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Ashbourne College#039;s Psychology Blog. Q1. Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of de montaigne sparknotes aggression (e.g. social learning theory, deindividuation) • Social learning theory= originated from work of Gabriel Tarde (1912) Learning= relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience. • Classical behaviourism= direct experience (classical/operant conditioning)/ • Neo-behaviourism= indirect/vicarious experience (observational) • Theory claims we learn aggression primarily through observation of schaum's guide to writing papers significant people around us= Modelling people who are similar (age/sex) or higher status (parent/teacher) Key characteristics of Imitation: 1. Behaviour of role models. 2. Copying behaviour of a higher status. 3. Degree of michel sparknotes contact with role model. 4. Degree of light research understanding of the behaviour. • Tarde= these are ways social behaviour and responses could be influenced by the actions of others. • Tarde combines both logic of social/cognitive psychology in social cognitive perspective of human behaviour-= behaviour motivated by michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, inherent psychological factors/ socio-environmental factors: • Individual and paper, social environment linked= reciprocal determinism. SLT consists of four basic processes: 1. Attention= observation- watching the de montaigne sparknotes behaviour. 2. Diderot? Retention= cognitive process schema- storing the behaviour. 3. Reproduction= behaviour- copying behaviour. 4. Motivation= state- having reason for displaying behaviour. • SLT= helps in explaining inconsistencies of de montaigne essays aggressive behaviour=where we learn to act/or not- be aggressive depending on different situations/contexts e.g. Schaum's Guide To Writing Papers? aggressive + domineering at de montaigne essays, home/ meek + submissive at work. Makes Happy? • Explanation of michel SLT based on research= ‘Bobo doll studies’ KEY STUDY-Bandura, Ross and great research papers, Ross (1961) Experiment firstly involved: 72 child participants= different groups of children: experimental group –witnessed adult model kick/punch Bobo doll/ control group- witnessed non-aggressive behaviour = After- different groups were put into de montaigne, the toy room with Bobo doll- their behaviour was observed.
They found children who had witnessed aggressive behaviour were more likely to show aggression. Experiment had a well-defined way of coding the behavioural responses of the children to guide, a measurable outcome. Laboratory research- artificial setting/lacks ecological validity. Children’s behaviour- may have produced demand characteristics (wanting to ‘please the experimenter’) Confidentiality- names of those involved maintained private- but films widely available on internet of experiment suggest compromise of confidentiality. Lack of informed consent- parents/guardians of children were not fully informed + children would have been unaware they were being filmed. Study has face validity to explain children copying through imitating role models/ the media influence on essays aggression- such as influence of behaviour from t.v. personalities/ celebrities: e.g. two boys (aged 10/11) murdered young boy Jamie Bulger-watched horror/violent film ‘Child’s Play 3’ before the murder. Thesis Options? Bandura’s research focuses society’s attention on the power of the media- in areas of aggression and other related areas e.g. health (anorexia/bulimia) Criticism of michel de montaigne sparknotes imposed etic/generalisibility- by assuming that processes of benefits of learning a foreign language essay learning are the same for people in all countries/cultures universally. Cultural bias= Bandura: a western researcher working in a western society.
Deterministic approach- to suggest child would passively absorb the essays observed behaviour and imitate it without logical thought for the implication of it. Process of decreased self-assessment/ awareness- in situations where individual identification is difficult/impossible= e.g. child with a toy mask/individual football supporter amidst a large crowd of supporters/individual in essay blindness a crowded music arena. Situations were individual identification is restricted ensures changes in the normal standards of de montaigne sparknotes behaviour/ inhibitions are lowered- Singer, Brush and Lublin (1965): Group situation-Inhibitions reduced- Change in thesis client site normal standards of behaviour/anti-social behaviour: Milgram (1964/1965) study of the michel de montaigne essays situational determinants of destructive obedience= found participants were more likely to give higher levels of electrical shocks when they could not see/be seen by their victim. Similar to this study: Zimbardo (1969)- study showed the guide to writing great papers effect of reduced inhibitions: He used female undergraduate participants in michel de montaigne essays sparknotes a ‘study of learning’. Rubric For College Paper? The female participants play teacher/ a stooge is used to de montaigne, play student. ‘Student’ has to complete a set of tasks/ if completed wrongly= teacher gave electric shock to ‘student’. Half the participants wore large laboratory coats/hoods to cover their faces/never referred to benefits of learning, by name= deindividuated group. De Montaigne Essays? Other group wore their normal clothes/given large name tags/ introduced to each other formally. Schaum's Quick Research Ebook? All participants could see ‘student’/were told she was either ‘honest’ or ‘conceited/critical’.
Irrespective of description- deindivuated participants gave twice as many shocks of de montaigne essays individuated ones. Gender bias- can’t generalise findings universally when only rubric for college term, female participants were used. Lacks ecological validity- artificial setting- actions may not be in accordance to sparknotes, real-life situation. Ethical issues- concerning psychological effects of experiment on participants. Diener (1979) = naturalistic observation of 1,300 ‘trick-or- treating’ children in the U.S. found that children in large groups/wearing costumes- more likely to perform anti-social actions e.g. stealing money/sweets. – the rubric term paper group ‘reduces the possibility of personal identification’- behaviour may deviate from normal moral standards Limitations: Fundamental problem of michel de montaigne sparknotes this theory= doesn’t provide explanation for light paper the fact- not all crowds/groups perform aggressive actions: Evidence linked to deindividuation and anti-social behaviour- but evidence also suggests deindividuation may lead to ‘prosocial’ behaviour= Gergen et al. (1973)- study in de montaigne sparknotes which lowered levels of in august individuation didn’t result in michel de montaigne aggressive actions= in a dark room – most participants were involved in intimate contact/at least half cuddled/ about 80% of the group felt sexually aroused. Saying aggression is caused by lowering one’s inhibitions is of learning a foreign essay, narrow/deterministic: Postmes and Spears (1998)= meta-analysis of over 60 studies investigating deindividuation= no consistent research to support argument- reduced inhibitions/anti-social behaviour more likely to be seen in large groups/crowded situations where anonymity is maintained. = They suggest behaviour change of individuals in large groups- more influence from michel de montaigne sparknotes ‘group norms’. Relating this theory to groups e.g. football hooliganism is thesis client site options, too stereotypical: Marsh et al. Michel? (1978)= found what might appear to diderot, be an anti-social group actually consist of several different groups-with different places in the status ‘hierarchy’/ aggression was highly ritualised rather than physically violent. Evaluation: Challenges: Runciman (1966)= argues aggressive behaviour could be due to one’s relative deprivation- perceived difference between what you have and what you think you should have.
Dollard et al. (1939) = argues aggression is the result of frustration building up (psychoanalysis)/ presence of environmental cues (behaviourism) that signal aggressiveness. Social theories don’t take into sparknotes, account potential biological factors influencing aggression= genetic/bio-chemical or neuro-anatomical causes. Q2. Outline and evaluate research relating to group display of for college term aggression in humans. Essays? Psychologists /sociologists interested in how crowds operate. 2 disciplines differ in how they explain crowd disorder: Sociologists focus on role of the media as ‘amplifier’ of anti-social behaviour.
Psychologists more concerned about factors within group that lead to anti-social behaviour. Freud: mindset of an individual in a crowd different form that of an individual on their own= merging minds/sharing the same opinion/inhibitions reduced. Methodological flaws: didn’t follow hypothetico-deductive method. Influence from the group: Freud criticised – idea ‘group’ had a soul of what makes happy its own: Le Bon (1896)= ‘pathological’ viewpoint: Crowd behaviour the result of individuals’ personalities. Michel De Montaigne Essays? Atmosphere of a group causes contagion- ‘group members fall under the term influence of a collective mind’ Group members are suggestible/views of group/imitating others ‘group mind’ Blummer (1939)= circular reaction causes individuals to reproduce behaviours/emotions-which intensifies/amplifies. Convergence theory/ emergent norm theory. Motive behind group behaviour- convergence upon a specific location by like-minded individuals e.g. football crowd. De Montaigne Essays? Turner and Killian (1957)= crowd behaviour as such is ‘normless’- individual has no norms to follow they base behaviour on essay blindness diderot others around them. The distinctive behaviour- governs behaviour of the group/ taken on as he norm of the group. Convergence theory= View dictates that crowds aren’t a passive group of people- they#8217;re a logically thinking mass of individuals View doesn’t help to de montaigne essays, explain unpredictable crowd behaviour- because its governed by the norms identified/ accepted by the group. Theory focuses more on how individuals are rational/ the light paper formation of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes crowd/ behaviour can be seen as rational/logical – more focused on irrational forces- contrasts to contagion theories.
Emergent norm theory= Doesn’t take into account non-verbal processes that occur in crowds- incomplete. Criticised for not explaining how norms might emerge. Berk (1974)= behaviour that looks irrational (crowd running out of building) may be rational (building on fire) Value-added theory- Neil Smelser (1963)= • Certain prerequisites (situations/conditions) are needed in in august research paper order for a group /social movement to develop: stages he suggested were: Stage 1. Structural conduciveness- social situations/conditions must allow for michel de montaigne sparknotes collective action. Stage 2. Rubric For College? Structural strain- parts of social system don’t function effectively. Sparknotes? Stage 3. Growth/spread of generalised belief- shared view assigns casuses/determines a response/action. Essay Blindness? Stage 4. Precipitating factors- collective belief strengthened search for alternatives gathers pace. Stage 5. Mobilising the collective for action- leaders/workers emerge hierarchy of order is established. Stage 6. Reaction of agencies of social control- attempt to interfere the collective operation. Smelser argues social life/processes we follow within it affect how individuals behave= If society offers incentives/rewards that the michel de montaigne essays individual is interest in- they may not think carefully about how they achieve the goal.
Value-added theory= Ethnocentric/lacks ecological validity/generalisibility= Provides a theoretical point-of-view based upon Smelser’s own ‘Western industrialised’ educational/socio-economic background- so not accounting for important cultural differences. Makes People Happy? Logical theory- but doesn’t take into account the complexities of crowd behaviour- theory difficult to test- Berk (1974) – “crowd events occur with great speed, are difficult to anticipate#8230;” Elements from these theories can help to explain crowd behaviour- Hockling (1982) With groups e.g. Sparknotes? lynch mobs= Zimbardo (2007)= argues dehumanisation is crucial to understanding ‘man’s inhumanity to man’: Inhuman aggression of lynch mobs in USA- torture/violent murder of black people was not seen as a crime against humanity- it was seen across USA as a result of blindness black people’s stigmatisation as ‘niggers’ so they weren’t seen as individuals= Ginzberg (1988) Most theories fail to acknowledge actions of positive crowd behaviour- Cassidy et al. (2007)=investigated crowd celebrations: Mela (1 month long Hindu festival): crowds behaved well/increased generosity/support. Shows how crowd behaviour/ collective living can promote good/ non-aggressive behaviour/ a strong sense of common identity/close proximity- beneficial instead of being causal factor for de montaigne subsequent harm. Q3. What Makes Happy? Outline and evaluate studies relating to biological explanations of human aggression.
Assumption that aggression is caused by internal factors (rather than external) Influences summarised as: Biochemical influences: hormones; the de montaigne neurotransmitter serotonin. What People? Brain structure influences. Aggression is the by-product of complex internal physiological processes. Researchers approached investigation of genetic factors in aggression primarily through twin and adoptions studies= to try and establish whether aggression- a product of inherited characteristic (nature) or environmental influences (nurture) KEY STUDY- Rhee and Waldman (2002)- Meta-analysis of 51 twin and adoption studies = 87,000 individuals. Anti-social behaviour operationalised in de montaigne essays terms of: Psychiatric diagnoses-e.g. Essay Blindness? anti-social personality disorder. Calculated= genetic component of anti-social behaviour across the studies- approx. 40% Environmental contribution approx.
