why is the problem important to solve?

This is the motivation . In some cases, it may be implicit in the background, or the problem statement itself. Is the theory action essay problem still unsolved? The constitutes the statement of of controlled substances in, past/related work crisply. Why is the problem difficult to solve? This is the statement of challenges . In some cases, it may be implicit in the problem statement. In others, you may have to say explicitly as to why the problem is worthy of a BTech/MTech/PhD, or a semester project, as the theory of reasoned action essay case may be. Probation Vs Parole. How have you solved the problem?

Here you state the essence of your approach . This is of course expanded upon later, but it must be stated explicitly here. What are the conditions under which your solution is applicable? This is a statement of assumptions . What are the theory of reasoned action essay main results? You have to present the main summary of the results here. What is the summary of your contributions? This in some cases may be implicit in the rest of the introduction. Sometimes it helps to state contributions explicitly. How is the rest of the report organized? Here you include a paragraph on the flow of ideas in the rest of the report. Ethical Essays. For any report beyond 4-5 pages, this is a must. The introduction is action essay, nothing but a shorter version of the rest of the counselling ethical essays report, and in action essay many cases the rest of the report can also have the same flow.

Think of the rest of the report as an expansion of some of the points in the introduction. Which of the above bullets are expanded into separate sections (perhaps even multiple sections) depends very much on the problem. Background: This is of controlled, expanded upon into a separate section if there is sufficient background which the general reader must understand before knowing the details of your work. It is usual to state that the reader who knows this background can skip this section while writing this section. Past/related work: It is common to of reasoned have this as a separate section, explaining why what you have done is something novel. Here, you must try to think of dimensions of comparison of your work with other work. Counselling Ethical. For instance, you may compare in terms of functionality, in terms of performance, and/or in terms of approach. Even within these, you may have multiple lines of theory, comparison -- functionality-1, functionality-2, metric-1, metric-2, etc. Although not mandatory, it is good presentation style to give the above comparison in terms of a table ; where the literature review rows are the various dimensions of theory, comparison and the columns are various pieces of probation essay, related work, with your own work being the first/last column. See the related work section of action, my PhD thesis for an example of college writing, such a table :-).

While in general you try to play up your work with respect to of reasoned action others, it is also good to identify points where your solution is not so good compared to others. If you state these explicitly, the reader will feel better about them, than if you do not state and the reader figures out the flaws in your work anyway :-). Another point is with respect to counselling ethical essays the placement of related work. One possibility is to of reasoned action place it in the beginning of the report (after intro/background). Another is to place it in blood diamond essay conclusion the end of the theory action essay report (just before conclusions). This is a matter of judgment, and depends on the following aspect of your work. If there are lots of past work related very closely to your work, then it makes sense to state upfront as to probation what the difference in your approach is. On the other hand, if your work is of reasoned action essay, substantially different from past work, then it is better to put the related work at the end. While this conveys a stronger message, it has the risk of the reader wondering all through the report as to how your work is what mean, different from some other specific related work.

Technical sections: The main body of the report may be divided into multiple sections as the case may be. You may have different sections which delve into different aspects of the problem. The organization of the report here is problem specific. You may also have a separate section for statement of design methodology, or experimental methodology, or proving some lemmas in a theoretical paper. The technical section is the most work-specific, and hence is the least described here. Theory Of Reasoned. However, it makes sense to mention the ethical following main points: Outlines/flow: For sections which may be huge, with many subsections, it is theory of reasoned essay, appropriate to have a rough outline of the section at the beginning of that section. Make sure that the flow is maintained as the reader goes from one section to another. There should be no abrupt jumps in ideas.

Use of figures: The cliche a picture is worth a thousand words is appropriate here. Spend time thinking about writing pictures. Theory Of Reasoned Essay. Wherever necessary, explain all aspects of a figure (ideally, this should be easy), and do not leave the reader wondering as to ethical what the connection between the figure and the text is. Terminology: Define each term/symbol before you use it, or right after its first use. Stick to a common terminology throughout the report. Results: This is part of the set of technical sections, and of reasoned essay is usually a separate section for experimental/design papers. You have to answer the following questions in this section: What aspects of your system or algorithm are you trying to evaluate?

That is, what are the questions you will seek to answer through the evaluations? Why are you trying to evaluate the above aspects? What are the prescribing of controlled cases of comparison? If you have proposed an algorithm or a design, what do you compare it with? What are the performance metrics? Why? What are the parameters under study? What is the experimental setup? Explain the choice of every parameter value (range) carefully. What are the results?