60% Self-report used in meta-analysis- limits reliability= as differences found as: Self-report individuals = assessed genetic component at 39%/ individuals assessed by another person= 53% Difficult to separate genetic/environmental effects in twin studies- MZ twins have more similar environmental experiences. Specific genes cause aggression- such as= Sandberg (1961)-identified (scientifically known as) the 47 XYY karyotype. Michel? Court-Brown’s research (1965 and 1967)- found that of a sample of 314 patients- those with XYY would be ‘best hospitalised due to an increased likelihood of light in august research aggressive behaviour’= statement not substantiated with evidence. Media encouraged the belief XY phenomenon with films – XYY man/ Alien 3= limits potential for explaining aggression due to its deterministic focus. Aggression passed through genetic transmission- looked at through animal studies.
Nelson (2006)- noted selective breeding experiments can lead to more aggressive behaviour in animals. Theory supported by de montaigne essays sparknotes, Cairns (1983)- in study of mice. Observational animal research has= Methodological issues: Evidence helps researchers to create more informed models. Difficult generalising findings from animals to humans/ no alternative-using humans in genetic research seen as unethical. Artificial settings/lacks ecological validity- to how aggression might occur in a real-life setting. Difficult to separate influence of biological genetic factors (nature) from environmental upbringing (nurture)- as extraneous variables could be causing aggression- unreliable. She examined personality traits of a sample-XYY men compared these to a sample of XY men and XXY men(thought to be more feminine) Focused on levels of aggressiveness between 2 groups. Essay Blindness Diderot? Found= in de montaigne essays sparknotes all occurrences of benefits of learning language essay X (about 1 in essays sparknotes every 1,000) only essay blindness diderot, characteristic of height seemed to be linked to the XYY condition. De Montaigne Sparknotes? Levels of aggressiveness between groups fluctuated-= no definite conclusion could be drawn.
Basic measure of comparing XYY to rubric for college, XY male inmates in prison/ comparing evidence to general population= lacks validity. XYY research= found no consistent link between genotype/aggressive nature. Sparknotes? Using thematic apperception testing= showed XYY tend to give more aggressive/ less anti-aggressive interpretations of images- compared to XY men. Theilgaard concluded= issue is too complex- XYY men might seem to be more aggressive/ but tendencies didn’t mean they would perform aggressive acts/ resulting in prison. Hormones influence many parts of our lives: Court cases have shown that hormonal fluctuation-woman’s pre-menstrual tension can be used as grounds for claims of temporary insanity- to reduce a charge of makes happy murder to manslaughter= R v Smith (1979) 3 All ER 605,611 (CA) Nelson (1995)- reviewed research into how hormones influence aggressive behaviour= seems to be a positive correlation between level of androgens circulating in the body and aggressive behaviour in female/male prisoners. Levels of michel de montaigne essays androgens not measured a precise point when aggressive act performed. Testosterone= androgen produced by Leydig cells in male testes/in adrenal cortex= release of hormone is rhythmic following natural circadian rhythm. Schaum's Great Papers Ebook? Increased levels of essays sparknotes testosterone associated with increased levels of aggression= e.g. Essay Diderot? during puberty aggression increases when androgen levels are higher. Wagner, Beuving and Hutchinson (1979)= show if a male mouse is castrated- levels of aggression reduce/ if mouse receives testosterone aggression levels increase.
Research graph correlating the number of biting attacks compared to the mouse (pre-castration=post-castration=given 150 microgm/day of testosterone) results show positive trend- increase in the number of michel sparknotes biting attacks with increase of testosterone= post-castration/given testosterone. Rubric Term Paper? Research correlational- cannot establish cause+ effect= androgens encourage aggressive behaviour but- they could encourage social dominance/ impulsiveness/ competition. Pillay (2006)- high testosterone levels can be desirable for athletes= given link to de montaigne sparknotes, high levels of competition/athlete’s need for quick to writing research papers more muscular bodies. “testosterone is only one myriad of factors that influence aggression and the effects of essays environmental stimuli have at times been found to makes people happy, correlate more strongly” Other environmental factors e.g. temperature/noise/overcrowding have an influential role in showing aggressive behaviour. Huston et al (2007)- basal model of de montaigne essays sparknotes testosterone= more testosterone/ more competitive/dominant. Mazur and benefits of learning language, Booth (1998)- reciprocal model of testosterone= testosterone levels vary with person’s dominance.
It is the effect not cause. Study= 2,100 air force veterans- over 10 year period- four medical examinations Methodological issues: No peer review- essential in validity of research. Longitudinal study- increased amount of data. Using veterans- unable to essays sparknotes, generalise findings- aggression could be influenced by makes people happy essay, external factors e.g. memories of the michel essays war/ or psychological factors= post-traumatic stress disorder. Serotonin neurotransmitter important in the control of blindness aggression= low levels of serotonin- less able to michel sparknotes, control impulsive/aggressive behaviour= Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine- 5HT)= Lenard (2008)- “low serotonin levels in the brain can result in impulsive behaviour/aggression/overeating/depression/alcohol abuse/violent suicide”. Normal levels of serotonin exerts a calming/inhibitory effect in a foreign the brain. = Cases (1995) Serotonin + aggression. Davidson, Putnam and Larson (2000)= suggested role of serotonin-‘inhibitory function’ of aggressive tendencies: Compared violent criminals to non-violent= low levels of serotonin in sparknotes violent criminals. Animal research supports this= in mice- serotonin 1B receptor not functioning-found increase in term paper aggressive behaviour.
Tame domestic animals have higher levels of serotonin. Russian researchers looked at silver foxes (animals have been tamed by humans- more than 30yrs)= Found= all had higher levels of serotonin/5-HIAA. De Montaigne? Summers et al (2005)= observed that globally acting serotonergic drugs do modify aggressive behaviour- but cannot be singularly identified as the only cause of activity in term paper regions of the michel de montaigne brain- that could have serotonergic effects on aggression. Mann et al. (1990) = administered drug (known to deplete serotonin levels in the brain) to 35 healthy adults. Found= among males (but not females)- hostility/aggression levels increased after treatment with the drug. Study of the negative relationship between serotonin/aggression- correlational- doesn’t establish cause+ effect relationships. Ethical issues: when using human participants-research must look after (not use) – to further understand/make better our human existence.
Neurotransmitters on their own-out of context to the wider physiology of the brain-ignore influence of brain structure on demonstrating aggressive behaviour. Brain structure/damage. Hypothalamus/amgydala associated with aggressive responses: Bard and Mountcastle (1953)- looked at what makes people, ‘rage’ in cats caused by detachment of higher/lower brain through lesioning= Concluded: hypothalamus initiates aggressive behaviour/cerebral cortex reduces behaviour. Flynn (2006)- found stimulating= lateral hypothalamus in cats- more likely show ‘predatorial aggression’. = medial hypothalamus-more likely to show ‘vicious attack behaviour’. Amgydala= in 1930’s-careful lesioning of amgydala of aggressive animals showed taming effect.= harming/causing dysfunction to animal is de montaigne sparknotes, unethical. Amgydalectomy- in humans reduces violent behaviour- but emotion is lost. Brain injury/damage to brain can alter the processing of information/ causes aggression. Frontal cortex closely connected to hypothalamus/amgydala- damage often show: impulsive behaviour/irritability/ short temper/easily provoked.
Phineas Gage- railway worker- a tamping iron- entered left side of his face= passed through jaw/up+ behind left eye/ exited through top of his head- he survived for 11 years after: Noticeable changes in persona- formerly quiet/hard-working/shrewd character turned to very negative/aggressive individual – after result of brain injury. Convincing- but case study- one person- generalisibility limited/ relying on accuracy of medical notes made in 1868 by schaum's quick to writing great ebook, Harlow (Gage’s physician). Evidence supports the idea that the michel de montaigne sparknotes Amygdala- has influential effect on essay diderot mediating aggressive responses. Animal studies- cats/rats/hamsters- show neural processed surrounding amgydala functioning= can explain aggressive changes in behaviour. Difficult to generalise- animal studies to humans- human brain more complex than many animals. Potegal et al. (1994)= argue generalisation between animals and humans should be more viable- human/animal differences are qualitative ( i.e. basics the same/ details different): Underlying neural circuitry related to emotional expression seems more similar- allowing for more avenues of generalisation. Blair et al. Sparknotes? (2001) = shows in cases – humans hospitalised for psychopathic tendencies- often caused by damage to amgydala. Supported by various findings in non-human animals.
Biological explanations are reductionist as it ignores: Influence of culture in aggressive behaviour- socialisation- (e.g. Site Options? Arapesh tribe= Mead (1935) Aggression learned through observation of various forms of media- Freedman (2002) Situational factors- e.g. temperature/overcrowding/noise • Showing of aggression may simply be result of frustration- ultimately becomes aggressive actions through the identification of de montaigne aggressive cues in environment. Q4. Outline and evaluate research studies into evolutionary explanations of human aggression. Aggressive behaviour by light research paper, animals= Craig (1921)- provided 1st attempt understanding aggression from ethological p.o.v.- since Darwin’s work- late 1800’s. Craig- made clear- that animals- ‘even when the de montaigne animal does fight, he aims not to destroy enemy, but only get rid of light his presence and interference’ = Van Der Dennen (2005) Lorenz (1966)-ethologist- stressed humans are animals- show similar behaviour patterns to animals: • Four main drivers behind behaviour of animal= fear/reproduction/hunger/aggression. Functions of aggression= Help to ensure fittest/strongest were selected (females select male- who offer greatest survival- form them/offspring) Ensure survival of young (parents show aggression- protecting offspring) Help to distribute a species in balanced way- animals have own territories.
Lorenz- idea of ritualised aggression- to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, explain aggressive animal behaviour e.g. stags rutting. Analysis furthered- stating animals know when to term paper, stop being aggressive (few ever kill enemy)= Gross (1998)- jackdaw behaviour= 2 jackdaws about to attack each other- if 1 displays- appeasement tactic – (showing a behaviour indicating defeat/submission)- the michel de montaigne essays other jackdaw wont attack. Lorenz- criticised by other ethologists/academics: Lehrman (1953)- questions whether correct to make comparisons between species/assume findings for animals to humans- suggest even though 2 behaviours seem similar- cant assume underlying mechanisms the same. Aggressive behaviour by schaum's guide great research, humans: • Fromm (1973)- questions Lorenz’s view= states human aggression comprises 2 forms: benign aggression/malignant aggression e.g. malignant= organised violence-gang warfare- ethnic ‘cleansing’-eradication of michel de montaigne Jews in essay diderot WW2 / benign= parent defending their child from harm by attack/ threat. Nelson (1974)- states Lorenz misses 3 basic factors that can affect aggression: Process of learning: Bandura shows people may learn aggressive behaviour through observation. Michel Essays? Structural causes: Nelson- suggests structural causes relate to nature of social- e.g. society without norms/rules- aggression likely to spread. Psychological causes of aggression: highlight failings of what people biological approach= in essays animal kingdom-aggressive action directed to ‘actual enemy’- threat/challenge. In humans- aggression can be motivated by many different personal factors e.g. mood/feelings + situational factors e.g. heat/overcrowding. In some cases of human aggression- victims aren’t seen as fellow humans= Fromm (1964)/ Erikson (1956)- might be case in schaum's quick guide to writing great research ebook situations of unprovoked random attacks: Rapoport (1965)- suggests ‘man by virtue of essays sparknotes his ability to manipulate symbols, attaches the blindness diderot label ‘enemy’ to entire categories of things: other animals, other people, even inanimate objects and michel essays, ideas#8230;accordingly aggression ceases to be leads by the situation.’ Differences between animal and client site options, human aggression:
Human aggression= might be adaptive/useful i.e. product of michel essays sparknotes evolution. Use of weapons means aggression is essay, destructive/not ritualistic: Tinbergen (1968)-suggest humans only species- aggression not part of ritualistic system e.g. Michel? mating- but is rooted in desire to harm another. Evolutionary explanations of human aggression. Thesis Client Options? Acts of terrorists e.g. 9/11 or ware in general= explained through Tinbergen’s ideas/evolutionary theory= as advances in weapon technology distancing means that aggressor doesn’t need to be physically close to de montaigne essays, the recipient of aggression: Means that appeasement/distress signals that would stop acts of aggression no longer apply e.g. plane crews who are eager to drop bombs on ‘targets’- would not be eager to blindness diderot, stab/burn children/adults with their own hands. Krueger et al. (2002)- evolutionary approach concerned with how skills/methods of dealing with environment have evolved into behaviours used in today’s society=
Many evolutionary changes seen in de montaigne Pleistocene era- since then evolution has been static- Brody et al. (2004) Evolutionary psychologists believe- series of psychological mechanisms affect behaviour/don’t vary much between individuals- universal= they think behaviour witnessed linked to reproductive success of individual= likely to suggest aggression is result of sexual competition: Females invest in client site parental issues e.g. time/energy/food etc. Males compete for females- to pass on michel de montaigne their genes= ensure reproductive success: Kenrick, Trost and Sheets (1996). Dominant image for men nowadays is ‘provider of valuable resources’- men need to be assertive/aggressive. Waller (2002)- applied approach to benefits essay, explain mass killings/genocide= humans have evolved living in groups- need to define boundaries- formulating ‘in’ group (us) and ‘out’ group (them)= likely to result in essays aggression. Could be caused by ancestral past- xenophobia- need for site people to feel socially dominant= holding ethnocentric perspectives- lead to acts of aggression/violence. Buss (1999)- foolish to michel de montaigne sparknotes, assume aggressive behaviour just male versus male: in women physical violence limited- partly due to physiological differences/strength- but verbal aggression is common. Light In August Research Paper? Female to female verbal aggression- often aimed at sparknotes, reducing ‘attractiveness’ of competitors- in eyes of males= strategy – evolutionary advantage for ‘name-caller’ Influence of infidelity on aggressive behaviour. Infidelity- process unfaithful to partner/ sexual relationship with another person= infidelity had impact on relationship + quality of interpersonal communications between partners/others. Happy? • Psychologists argue- act of infidelity triggers emotional state within individual- as perceived threat to relationship/current status quo: Buss, Larsen, Western and michel de montaigne sparknotes, Semmelroth (1992)- argue- would naturally lead to show behaviours to what essay, reduce/ eliminate threat e.g. act of violence/aggression • Sexual infidelity for essays men/women- triggers sexual jealousy= psychologists suggest cues/ triggers are different for males/females: Brunk et al. (1996)- suggest from male’s p.o.v- infidelity by female- brings uncertainty of paternity- profound sexual jealousy/ For female who becomes pregnant after act of infidelity- associated sexual jealousy influenced not by rubric for college paper, parental uncertainty- but lack of time/economic resources- given to her/ offspring by her mate. = lack of emotional support that makes women aggression/ men’s anger/subsequent aggression- based upon suspicion of wife’s infidelity. Evolutionary psychologists- look at infidelity from male and michel de montaigne essays, female perspectives to avoid gender bias into their research into explanations of aggression. Influence of jealousy -n ot unusual to witness violence/ acts of aggression influenced by jealousy= Harvey, Sprecher and Wenzer (2004) Cascardi and Vivian (1995)- participants asked explain cause of aggression in quick guide relationship- jealousy most commonly attributed cause.
Canary, Spitzberg and Semic (1998)- argue couples with relationship conflicts- reported anger/ aggression contributed by jealousy. Violent males lack effective ways of mediating/ responding to situation of jealousy/ compared to non-violent males- Holtzworth- Monroe and Anglin (1991). Haden and Hojjat (2006)- differences in sexual jealousy of young women/men= focus on aggressive responsiveness in partner rivalry situations. 2 separate studies found= men more likely than women- to consider aggressive action against rival/ women more emotionally/ behaviourally reactive. De Montaigne Sparknotes? In USA- Morenz and Lane (1996)- Evolutionary theory- explains jealousy as desire to keep one’s mate= males have tendency to show mate tending/guarding activities – aggressive activities to avoid sexual infidelity- Buss and Shackelford (1997)/ females display behaviours less frequently. Limitations- evolutionary approach fails to explain why individuals might react in different ways when faced with same adaptive problem: different men react in different ways when confronted with their wife’s infidelity e.g. violence, debasement, or avoiding issue (by getting drunk) Cultural differences- fails to explain why some cultures seem to require male violence to attain social status/ other cultures (peaceful)- aggression leads to benefits essay, irreparable damage to de montaigne sparknotes, reputation of the aggressor= Buss and Shackelford (1997)
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Newspaper Article Analysis Essays and Research Papers. Running head: ANALYSIS OF NEWSPAPER ARTICLE Analysis of Newspaper . Article LaToya L. Allen, RN HCS 438: Statistical Applications University of de montaigne essays Phoenix Saran Wilkins, PhD September 15, 2006 Analysis of Newspaper Article Exercising daily is benefits of learning a foreign essay, beneficial to a person's health. While many people exercise for this reason, they are seeking methods to improve endurance and performance. In an attempt to michel de montaigne sparknotes offer durability and better endurance, sports drink manufacturers have started to add. Alcoholic beverage , Better , Beverages 810 Words | 3 Pages. How to Write a Great Newspaper Article We read and are influenced by rubric for college term paper, newspapers on a daily basis. . Newspapers provide information on michel essays sparknotes, current events and issues, providing comprehensive detailed news reports with background information, interpretation and analysis . Newspapers also provide entertainment and are a reference for television, sport results, movie listings, community events and weather reports. Newspapers use pictures and captivating headlines to draw in readers and hold their attention. Advertising , Figure of speech , Journalism 1012 Words | 4 Pages. For my assignment I have been asked to identify and analyse fact, opinion and implied meaning of schaum's quick to writing great ebook my chosen Newspaper article . I . am going to explain and analyse the author’s use of fact and opinion. I need to identify and analyse examples of michel essays language used for specific effect; such as bias.
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? NEWSPAPER ARTICLE : DUNCAN’S MURDER Individually, you will be writing a newspaper article about the . murder of essays King Duncan. 1. Using your Map of Scotland, pick a city and create a name for your newspaper . For example, The Dunsinane Daily Journal (you are NOT allowed to schaum's guide research papers use this example) 2. You must have a headline that includes a “hook” (something that grabs the reader’s attention and practically insists that he or she read the whole story). “King Duncan’s Dead!” is NOT an de montaigne essays, effective headline. Duncan I of Scotland , King Duncan , Macbeth 694 Words | 3 Pages. CHAPTER 03 | 3.1 ANALYSIS amp; FINDINGS | 33-37 | CHAPTER 04 | 4.1 CONCLUSIONS | 38 | | 4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS amp; SUGESSTIONS | 39 | . ANNEXURES | QUESTIONNAIRE | 40-43 | | BIBLIOGRAPHY | 44 | EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Newspaper Industry can be said as the most trusted Industry as people believe whatever is written in the newspaper as facts and day to light in august research paper day happenings. My motive was to broaden the spectrum of trust and acquire more customers for Business Standard Newspaper For every industry. Advertising , Broadsheet , English-language newspapers published in India 1574 Words | 5 Pages. ?Analysing a Newspaper Story How is a Newspaper Article Structured? All newspaper . articles follow a particular framework or structure.
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comparing two news articles ; then comparing the potential social and cultural consequences of the texts and finally answering which . article has the most significant impact on Australian audiences. I have chosen two newspaper articles from the Courier Mail and light in august paper, the New York Times which express their very contrasting opinions about the Ebola epidemic currently happening in West Africa, one saying Ebola is out of control about and the other saying Ebola is nothing to essays worry about. The first article titled Ebola. Africa , Anxiety , Audience 923 Words | 2 Pages. Social Work Article Critique SOC. For College Term! 202 The purpose of this paper is to critique the michel de montaigne, methodology of the study Program Completion and . Re-Arrest in a Batterer Intervention System (2007).
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Cancer , Essential oil , Nursing 1229 Words | 4 Pages. ? Analysis of michel essays Article In this op-ed by Nicholas Kristof, he chooses to talk about domestic violence, and how it has remains such . a serious problem worldwide and even more so within the United States. This piece is primarily informative, with the writer providing his readers with facts such as real life cases and statistics, but it is also somewhat persuasive in terms of what he believes are steps that should be taken to improve the issue of domestic violence. The writer uses a lot of figurative. Abuse , Child abuse , Domestic violence 913 Words | 3 Pages. Article Analysis Mohd Suyuti Ismail reported the virtue and significance of performing the Salat ad-Dhuha in his report . titled ‘Keberkatan Solat Duha’ (Blessings of Dhuha Prayer). In this particular report published on January, 3rd 2013 in Berita Harian news, the author deliberately mentioned the benefits of light research paper offering this prayer including the blessings and prosperity from michel essays sparknotes, Allah SWT throughout the life of the person who offers the prayer regularly or even once in a lifetime. He also carefully. Allah , Hadith , Islam 980 Words | 3 Pages.
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Patricia Shannon Clinical Issue Article Analysis – Step 3 Chaney, D., Coates, V., Shevlin, M., Carson, D., McDougall, A., Long, A., (2010, December). Diabetes education: what do adolescents want?. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21(1), 216-223. This research article uses an exploratory qualitative design study to explore the. Diabetes mellitus , Diabetes mellitus type 2 , Focus group 1365 Words | 8 Pages. RESEARCH ARTICLE ANALYSIS 1 . Light! Research Article Analysis Paper University of Phoenix Axia College Mary Koahou March 05, 2012 RESEARCH ARTICLE ANALYSIS 2 Research Article Analysis Paper My. Crime , Criminology , Gang 1306 Words | 4 Pages. Intelligence Testing Article Analysis.
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Negotiation Strategy Article Analysis. Running Head: NEGOTIATION STRATEGY ARTICLE ANALYSIS Negotiation Strategy Article Analysis Nathan . Casteel University of Phoenix MGT/445 Dr. Sylvester Fadal November 12, 2010 Negotiation Strategy Article Analysis Negotiation can be described as the bargain at the individual or collective level to gain the advantages and opportunities by satisfying the other parties and de montaigne sparknotes, solving their issues and problems (Maiese, 2003). In the negotiation process the parties don’t’ get to be personal. 1921 , American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 , Barack Obama 752 Words | 3 Pages. Running Head: Article Analysis Article Analysis Amysue Raburn Professor . Stair December 15, 2012 The article that I have chosen to us is called “Principles and Principals: Do Customer Stewardship and Agency Control Compete or Complement When Shaping Frontline Employee Behavior?” I have included the abstract from the authors of the paper to explain what the article about. I will then go on and explain what it means to me and why I chose this article . Here is. Behaviorism , Management 869 Words | 3 Pages. ? Article Analysis Paper Article Analysis Paper According to the National Coffee . Drinking Trends market research study, 83% of the U.S. adult population now drinks coffee (National Coffee Association USA, 2013).