Finally, why do the results look the way they do? The results are usually presented as tables and graphs. In explaining tables and graphs, you have to explain them as completely as possible. Identify trends in the data. Does the data prove what you want to establish? In what cases are the results explainable, and in what cases unexplainable if any? While describing a table, you have to describe every row/column. Of Reasoned Essay. And similarly while describing a graph, you have to describe the x/y axes. If necessary, you have to probation vs parole essay consider the use of of reasoned action essay, log-axes. If you are presenting a lot of results, it may be useful to summarize the main take-away points from all the data in critical review a separate sub-section at the end (or sometimes even at the beginning) of the results section. Future work: This section in some cases is combined along with the conclusions section.

Here you state aspects of the problem you have not considered and possibilities for further extensions. Conclusions: Readers usually read the title, abstract, introduction, and conclusions. In that sense, this section is quite important. You have to theory of reasoned essay crisply state the main take-away points from essay your work. How has the theory of reasoned action reader become smarter, or how has the college essays essay world become a better place because of your work?

No report is perfect, and definitely not on the first version. Well written reports are those which have gone through multiple rounds of refinement . Action Essay. This refinement may be through self-reading and critical analysis, or more effectively through peer-feedback (or feedback from prescribing substances in advisor/instructor). Here are some things to remember: Start early, don't wait for the completion of your work in its entirety before starting to write. Each round of feedback takes about a week at least. And hence it is good to have a rough version at least a month in of reasoned essay advance. Given that you may have run/rerun experiments/simulations (for design projects) after the first round of feedback -- for a good quality report, it is good to critical essay have a rough version at theory of reasoned action essay least 2 months in advance. Feedback should go through the following stages ideally: (a) you read it yourself fully once and revise it, (b) have your peers review it and give constructive feedback, and then (c) have your advisor/instructor read it. Feedback: evaluating someone else's report. Evaluation of a report you yourself have written can give benefits, but it usually is limited. Even in a group project, it is not good enough to diamond conclusion have one person write the report and the other person read it.

This is because all the group members usually know what the project is about, and hence cannot critique the paper from outside. It is theory of reasoned essay, best to take feedback from your peer (and of course return favours!). The feedback procedure is counselling essays, quite simple. The one reading has to critically, and methodically see if each of the essay aspects mentioned above in the structure of the report are covered. Essays. It may even help to have a check-list, although with experience this becomes unnecessary.

Check if the of reasoned action title/abstract make sense, are effective/eye-catching. Are all the relevant questions answered in the introduction? Is the counselling ethical framework overall structure of the rest of the of reasoned action sections meaningful? Is the difference from related/past work crisp and meaningful? Are the technical sections understandable? Are the figures/tables explained properly? Is the terminology clear? Are the symbols used defined appropriately? Are the results explained properly? Are the conclusions drawn from the graphs/tables sound? Or are there technical holes/flaws?

Do the results show how the work presented is better/worse that the other cases of comparison? When I give feedback on a peer's report or a student's report, I usually take a print-out and mark-up at various points in the paper. You may follow a similar procedure, or something suited to you. Be as critical as possible, but with the view that your peer has to improve his/her work, not with the view of putting him/her down. Your comments have to be impersonal. Likewise, while taking feedback from a peer, take the comments on their technical merit. Recommended strategy for producing a high-quality report. Based on the above, I recommend the following strategy for students who want to produce a high-quality report, which would then have a high potential for being turned into a publication: Think through the outline of the report even as you are working on the details of the problem.

Such thinking will also lend focus to diamond conclusion your work and you will end up optimizing the returns on theory of reasoned, the time invested. Two months before the actual deadline, you have to have at least a paragraph-level outline of the report, with all details worked out. After one round of critical analysis by yourselves (or by your group), have another student or another group review it, perhaps in probation vs parole essay exchange for you reviewing their work. Have them check your flow of ideas. While it may be good to get someone working in the same area, for much of the feedback, this may not really be necessary. Theory Of Reasoned Action Essay. Now you are probably about probation vs parole 6-7 weeks from the deadline.

At this point, have your advisor/instructor give feedback on the paragraph-level outline. Getting this early is important since, based on this, you may have to reorganize your report, rework your theorems, or rerun your experiments/simulations. Have a pre-final version of the report ready 2 weeks before the deadline. Again, go through one round of self/peer-feedback, and then advisor/instructor feedback. Action Essay. With these 3-4 rounds of revision and does discuss critical analysis, the essay quality of your report is bound to improve. And since many of the student theses are of good quality, quality of literature essay, writing dramatically improves chances of publication.

Bhaskaran Raman Last modified: Mon May 15 11:04:13 IST 2006.