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Penberthy brings up. David Penberthy , Persuasion , Question 1102 Words | 3 Pages. Article Analysis : Coffee Lamiesha Spruill Instructor: ROBERT EMRICH ECO/365 07/07/2013 Article . Analysis : Coffee “Coffee is the site, cream to de montaigne essays a meal,” says Tim Cleland, sales manager for thesis client, institutional and gourmet divisions of Gavina Gourmet Coffee, based in Vernon, Calif. Coffee was once considered a breakfast drink. De Montaigne Essays! It was once a nice hot drink to start your day.
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American Revolutionary War , Battle of Jumonville Glen , Canada 1013 Words | 4 Pages. Critical Analysis of a Scholarly Article. Critical Analysis of a Scholarly Article Erika K. Epps MGMT 6100 July 22, 2012 Petrina Woods-Shatteen Critical . Analysis of a Scholarly Article When working with companies, an employee has to wonder from essay diderot, time to de montaigne essays time what makes management tick. What is the source of their decision-making practices? Why should people strategize in quick guide to writing great research papers ebook, business or in war? Well first let’s define what is strategy? “It is a plan, method, or series of de montaigne sparknotes maneuvers or stratagems for what makes people, obtaining a specific goal or result.
Knowledge , Organization , Plan 1037 Words | 3 Pages. University of Phoenix Principles of Microeconomics ECO/365 Professor James Harris III Aug 7, 2008 Article Analysis . The article that will be used for this analysis is “Supply, demand, and de montaigne essays, the Internet-economic lessons for microeconomic principles courses” by Fred Englander and Ronald L. Moy. There will be definitions for the following economics, microeconomics, Law of supply and the Law of essay diderot demand. Michel Essays! Another subject that will be discussed is the identification of factors that lead to benefits language the. Consumer theory , Economics , Economics terminology 1621 Words | 5 Pages. The promising future of newspaper In the wave of information explosion appeared in 90’ last century, the channels to obtain information . among people have apparently been diversified due to the rise of michel new media outlets through the medium of the language essay, Internet. Although some advantage of de montaigne essays sparknotes newspaper has been overshadowed by client site options, the excellent performance of new media, newspaper is actively adapting to social and economic transformation based on maintaining its existing advantages.
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The thought that these people could do. Child abuse , Family , Infant 1032 Words | 2 Pages.
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Michel de montaigne essays sparknotes - Writing Custom Research
Abraham Cahan#8217;s #8220;A Sweatshop Romance#8221; Essay. In his story #8220;A Sweatshop Romance,#8221; Abraham Cahan does a good job of creating a clear visual of the activities that occurred at the coat-making factory of Mr. Leizer Lipman, a Jewish-American who got married to a woman from de montaigne, a poor town in Western Russia. In this story, there are certain propagandistic situations as well as anxieties and concerns that relates to class-consciousness in thesis client site, the twentieth century. Michel Essays. According to the story, Mrs. Lipman, the proprietor#8217;s wife and a co-owner of the business occupied a low social position at her birthplace compared to some visitors that had recently arrived from her hometown.
One day, some visitors were invited to the coat-making factory for thesis an #8220;inspection#8221; of the business. During the visit, Mrs. Lipman was trying to use the business to show off so as to bring herself to michel, an #8220;equal social position#8221; to that of her visitors#8217;; however, some of her employees felt downgraded and essay blindness, insulted by her, and her efforts were thwarted by her employees#8217; refusal to de montaigne, allow themselves to quick guide great, be treated as #8220;servants#8221; in front of the visitors. As explained in the introductory paragraphs, the business was located in one of the small rooms at michel the proprietor#8217;s home and the employees were a single team that consisted of rubric for college term paper, a sewing-machine operator, a baster, a finisher and a presser. The employees of the michel essays sparknotes #8220;Sweatshop#8221; were not paid based on how many hours they served. They were paid only by how many coats they were able to essay diderot, manufacture. A business week was not seven days; a business week at the #8220;sweatshop#8221; was completed only when eight coats have been successfully produced.
The mini firm was mainly involved in coat-production. The writer also paints a picture of the business being located in a cramped up space in the proprietor#8217;s home, which in addition to providing #8220;space#8221; for coat-making factory also served as a kitchen as well as a dining room. The cramped and overcrowded space coupled with the blast of thermal energy from the red-hot kitchen stove and the glowing flat irons used by the employees in pressing the coats contributed significantly to the overwhelming temperature of the overcrowded room. This description really aided in michel, justifying why the location of the business was called a #8220;Sweatshop.#8221; Before I continue any further, I would like to define certain terms such as (Propagandistic, Marxist and Marxism) that I will be using in in august research, this discussion. According to de montaigne essays sparknotes, the American Heritage Dictionary, the adjective #8220;propagandistic#8221; describes a situation related to or characterized by propaganda, and the noun #8220;Propaganda#8221; is defined as information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause. It is also described as the systematic propagation of a doctrine or cause or of information reflecting the views and interests of rubric for college term paper, those advocating such a doctrine or cause. The noun #8220;Marxist#8221; is described by the American Heritage Dictionary as one who believes in Marxism or follows the ideas of Marx and Engels.
Marxism in the dictionary is described as a form of communism based on the political and economic philosophy of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in which the concept of de montaigne, class struggle plays a central role in understanding society#8217;s allegedly inevitable development from bourgeois oppression under capitalism to a socialist and ultimately classless society, where everyone is #8220;equal#8221; [in social status]. As discussed briefly in my introductory paragraph, there was an incident that occurred at the #8220;Sweatshop#8221; between Mrs. Lipman and thesis client options, her employees during her visitors #8220;inspection#8221; of the coat-making factory. In the fifty-third paragraph, Mrs. Lipman invites the visitors to #8220;inspect#8221; her #8220;factory.#8221; After she finished her demonstrative greetings, she said #8220;It#8217;s rather too small, isn#8217;t it? But we are going to move to a larger and michel de montaigne essays, better quarters.#8221; Her visitors according to the story, had occupied a much higher social position than her at her hometown and client site, she wasted no time in bringing them over to the house to michel de montaigne essays, show off the coat-making factory so as to convince them about her American achievements in a bid to place herself at an equal social position with that of people, her visitors back at her hometown in Russia. At the shop, she attempted to use one of her employee, Beile, as an example of a servant by giving her a nickel and michel essays sparknotes, rudely asking her to fetch her two bottles of soda from the grocery something she could not afford to do back at her hometown in Western Russia owing to her low social status.
Her employees were very surprised at the way she treated the girl as a servant in what essay, front of the visitors and the girl felt very reluctant to go and essays sparknotes, fetch the soda because of the tone of the voice Mrs. Guide Great Research Ebook. Lipman used when asking her to de montaigne, fetch the soda. She threatened to fire her, as she yelled #8220;Either fetch the Soda or leave my shop at once!#8221; Mrs. Blindness. Lipman was only trying to prove to her visitors that she now belongs to the #8220;upper class#8221; because she now has her own #8220;servants#8221; whom she could yell at and send on errands if she feels like doing so. However, David (one of the essays employees at the Sweatshop who was also in love with Beile) thwarted her efforts by informing the visitors that she was only trying to brag about owning something she could not afford.
To prove this, he added that the parlor carpet was being paid for installmentally and rubric for college paper, that the custom-peddler had threatened to take it away unless she made her payments more regularly. At the end of the fiasco, David and Beile decided to quit and they left. Mrs. Michel De Montaigne Essays. Lipman felt highly embarrassed by the fact that her efforts were foiled and benefits of learning a foreign, she could not place herself at an equal social status with that of her visitors back at her hometown in michel de montaigne essays, Russia. I would conclude that the story contained certain elements of Marxism because there were some concerns and makes essay, anxieties raised during this incident which clearly relates to class-consciousness in michel essays sparknotes, the early twentieth century.
Mrs. Lipman#8217;s attempt to rubric, #8220;artificially#8221; place herself at an equal cultural, economic and social position with that of her visitors made her entire plan propagandistic because the information she gave out and the image she portrayed was intended to convince her visitors and make them feel that at least she is now of an equal social position with them compared to how she was at her poor hometown in western Russia. De Montaigne Essays. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 22 June 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Abraham Cahan#8217;s #8220;A Sweatshop Romance#8221; for rubric for college term paper only $16.38 $13.9/page.
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Michel De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes - Eyewitness Testimony
franzen gaddis essay The following essay by Jonathan Franzen appeared in michel essays sparknotes The New Yorker . Research Paper? The following text has been transcribed from the 30 September 2002 issue. Mr. Michel? Difficult: William Gaddis. and the Problem of.
For a while last winter, after my third novel came out, I was getting a lot of angry mail from strangers. What upset them was not the novel — a comedy about rubric, a family in crisis — but some impolitic remarks I'd made in the press, and michel de montaigne essays, I knew that it was a mistake to send more than bland one-sentence notes in reply. But I couldn't help fighting back a little. Diderot? Taking a page from an old literary hero of de montaigne, mine, William Gaddis, who had long deplored the reading public's confusion of the writer's work and client site options, the writer's private self, I suggested that the letter writers look at de montaigne essays, my fiction rather than listen to light research distorted news reports about its author. A few months later, one of the original senders, a Mrs. M—, in essays Maryland, wrote back with proof that she'd done the reading. Site? She began by listing thirty fancy words and phrases from my novel, words like diurnality and antipodes, phrases like electro-pointillist Santa Claus faces. She then posed the dreadful question: Who is it that you are writing for? It surely could not be the average person who just enjoys a good read. And she offered this caricature of me and my presumed audience: The elite of New York, the elite who are beautiful, thin, anorexic, neurotic, sophisticated, don't smoke, have abortions tri-yearly, are antiseptic, live in lofts or penthouses, this superior species of humanity who read Harper's and de montaigne, The New Yorker . The subtext seemed to be that difficulty in client site options fiction is the tool of socially privileged readers and writers who turn up their noses at the natural pleasure of a good read in favor of the invidious, artificial pleasure of feeling superior to other people.
To Mrs. M—, I was a pompous snob, and a real ass-hole. One part of me, the part that takes after my father, who admired scholars for their intellect and their large vocabularies and was something of a scholar himself, wanted to call Mrs. De Montaigne Essays? M— a few names in reply. But another, equally strong part of light in august research, me was stricken to learn that Mrs. M— felt excluded by my language. She sounded a little bit like my mother, a lifelong anti-elitist who used to get good rhetorical mileage out of the mythical average person.
My mother might have asked me if I really had to use words like diurnality, or if I was just showing off. In the face of hostility like Mrs. M—'s, I find myself paralyzed. It turns out de montaigne, that I subscribe to two wildly different models of how fiction relates to its audience. In one model, which was championed by Flaubert, the best novels are great works of art, the people who manage to write them deserve extraordinary credit, and if the average reader rejects the work it's because the essay blindness, average reader is a philistine; the value of any novel, even a mediocre one, exists independent of how many people are able to appreciate it. We can call this the Status model. It invites a discourse of genius and michel de montaigne, art-historical importance. In the light in august paper, opposing model, a novel represents a compact between the writer and the reader, with the writer providing words out of which the michel essays sparknotes, reader creates a pleasurable experience.
Writing thus entails a balancing of self-expression and communication within a group, whether the group consists of Finnegans Wake enthusiasts or fans of Barbara Cartland. Every writer is first a member of a community of readers, and makes people essay, the deepest purpose of reading and de montaigne sparknotes, writing fiction is to benefits sustain a sense of connectedness, to resist existential loneliness; and so a novel deserves a reader's attention only as long as the author sustains the reader's trust. This is the Contract model. The discourse here is one of pleasure and connection. My mother would have liked it. To an adherent of Contract, the michel de montaigne, Status crowd looks like an arrogant connoisseurial elite. To a true believer in Status, on the other hand, Contract is a recipe for happy essay, pandering, aesthetic compromise, and a babel of competing literary subcommunities. Michel Essays? With certain novels, of course, the distinction doesn't matter so much. Pride and Prejudice, The House of Mirth: you call them art, I call them entertainment, we both turn the pages. But the a foreign, two models diverge tellingly when readers find a book difficult.
According to the Contract model, difficulty is a sign of trouble. In the most grievous cases, it may convict an author of michel essays sparknotes, placing his selfish artistic imperatives or his personal vanity ahead of the audience's legitimate desire to be entertained — of being, in thesis client options other words, an asshole. Taken to its free-market extreme, Contract stipulates that if a product is disagreeable to michel de montaigne essays you the rubric for college term, fault must be the product's. Michel Essays Sparknotes? If you crack a tooth on a hard word in a novel, you sue the author. If your professor puts Dreiser on research paper your reading list, you write a harsh student evaluation. If the local symphony plays too much twentieth-century music, you cancel your subscription. You're the consumer; you rule.
From a Status perspective, difficulty tends to signal excellence; it suggests that the novel's author has disdained cheap compromise and stayed true to an artistic vision. Easy fiction has little value, the argument goes. Pleasure that demands hard work, the slow penetration of mystery, the de montaigne sparknotes, outlasting of lesser readers, is the pleasure most worth having; and for college paper, if, like Mrs. M—, you can't hack it, then to hell with you. The Status position is undeniably flattering to the writer's sense of importance. In my bones, though, I'm a Contract kind of person. I grew up in michel essays a friendly, egalitarian suburb reading books for pleasure and ignoring any writer who didn't take my entertainment seriously enough. Happy? Even as an adult, I consider myself a slattern of michel de montaigne essays, a reader. I have started (in many cases, more than once) Moby-Dick, The Man Without Qualities, Mason Dixon, Don Quixote, Remembrance of Things Past, Doctor Faustus, Naked Lunch, The Golden Bowl, and The Golden Notebook without coming anywhere near finishing them. Indeed, by a comfortable margin, the most difficult book I ever voluntarily read in its entirety was Gaddis's nine-hundred-and-fifty-six-page first novel, The Recognitions.
Gaddis, whose last two books are being published this fall, four years after his death, would have been eighty this December. As much as any American writer of his generation, he frankly endorsed Status and disdained Contract. His methods were increasingly postmodern, but he had old-fashioned Romantic and high-modern notions of the artist as savior and ebook, the work of art as singular and de montaigne sparknotes, sacred; the plight of thesis client, both art and artist in a commercially mad America was at the center of his work. Which work is, itself, quintessentially difficult. I read The Recognitions as a kind of penance, back in the early nineties. During the previous year, while my father, in a different time zone, was losing his mind, I'd written two treatments and four full drafts of an original screenplay. In lieu of actual dollar payments, I had the enthusiastic support of a Hollywood agent who, out of pity or negligence, never mentioned that my story bore a fatal resemblance to Fun with Dick and Jane, which I hadn't seen. My story had double and triple crosses and characters who used prosthetic makeup to michel sparknotes impersonate other characters.
I lived in that state of rage which comes of doing sustained work that you know to be shoddy and dishonest. Rubric For College? By September, when I finally abandoned the project, one wall of my study was scuffed and dented from the pencils, scripts, shoes, and de montaigne, phone books I'd been throwing at it. I borrowed money and thesis, left Philadelphia to de montaigne sublet a dark, underfurnished Tribeca loft (yes, Mrs. M—, a loft), whose silence was disturbed only by the shadowy traffic of thesis client site options, pigeons in the air shaft. I'd been hoping to write some fiction, but I was far too sick of audience-friendly narrative, of well-made plots and lovable characters. One evening, in de montaigne sparknotes a state of grim distraction, like somebody going out to score hard drugs, I walked up Sixth Avenue and bought The Recognitions in a beautiful, newly reissued Penguin edition. Every morning for a week and guide to writing great research papers, a half, I went from the breakfast table to michel de montaigne a beige ultrasuede sofa module, turned on options a lamp, and read non-stop for six or eight hours. Essays Sparknotes? I had some professional curiosity about Gaddis, but a few hundred pages of The Recognitions would have satisfied it.
I sat and term, read the extra seven hundred pages in something like a fugue state, as if planting my feet on a steep slope, climbing. I was reluctant to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes leave my ultrasuede perch for any reason. The only language essay, way I could justify sitting there and spending borrowed money was to make a regular job, with regular hours, out of climbing the mountain. There were quotations in michel Latin, Spanish, Hungarian, and guide ebook, six other languages to be rappelled across. Blizzards of obscure references swirled around sheer cliffs of de montaigne essays sparknotes, erudition, precipitous discourses on alchemy and Flemish painting, Mithraism and early-Christian theology. The prose came in blindness diderot page-long paragraphs in which oxygen was at a premium, and de montaigne sparknotes, the emotional temperature of the novel started cold and got colder. The hero, Wyatt Gwyon, was likable as a child (a small disgruntled person), but otherwise the what makes essay, author's satiric judgments and intellectual obsessions discouraged intimacy.
It was a struggle to figure out what, or even who, the story was about; dialogue was punctuated with dashes and largely unattributed; Wyatt himself dwindled to de montaigne essays a furtive, seldom-glimpsed pronoun (he); there came brutish party scenes, all-dialogue word storms that raged for scores of pages. The only portable nourishment that might have helped sustain me on my climb was a familiarity with Gaddis's influences, maybe a nice pemmican of T. Rubric For College Term? S. Eliot and Robert Graves, which I hadn't thought to michel bring. What? I was alone and unprepared on a steep-sided, frigid, airless, poorly mapped mountain. Did I already mention that The Recognitions has nine hundred and fifty-six pages? But I loved it. At the novel's hidden pinnacle, behind its clouds of subsidiary symbolism, beyond its blind canyons of Beat anti-narrative, is a story about the loss of personal integrity and the difficult work of regaining it. Wyatt, a talented painter and former seminarian in his early thirties, is living in New York, unhappily married, and scraping by as a hired draftsman. He has abandoned his painterly ambitions, possibly because a corrupt French critic panned his early work, but more likely because he is incredibly earnest and has never found an adequate reply to sparknotes the condemnation of art which a puritanical great-aunt issued in his boyhood: Our Lord is the only true creator, and only sinful people try to emulate Him. One day, in New York, an American capitalist and art collector named Recktall Brown proposes a Faustian bargain: Wyatt will forge the work of Flemish Old Masters, and Brown will sell them for essay, huge sums. Wyatt agrees to essays the deal, but after some early success he proves lacking in the necessary spinelessness. He considers resuming his religious studies, but when he goes home to New England he discovers that his father, a Protestant minister, has taken up Mithraism and lost his mind.
Wyatt thereupon embarks on a long pilgrimage of sorts, first in what people happy essay New York, where he tries to expose his own forgeries, and michel essays, later in Europe. He is last seen leaving a Spanish monastery, on page 900, intending, at last, to live deliberately. Rubric? Having surmounted the American Protestant suspicion of art and survived the dangerous attractions of the American Protestant marketplace, he seems finally on his way to being a real painter. At the time, on the mountainside, I wasn't conscious of michel essays sparknotes, clinging to the parallels between Wyatt's story and rubric for college term, my own situation: our weirdly isolated lives in lower Manhattan, our failed attempts to sell out, our extremely earnest doubts about art, our craving for penance, our crazy fathers. I was just happy to have a good, hard book to read, and I was impressed with myself for managing it. Following Wyatt's pilgrimage became my own pilgrimage. The loft, for those ten days, in spite of the gurgling pigeons, was the michel de montaigne essays, quietest place I've ever been. It was profoundly, metaphysically quiet. By the time I reached the last page of thesis, The Recognitions, I felt readier to face the michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, divorce, deaths, and dislocations that were waiting for me out in the sunlit world.
I felt virtuous, as if I'd run three miles, eaten my kale, been to the dentist, filed my tax return, or gone to church. One pretty good definition of college is that it's a place where people are made to read difficult books. Certainly, my own moments of peak collegiate learning occurred whenever I acquired new tools to unlock difficulty — when I was forced to figure out, all by myself, that Emily Dickinson sometimes meant the opposite schaum's great research ebook of what her words said, or when my German professor asked us, with a mysterious grin, whether it was possible that Josef K. was guilty . Michel Essays? To learn about irony, ambiguity, symbol, voice, and point of view, it made sense to read the most sophisticated texts. Four years of sophistication had a cumulative effect. As a freshman, I thought it would be cool to make up stories for a living, to have that be my job, to see my name in print. By the time I was a senior, my ambition was to create literary Art. I took for granted that the greatest novels were tricky in their methods, resisted casual reading, and merited sustained study. I also assumed that the highest compliment this Art could be paid was to be taught in a university.
My parents didn't understand this. Essay? When I began to write my first book, after college, I could feel my father's skeptical eye on me, could hear him asking questions like What are you contributing to society with your abilities? In college, I'd admired Derrida and michel de montaigne essays, the Marxist and benefits of learning essay, feminist critics, people whose job was to find fault with modern Systems. I thought that maybe now I, too, could become socially useful by writing fault-finding fiction. At the excellent public library in Somerville, Massachusetts, I identified a canon of intellectual, socially edgy white-male American fiction writers. The same names — Pynchon, DeLillo, Heller, Coover, Gaddis, Gass, Burroughs, Barth, Barthelme, Hannah, Hawkes, McElroy, and Elkin — kept showing up together in anthologies and in the respectful appraisals of contemporary critics. Though various in michel essays their styles, they all seemed to take as a given that something was new and strange and wrong about postwar America. They shared the postmodern suspicion of realism, summarized by the critic Jerome Klinkowitz: If the world is absurd, if what passes for reality is benefits language, distressingly unreal, why spend time representing it? To prove to myself, if not to my father, that I was engaged in a serious professional pursuit, I tried to join this guild. I was one of those skinny young men in scary glasses and thrift-store clothes whom you see on Boston or Brooklyn subways, young men who look like they possess massive amounts of essays, data about schaum's guide to writing great research ebook, small-label rock bands or avant-garde literature or video technology, the very size of these data-sets affording a kind of psychic protection. And Gaddis ought to have been my ideal.
Gaddis, it was generally agreed, was the really smart, really angry, really forbidding Systems writer. The Recognitions was an ur-text of postwar fiction, both the granddaddy of difficulty and the first great cultural critique, which, even if Heller and Pynchon hadn't read it while composing Catch-22 and V., managed to anticipate the spirit of both. Gaddis was the original intense, thrift-store-clad, monster-data-set young man whose ambition, if he let it show in public, would have singed his fellow subway riders' eyebrows. My problem was that, with a few exceptions, notably Don DeLillo, I didn't particularly like the writers in my modern canon. I checked out their books (including The Recognitions), read a few pages, and returned them. I liked the idea of socially engaged fiction, I was at work on my own Systems novel of conspiracy and apocalypse, and I craved academic and hipster respect of the kind that Pynchon and Gaddis got and Saul Bellow and Ann Beattie didn't. But Bellow and Beattie, not to mention Dickens and Conrad and Bronte and Dostoyevsky and Christina Stead, were the writers I actually, unhiply enjoyed reading. If Coover's The Public Burning and Pynchon's The Crying of michel, Lot 49 moved me, it was mainly because I loved Coover's character Richard Nixon and Pynchon's Oedipa Maas. What Makes Happy Essay? But postmodern fiction wasn't supposed to be about sympathetic characters.
Characters, properly speaking, weren't even supposed to exist. Characters were feeble, suspect constructs, like the de montaigne essays, author himself, like the human soul. Benefits A Foreign Language Essay? Nevertheless, to my shame, I seemed to need them. It wasn't until the nineties, after I'd wasted a year on the screenplay, that I tried to michel essays rekindle my collegiate excitement about really hard books. Essay? I needed proof that I was a serious Artist, rather than the unwitting plagiarist of Fun with Dick and Jane, and michel de montaigne essays, The Recognitions was perfect for the task. Benefits Of Learning A Foreign? Reading the whole thing would also confer bragging rights. If somebody asked me if I'd read The Sot-Weed Factor, I could shoot back, No, but have you read The Recognitions?
And blow smoke from the muzzle of my gun. In the michel de montaigne sparknotes, event, nothing was as I'd expected. Not many people in the nineties were asking if I'd read The Sot-Weed Factor. The Recognitions, on the other hand — whether because of its virtues or because of the circumstances of light research, my reading it — bowled me over. Its characters weren't sympathetic, but the wit and michel, passion and seriousness of their creator were. I titled my third novel partly in homage to in august research it.
A few years after I conquered The Recognitions, I started Gaddis's second novel, J R. Michel De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? I again bought the handsome Penguin paperback, and I devoted an hour or two each evening to reading it. Makes? The novel, a massive comedy of modern American venality and social entropy, was just as brilliant as The Recognitions. Sparknotes? Unfortunately, I no longer had the luxury or burden of entire days for light in august research, reading. Michel De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? One night, I gave up in the middle of a four-page paragraph, and for paper, the next few nights I was out late, and when I opened J R again I was lost. I set it aside, hoping to de montaigne sparknotes pick up the threads some other night. Two months later, I quietly reshelved it.
The bookmark, a sassy Ticketmaster sleeve bearing an ad for K-ROCK 92.3 FM (HOWARD STERN ALL MORNING / CLASSIC ROCK 'N' ROLL ALL DAY), remained stuck on page 469, attesting to my defeat by what makes happy, J R or to sparknotes J R 's defeat by my noisy life. In Status terms, I'd simply failed as a reader. But I did have Contract on benefits of learning a foreign language my side. I'd given the book weeks of evening reading, it still wasn't working for de montaigne sparknotes, me, and now I was eager to thesis client read shorter, warmer books by de montaigne essays sparknotes, James Purdy, Alice Munro, Penelope Fitzgerald, Halldor Laxness. Battling through J R, I'd wanted to grab Gaddis by the lapels and shout, Hello! I'm the reader you want! I love smart fiction, and schaum's quick guide research papers ebook, I'm looking for a good Systems novel. If you can't even show me a good time, who else do you think is going to read you? But this only made it worse that I had quit. Precisely because I was so well suited to read Gaddis, I felt as if I were personally betraying him by not finishing J R. From a Congregationalist childhood I'd gone straight to a collegiate worship of Art, without noticing the transition and without ever quite buying either faith.
One day a secretary called from the Congregational church to ask if I still wanted to be a member, and I said no, and that was that. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? But it's much harder to leave a small, embattled cult than a mainstream suburban church. Makes People Essay? Nothing in michel de montaigne essays my Congregational experience had prepared me for the fanatical fervor, the guilt-provoking authority, of Mr. Difficult. There's something medieval Christian about The Recognitions.
The novel is schaum's guide to writing research papers ebook, like a huge landscape painting of modern New York, peopled with hundreds of doomed but energetic little figures, executed on wood panels by Brueghel or Bosch, and michel de montaigne essays, looking incongruously ancient beneath layers of yellowed lacquer. Even the blue skies in the book (the phrase Another blue day recurs as a despair-inducing leitmotiv) glow like oil-paint skies in an art museum beyond whose walls, forgotten, is the age of H-bombs and Army-McCarthy hearings in which the novel was written. The names dropped are Hans Memling, not Harry Truman; Paracelsus, not Elvis. And yet the book is absolutely of the early fifties. People Happy? Peel away the erudition, and you have The Catcher in the Rye: a grim winter sojourn in a seedy Manhattan, a quest for authenticity in a phony modern world. Michel? Improvising on the theme of art forgery, Gaddis fills his novel with every conceivable variety of light in august research, fraud, counterfeiter, poseur, and liar. Unlike Holden Caulfield, though, the de montaigne essays sparknotes, main characters of The Recognitions participate in benefits of learning essay the phonyness themselves. The young literary poseur, Otto Pivner, is working on de montaigne a play whose plot, he says, still needs a little tightening up. The narrator glosses this lie in client site a tone that's fundamental to sparknotes the novel, a tone at once unsparing and forgiving: (By this Otto meant that a plot of makes people happy, some sort had yet to be supplied, to motivate the series of monologues in which Gordon, a figure who resembled Otto at his better moments, and whom Otto greatly admired, said things which Otto had overheard, or thought of too late to say.) Wyatt Gwyon may be the romantic projection of the michel, author's artistic aspirations (How ambitious you are! his wife, Esther, unhappily exclaims), but it's Otto who seems to embody Gaddis's own confusion, humiliations, and disappointments. Otto's biography overlaps with Gaddis's — both grew up fatherless, both spent time in Central America and returned to New York via banana boat with their arms, though uninjured, in picturesque slings — and light in august research, I suspect that the michel de montaigne, book owes some of its mood of playful fabulation to Gaddis's implication in his own satire.
The one genuine artist in The Recognitions is essay, a devoutly Catholic young composer named Stanley. Throughout the book, Stanley is working on a requiem for michel de montaigne, organ which he hopes to play in a fragile old church in schaum's to writing northern Italy. Michel De Montaigne Essays? In the to writing papers ebook, very last pages, as the novel circles back to de montaigne essays Europe, Stanley travels to the church and, failing to blindness diderot understand the caretaker's warning against michel sparknotes playing anything dissonant or too heavy on bass, begins to makes people essay perform the requiem. The church collapses and kills him, and The Recognitions closes with some of its best-known lines: most of his work was recovered too, and it is still spoken of, when it is noted, with high regard, though seldom played. The other well-known lines in de montaigne The Recognitions are uttered by Wyatt after Esther voices surprise that a certain popular poet (Auden, perhaps) is homosexual. Benefits Of Learning A Foreign Language? Rejecting her interest in personal things about writers and painters as a prurient distraction, Wyatt bursts out: What is michel essays sparknotes, there left of him when he's done his work? What's any artist, but the dregs of light, his work? the human shambles that follows it around. What's left of the de montaigne essays sparknotes, man when the makes happy, work's done but a shambles of apology. Gaddis portrays Esther as a vagina dentata eager to sleep with male artists and de montaigne, absorb the properties which had been withheld from her.
Wyatt retreats from her into coldness and abstraction, and Gaddis retreats from benefits of learning language readers in much the same way — as if, for michel essays, him, intercourse with the public were a pleasure that threatened to taint the purity of blindness, his motives. What mattered to Gaddis, who avowedly strove to write literature that would last, was not the michel sparknotes, weak and fleshly artist but the afterlife. Happy Essay? Although he had a family, many friends, and a busy social life in which he enjoyed literary gossip, he consistently denied his person to the public. Strict prohibitions like this are a way in de montaigne essays sparknotes which threatened religious minorities resist the seductions of the majority culture, and Gaddis in the fifties had Norman Mailer and Truman Capote as examples of writers who had been seduced. He chose, instead, to be a purist of his faith. In his fifty-year career, he gave exactly one substantial interview, to The Paris Review . He published one brief autobiographical essay. He gave no public readings. Not that an excess of media attention was ever a big problem.
The Recognitions was published by Harcourt, Brace in 1955, with a marketing strategy of Everyone is talking about this controversial book! It received fifty-five reviews, an thesis client, impressive number by today's standards, and, as William Gass notes in his introduction to the Penguin edition, Only fifty-three of these notices were stupid. The New Yorker gave the book a brief, smirking dismissal (words, words, words); Dawn Powell, in the Post, offered up an error-riddled sneer. De Montaigne? Sales were about for college paper, five thousand in hardcover, not bad for a challenging first novel by an unknown writer. But the only prize the book won was for its design, and it quickly disappeared from public sight. I almost think that if I'd gotten the Nobel Prize when The Recognitions was published I wouldn't have been terribly surprised, Gaddis told The Paris Review in 1986, adding that the sparknotes, book's reception had been sobering and humbling.
Maybe if the novel had met with greater acclaim Gaddis would have relaxed a little; maybe Wyatt's what is it they want tirade, like his other puritan-isms, would have been revealed as a skinny-young-man attitude to be outgrown. Client Site? I doubt it, though. The book is about the everyday world's indifference to the superior reality of art. Its last lines (with high regard, though seldom played) unmistakably prefigure its own reception. Nurturing the hope that your marginal novel will be celebrated by the mainstream — the Cassandra-like wish that people will thank you for telling them unwelcome truths — is a ritual way of insuring disappointment, of reaffirming your own world-denying status, of michel de montaigne essays, mortifying the flesh, of remaining, at heart, an angry young man.
In the four decades following the publication of The Recognitions, Gaddis's work grew angrier and angrier. It's a signature paradox of literary postmodernism: the writer whose least angry work was written first. Some of Gaddis's rage appears to have been built-in. Born in client 1922, he grew up with his mother in an old house in Massapequa, Long Island, and at a small Connecticut boarding school that he attended from the ages of de montaigne, five to thirteen. Five is young for boarding school, and a foreign essay, five strikes me as a vital figure in de montaigne sparknotes Gaddis's biography. In J R, an alter ego of Gaddis, an angry drinker named Jack Gibbs who was likewise sent to boarding school at the age of thesis client options, five, speaks of having been in the way since the day I could walk, and he describes the loneliness of boarding school:
End of the day alone on that train, lights coming on in those little Connecticut towns stop and stare out at an empty street corner dry cheese sandwich charge you a dollar wouldn't even put butter on it, finally pull into that desolate station scared to get off scared to stay on . Michel De Montaigne? . . school car waiting there like . . . a God damned open hearse think anybody expect to essay blindness grow up. Gaddis as a young man was a rowdy, a drinker. Kept from the war by a kidney ailment, he studied English at Harvard and became president of the Lampoon , but in his senior year he was expelled without a degree after a run-in with the michel sparknotes, Cambridge police. He then bounced around Europe, Latin America, and New York during the client, seven somewhat shadowy years he was at work on michel de montaigne sparknotes The Recognitions. In the year of its publication, he married an actress, Pat Black, with whom he soon had two children. Here the rubric for college, mood of his biography abruptly changes, the foreign locales giving way to fifties commerce and suburban life with kids. Like Melville a century before him, Gaddis went to work for a living in lower Manhattan. He did public-relations writing for michel essays, I.B.M., Eastman Kodak, Pfizer, and the United States Army, among others. (An evaluator at I.B.M., recommending a simpler style for one of his projects, complained that the whole of the text is perhaps too much an impenetrable mass.) For twenty years, even as the country's literary tastes were swinging from the realism dominant in client the fifties to the zanier modes of Portnoy's Complaint and Catch-22, Gaddis essentially dropped out of sight. He started and michel, abandoned a novel on business and a play about the Civil War. He smoked a lot and drank a lot. His first marriage ended when he was living in Croton-on-Hudson, New York.
Not until the end of the sixties did he scrape together enough grant money to return full time to the novel about business. By the time the book was published, in 1975, the country's mood had caught up with him. J R received major and admiring review attention and makes people happy essay, won the National Book Award. Essays Sparknotes? The chunky paperback edition with its chunky title lettering was, like Patti Smith LPs and the Moosewood Cookbook, a common sight in of learning a foreign language the secondhand stores and student-slum apartments of my college years. The spine of J R was often suspiciously uncracked, however, or a strangely low used price was pencilled inside the cover, or the bookmark, which might be a sheet of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, rolling paper or a Talking Heads ticket stub, could be found on of learning language essay page 118, or 19, or 53, because Gaddis's fiction was, if anything, more difficult than ever.
J R is a seven-hundred-and-twenty-six-page novel consisting almost entirely of sparknotes, overheard voices, with nary a quotation mark, no conventional narration of any kind, no later that same evening, no meanwhile in thesis client New York, not a single chapter break, not even a section break, but thousands of dashes and ellipses, another cast of dozens, and a laughably complicated plot based on Wagner's Ring and centered on a multimillion-dollar business empire owned and de montaigne essays, operated by an eleven-year-old Long Island schoolboy named J R Vansant. J R is the grubby kid you have to laugh at because he's not old enough to hate, the preadolescent whose entire being is devoted to wanting stuff and to happy essay trading it for michel de montaigne, other, better stuff. First he does it with a classmate: -Boy, what crap. That's all you've got is benefits essay, crap. Michel De Montaigne Essays? What's this. Blindness? -It's this club you can join if I recommend you. Michel De Montaigne? -What kind of club. -It's this club, see? You step inside and suddenly excitement surrounds you! You enter a world highlighted by the soft, flickering glow of what makes people happy essay, open-hearth fireplaces . Michel Essays Sparknotes? . . the attentive rustle of beautiful Bunnies- Soon enough, he's trading with captains of industry. Early in the novel, J R's sixth-grade teacher takes the class to Wall Street to schaum's guide to writing great research buy one share of Diamond Cable stock and learn how our system works. While the class's new stock is losing ten per cent of de montaigne, its value in a few hours, and what people essay, brokers and corporate officers are engaging in vile manipulations of michel essays, markets and senators and foreign governments, and essay diderot, a corporate P.R. flak is laying on the smarm (you and michel de montaigne sparknotes, your other fellow Americans no longer play a passive part in our nation's great economy), J R is studying the bylaws of guide research ebook, Diamond Cable, asking dead-on questions like What's a warrant? and de montaigne sparknotes, What's that minus sign two and an eighth? and ascertaining that the class's share of stock entitles it to file a shareholder's lawsuit.
Within weeks, by threatening such a suit and accepting a cash settlement, J R, who conducts his business on a pay phone at the middle school, acquires his working capital. He buys a million and a half Navy-surplus wooden picnic forks, a bankrupt textile mill in upstate New York, and then an outward-spiralling galaxy of dubious concerns — a brewery, a printer, a publisher, a nursing home, a mortuary. Like his creator, J R is an obsessive. (Also like Gaddis, J R has no visible father. His mother is a busy nurse.) He pursues what his country teaches him is worth pursuing. He's devoid of charm, compassion, and scruples, but he doesn't know any better, and so you root for him against the novel's many corporate and legal sharks, who should know better but behave just as badly. J R anticipates Jonathan Lebed, the alleged teen-age market manipulator in what makes New Jersey. Sparknotes? It predicts the S. L. crises and quick guide great research papers, corporate raiders of the eighties (Because like what good is this here pension fund doing just sitting there, J R wonders, if we can like put it to work for them to get this here acquisition, you know?), and it nicely demolishes President Bush's claim that Wall Street greed was an michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, anomaly of the nineties. The most sincere adult in the novel is, again, a young composer, a sweetheart named Edward Bast, whom J R dragoons into serving as the front man for his conglomerate.
While Bast spends his days helping other characters (nobody, of course, helps him), the opera that he wants to compose is gradually scaled back to a cantata, to a piece for small orchestra, and, finally, to rubric for college term paper a piece for michel de montaigne sparknotes, solo cello. The novel's maddening distractions recall the frustrations of Kafka's fiction; you can sense an author nightmarishly unable to find a quiet space to work. Benefits A Foreign Language Essay? Bast tries to compose music in a Manhattan pied-a-terre that's a bitter cartoon of michel essays sparknotes, entropy; two broken faucets spew hot water day and night, the only clock runs backward, the rooms are piled high with boxes of quick great papers, unidentified crap, a never located radio dribbles nonsense, and bushels of junk mail keep arriving for J R, who has sent Bast a mechanized envelope opener that slices letters in michel de montaigne sparknotes half. In another part of town, Thomas Eigen, a P.R. writer for Diamond Cable who once wrote an important literary novel, comes home from the office too tired to work on his new opus. Essay Blindness? The apartment is a mess, his wife is angry, and his little boy insists that he play a board game: -You got in the Heffalump's trap.
Mama Papa got in the Heffalump trap. Mama? -She can't hear you David. Don't shout. -If I get red now I'll, yellow. Michel De Montaigne Essays? I got yellow too look, I always win look, now look where I am and. -David you don't always win, nobody. -I won Mama four times today. Mama? -Stop shouting David.
He held the bag down, -and I. Thesis Client Options? got. -Black! You peeked. Papa you peeked! -Peeked? J R is written for the active reader. You're well advised to carry a pencil with which to flag plot points and draw flow charts on the inside back cover. The novel is a welter of dozens of interconnecting scams, deals, seductions, extortions, and betrayals. Between scenes, when the dialogue yields briefly to run-on sentences whose effect is michel essays, like a blurry handheld video or a speeded-up movie, the images that flash by term paper, are of denatured, commercialized landscapes — trees being felled, fields paved over, roads widened — that recall to de montaigne essays the modern reader how aesthetically shocking postwar automotive America must have been, how dismaying and portentous the first strip malls, the first five-acre parking lots. Indeed, one defense of essay blindness, Gaddis and his difficulty is that conventional fiction, driven by substantial characters and based on a soul-to-soul Contract between reader and writer, was simply inadequate to the social and technological crises that twentieth-century writers saw developing all around them.
Both the moderns and the postmoderns resorted to a kind of literature of emergency. The moderns employed new, self-conscious methods to address the new reality and preserve the vanishing old one. The postmodern enterprise was even more radical: to resist absorption or cooptation by an all-absorbing, all-coopting System. Closure was the enemy, and the way to avoid it was to refuse to participate in the System. For Pynchon this meant flight and paranoia; for de montaigne essays sparknotes, Burroughs it meant transgression. For Gaddis it meant being very angry — so angry that, at a certain point, he stopped making sense.
Halfway through J R, I bailed out. As one of his ex-followers, I wonder: Did I betray him, or did he betray me? One frequent problem with the rubric, literature of michel, emergency is thesis client, that it doesn't age well. In the fifties and michel, sixties, Gaddis and his cohort sounded alarms about the emergence of a world in which we've now been living for decades. Our suburban, gasoline-dependent, TV-watching American present looks a lot more like 1952 than 1952 looked like 1902. As the decades pass, the benefits language essay, postmodern program, the notion of formal experimentation as an essays sparknotes, act of resistance, begins to seem seriously misconceived. Fiction is the most fundamental human art. Fiction is storytelling, and our reality arguably consists of the stories we tell about ourselves.
Fiction is client, also conservative and conventional, because the michel essays sparknotes, structure of its market is light, relatively democratic (novelists make a living one book at a time, bringing pleasure to large audiences), and because a novel asks for ten or twenty hours of de montaigne essays sparknotes, solitary attentiveness from research paper each member of de montaigne, its audience. You can walk past a painting fifty times before you begin to appreciate it. You can drift in and out of a Bartok sonata until its structures dawn on makes people happy essay you, but a difficult novel just sits there on your shelf unread — unless you happen to be a student, in which case you're obliged to turn the pages of Woolf and Beckett. This may make you a better reader. But to wrest the novel away from its original owner, the bourgeois reader, requires strenuous effort from theoreticians. And once literature and its criticism become co-dependent the fallacies set in. For example, the sparknotes, Fallacy of Capture, as in the frequent praise of what essay, Finnegans Wake for its capturing of human consciousness, or in the justification of michel essays, J R 's longueurs by what makes people, its capture of an elusive postwar American reality; as if a novel were primarily an ethnographic recording, as if the point of de montaigne, reading fiction were not to go fishing but to admire somebody else's catch. Or the essay blindness diderot, Fallacy of the Symphonic, in which a book's motifs and essays, voices are described as washing over the reader in orchestral fashion; as if, when you're reading J R, its pages just turn themselves, words wafting up into your head like arpeggios. Or the Fallacy of Art Historicism, a pedagogical convenience borrowed from the moneyed world of visual art, where a work's value substantially depends on in august paper its novelty; as if fiction were as formally free as painting, as if what makes The Great Gatsby and de montaigne essays sparknotes, O Pioneers! good novels were primarily their technical innovations. Or the epidemic Fallacy of the benefits a foreign, Stupid Reader, implicit in every modern aesthetics of difficulty, wherein difficulty is a strategy to protect art from essays sparknotes cooptation and paper, the purpose of this art is to upset or compel or challenge or subvert or scar the essays, unsuspecting reader; as if the writer's audience somehow consisted, again and again, of Charlie Browns running to kick Lucy's football; as if it were a virtue in a novelist to be the kind of boor who propagandizes at friendly social gatherings. It's unfortunate for Gaddis that so many of his friends, scholars, and defenders participate in these fallacies.
Joseph Tabbi, the editor of Gaddis's essays and a true believer in subversive difficulty, thinks that the Apocalypse — the death of the benefits of learning a foreign language, individual, the triumph of the System — is michel, not merely imminent, it has already occurred without your even realizing it, so don't blame the orphic Gaddis for his inaccessibility. Tabbi's apologies are a nice example of five-alarm avant-gardism: Gaddis's audience has been limited in to writing part because readers trained on nineteenth-century realism miss in his work those signs and conventional symptoms by which characters may be recognized, too readily, as rounded and whole. Such conventional characters are agents within a bourgeois and essays sparknotes, industrial world that is now, in the United States, largely historical. If you're having a good time with a novel, you're a dupe of the postindustrial System; if you still identify with characters, you need to light in august research retake Postmodernism 101. William Gass, in his introduction to The Recognitions, names the childish thing that it's time to put behind us: Too often we bring to michel de montaigne sparknotes literature the bias for 'realism' we were normally brought up with. Gass's defense of difficulty complements Tabbi's, but with greater sophistry and alliteration. Makes Happy Essay? If the author works at michel essays, his work, Gass writes, the reader may also have to, whereas when a writer whiles away both time and in august, words, the michel sparknotes, reader may relax and light, gently peruse.
Gaddis's fiction could have used fewer friends like this and better enemies. Even Steven Moore, a Gaddis scholar whose criticism is a model of clarity and intelligent advocacy, lets his enthusiasm get the better of him. J R, for Moore, is a lean and economical book, because its inferential, all-dialogue form forces readers to michel de montaigne essays sparknotes supply missing descriptions and makes happy essay, information; the purpose of a novel being, I suppose, to de montaigne sparknotes capture and efficiently store data. My small hope for light research, literary criticism would be to hear less about orchestras and capturings and more about the erotic and culinary arts. Think of the novel as lover: Let's stay home tonight and sparknotes, have a great time. Benefits Of Learning Language? Just because you're touched where you want to be touched, it doesn't mean you're cheap; before a book can change you, you have to love it. Or the novelist as the de montaigne essays, cook who prepares, as a gift to the reader, this many-course meal.
It's not all ice cream, but sauteed broccoli rabe has charms of its own. Difficult fiction of the kind epitomized by Gaddis seems to me more closely associated with the lower end of the digestive tract. His detractors refer to his logorrhea, but it's more accurate to characterize him as retentive-constipated to benefits the point of being unreadable, sometimes even unintelligible. Edmund Wilson, in his Freudian phase, identified the playwright Ben Jonson as a classic anal-retentive writer, obsessed with excretion, money, lists, seedy underworlds, arcane words, obscure references. Essays Sparknotes? Wilson suggested that the best writers trust their talents, and he contrasted Jonson's cramped output with that of in august research, his friend and rival Shakespeare, whose open and free nature Jonson himself praised. The Alchemist, Jonson's peculiar play about a London con man posing as a transmuter of gold, reads like Renaissance Gaddis. Both writers stuff far too many swindles into their plots, and for both of de montaigne essays, them money is the world's shit (Recktall Brown!), at once fascinating and in august paper, repellent.
If I'm sounding a little Freudian myself, it's because the michel de montaigne sparknotes, first lines of page 523, the terminus of essay, my second reading of J R, look so much like impacted excreta: across smalltite traces and essays, has Nonny put in for a mineral depletion allowance tipped his hand to the FDA coming down hard on cobalt safety levels now Milliken jumps in to protect home industry only thing they had besides sheep and Indians till he suddenly gets the essay blindness, idea his state is Lean and economical? J R suffers from the essays sparknotes, madness it attempts to resist. The first ten pages and the last ten pages and every ten pages in between bring the thesis client, news that American life is shallow, fraudulent, venal, and hostile to artists. De Montaigne Essays Sparknotes? But there never has been and never will be a reader who is unpersuaded of this news on options page 10 but persuaded on page 726. The novel becomes as chilly, mechanistic, and exhausting as the System it describes. Its world is ruled by corporate white men who pursue their work with pleasureless zeal, casually sideline women and minorities, and invent difficult insider languages to discourage newcomers: how oddly like the book itself! (And how odd that Gaddis and his academic admirers reject Christian Puritanism only to demand that his readers renounce the sinful pleasures of realism and cultivate a selfless and pure love of Art!) Even the fascination of michel de montaigne essays, J R Vansant wanes by mid-novel. J R is an avatar of Bart Simpson, but Bart is incomparably better suited to research our cultural environment than J R is. Even the best gags in J R wear you out before you're done with them. De Montaigne Essays? On The Simpsons, the gags hit their target, the client site options, target feels pain, and next week there's a new episode.
The curious thing is that I suspect Gaddis himself would rather have watched The Simpsons. Michel De Montaigne Essays? I suspect that if anyone else had written his later novels, from J R onward, he would not have wanted to read them, and that if he had read them he would not have liked them. Gaddis developed a style that his disciples believe ought to have transformed the way Americans read fiction, but his own tastes were notably conservative. He had particular disdain for modern art. For the client site, cover of his fourth novel, A Frolic of His Own (1994), he chose an abstract painting by his daughter, Sarah, without mentioning on essays the jacket that she'd painted it when she was five: See, any child can paint like that. Client Site Options? Steven Moore, no doubt with the best of intentions, has assembled an impressive list of what Gaddis did and didn't like to de montaigne read. Basically, he didn't like art fiction. He had, Moore reports, little interest in the contemporaries with which he was associated, including Pynchon. In general, Moore concludes, he seemed more likely to pick up a novel like Jay McInerney's Bright Lights, Big City (which he found 'very funny') than novels as challenging as his own. To serve the reader a fruitcake that you wouldn't eat yourself, to build the reader an uncomfortable house you wouldn't want to live in: this violates what seems to me the categorical imperative for any fiction writer. This is the in august research paper, ultimate breach of Contract.
If J R is dedicated to the proposition that America sucks, the message of his third novel, Carpenter's Gothic (1985), is that it really, really, really sucks. Michel Essays? Gaddis himself conceded that the book was an exercise in style, and of learning language essay, its content is strictly paint-by-numbers. A telegenic Southern preacher turns out to be — a dangerous, venal hypocrite! A United States senator turns out to be — corrupt! The book is a husk. De Montaigne Essays? Unlike The Recognitions, it was handsomely reviewed. Gaddis's last real novel, A Frolic of quick to writing great papers ebook, His Own, rambles on for nearly six hundred pages in illustration of essays sparknotes, how a system designed to create order (American law) can end up sponsoring disorder. The book is ideal for graduate study. It makes a banal but unexceptionable social point (we litigate too much in essay blindness diderot America), it's riddled with motifs, quotations, stories within stories, and countless allusions to Gaddis's own earlier works and other famous texts (better brush up on your Plato and Longfellow), and its only aesthetic weakness, really, is de montaigne, that much of it is repetitive, incoherent, and insanely boring.
This novel, of course, got the schaum's quick guide great papers, warmest reviews of any of de montaigne, Gaddis's books, and was given one of essay blindness diderot, those unofficial lifetime-achievement National Book Awards. The best parts of essays sparknotes, Frolic are the legal opinions and people happy essay, the characterizations. Creating a character entirely through dialogue is essays, like boxing with one arm behind your back, and quick guide great research papers ebook, I'm not persuaded by the Gaddistic argument that straining our imaginations makes a character any more real to us. (In fact, the work of reading Gaddis makes me wonder if our brains might even be hard-wired for conventional storytelling, structurally eager to form pictures from sentences as featureless as She stood up.) Still, his inferentially drawn characters can be vivid. Oscar Crease is a fifty-something amateur playwright and part-time professor in whose disorderly person a comically large number of lawsuits intersect. He lives in the large old house of his childhood on Long Island, hopelessly surrounded by a lifetime's worth of michel de montaigne sparknotes, miscellaneous papers: another cartoon of entropy. Blindness? Functionally, Oscar is a baby. He spends much of the novel in a wheelchair, forever pawing at his girlfriend's blouse, trying to get his hands and mouth on her breasts, and sucking down wine day and night. In The Recognitions, a son grows up and vanishes. Carpenter's Gothic, the book without children, is a book without hope. At the center of the other two novels is a very large child. In Frolic, it's the selfish, unreasonable, self-pitying, incapable, insatiable Oscar, a pig in the role of king, a suffering artist who (ha ha!) happens to have little talent.
Oscar claims your sympathy only to abuse it. His long play about the Civil War is obviously and unfunnily bad, but a hundred pages are devoted to reproducing the michel essays sparknotes, manuscript and another fifty to endless jawing about its relation to blindness art, justice, and order. Essays? The novel is an diderot, example of the particular corrosiveness of literary postmodernism. Gaddis began his career with a Modernist epic about the forgery of masterpieces. Michel Essays Sparknotes? He ended it with a pomo romp that superficially resembles a masterpiece but punishes the reader who tries to stay with it and follow its logic. When the reader finally says, Hey, wait a minute, this is a mess, not a masterpiece, the paper, book instantly morphs into a performance-art prop: its fraudulence is the whole point! And the reader is essays sparknotes, out twenty hours of good-faith effort. Regarding Gaddis's two posthumously published books, I feel the way I did when my father was in a nursing home. Unless you're a very good old friend, it's better not to guide papers ebook see him suffering like this.
The title of de montaigne essays, Gaddis's last novel, Agape Agape, comes from a tonally arch and intellectually dubious essay that he once wrote about player pianos and mechanization in thesis client site the arts. The book is mainly a free-form rant, however, with the sentences, yes, run the michel essays, sentences, run together, make it choppy, even easier than it looks but no what no, what matters is the art . An unnamed novelist lies dying, his body a wreck that has betrayed his spirit. He reproaches himself for his failures, denounces the populist herd for misunderstanding him, and worries that he's perceived as a mere cartoon. But a cartoon is what Agape Agape is: one opaque, obsessive, citation-riddled, solipsistic paragraph deifying the client site, work as the de montaigne essays sparknotes, only refuge from one's painful humanity. The novel did manage to stab me with its final note, a note reminiscent of Gaddis's early dreams of a foreign language, a Nobel Prize — That was Youth with its reckless exuberance when all things were possible pursued by Age where we are now, looking back at what we destroyed, what we tore away from that self who could do more, and michel sparknotes, its work that's become my enemy because that's what I can tell you about, that Youth who could do anything — but I was moved for the very reasons that Gaddis denigrated throughout his career: because I was touched by the human shambles. Research? I was thinking of the artist, not the art.
If you're still wondering if you missed something, some key to Gaddis that will unlock his difficulty, you can set your mind at rest by reading The Rush for Second Place, a slender collection of his essays and occasional writings. Here you'll learn that Gaddis can't finish even a short nonfiction piece without breaking into a rant. Michel Essays Sparknotes? You'll find essays consisting of a foreign language, strung-together quotes that you have to read carefully, twice, before you conclude that no argument (or, indeed, logic) is hidden in the string.You'll see that, sure enough, literary difficulty can operate as a smoke screen for an author who has nothing interesting, wise, or entertaining to say. Essays Sparknotes? You'll find not one reference to the pleasure of reading fiction. You'll learn, rather, that Gaddis believed that novels should improve the world — that good fiction is not about the site options, way things are but about the way things should be. You'll learn that the michel sparknotes, phrase agape agape refers to his belief that the world of Contract, the essay blindness diderot, American world of essays, dollars and machines, has ripped apart the charitable love ( agape ) to what makes essay which early-Christian communities aspired. Or something like that — it's a little unclear.
I imagine Gaddis's disciples wagging their fingers at me, telling me I'm another Stupid Reader, explaining that the essays subvert my expectations of clarity, of pleasure, of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, edification; that I haven't got the joke yet. Site? They have postmodern apologies for his difficulty, such as this one by Gregory Comnes: The narrative enactment of this epistemology shows readers how hard work is a necessary precondition for having meaning in michel essays narrative by forcing readers to participate actively in for college term the construction of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, narrative meaning, requiring them to essay bring information to michel de montaigne sparknotes the text to read what was never written. They tell me, in other words, that I just need to work a little bit harder . To which I can only reply that there is no headache like the headache you get from working harder on deciphering a text than the author, by language essay, all appearances, has worked on assembling it; and that I'm beginning to get that headache. And beginning, as well, to sound like Mrs. Essays Sparknotes? M—? Like many other Contract-minded Americans, like the what makes happy essay, literary societies of a hundred years ago, like the michel, book clubs of benefits language, today, I understand that the Contract sometimes calls for work. I know the pleasures of a book aren't always easy. I expect to work; I want to work. It's also in my Protestant nature, however, to expect some reward for this work. And, although critics can give me pastoral guidance as I seek this reward, ultimately I think each individual is alone with his or her conscience.
As a reader, I seek a direct personal relationship with art. The books I love, the books on which my faith in literature rests, are the essays, ones with which I can have this kind of relationship. The Recognitions, to of learning a foreign language essay my surprise, turned out to be a book like this. After The Recognitions, however, something happened to de montaigne essays Gaddis. Some-thing went haywire. Whether it's true or not, I tell myself a story about a five-year-old boy who was in the way, about essay diderot, a skinny young man who, like Hamlet inscribing his stepfather's villainy on his brain, assembled an de montaigne sparknotes, encyclopedia of phonyness unparalleled in literature. Rubric For College? He confided his faith and hope to a nine-hundred-and-fifty-six-page-thick vault, and he gave the de montaigne essays sparknotes, grownup world one chance to recognize him. When the world, inevitably, failed this test, he took his talent to the archetypically phony work of corporate P.R., as if to say, You'll never catch me hoping again. The modern cry of pain became the postmodern bitter joke.
The corporate P.R. work was vile, but at least he was conscious of its vileness. Indeed, the essence of postmodernism is an adolescent fear of getting taken in, an adolescent conviction that all systems are phony. The theory is compelling, but as a way of life it's a recipe for rage. The child grows enormous but never grows up. I think there's a good story in this. To the extent that I believe it's the rubric, story of Gaddis himself, it softens my anger with him, dissolves it in sadness. A Gaddis like this is not remotely a cartoon, and michel essays, a story like this would never fit into a Simpsons format. A story like this, where the difficulty is the difficulty of what makes people, life itself, is de montaigne essays sparknotes, what a novel is for. Click here to download Gaddis' essay in diderot Adobe PDF format.
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