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The Crafted Word Rubrics Resources. Explicating Themes in Literature. The first triangle of the paragraph introduces the theme in perfect lab report, a broad way, and then narrows it down to a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in a single paragraph. The blue rectangle is the central part of your paragraph. It contains the text reference and text support that “proves” your theme is evident in thesis statement, the actual text. The bottom triangle contains the head and heart, which, in perfect, many ways, should be the most interesting and thoughtful part of your paragraph.
It is where you discuss the importance of the theme in the text support and text reference in the smoking gun. Holiday Ever Essay. See how (as opposed to perfect lab report, the upper triangle) it starts narrow and essay expands to allow you to logically tie back in to your broad theme in your concluding sentence. Feel free (and they are free!) to download and use any Crafted Word Rubrics. Ib Physics. When publishing, simply include a link to TheCrafted Word.org and help us spread the news of our site. Thanks. Literary Paragraph Rubric This is a word doc that you can open in constructions, Microsoft Word, Google Docs or in perfect ib physics lab report, Mac Pages.
How To Write Great Opening Paragraphs. Common Literary Analysis. I have compiled a short list of the most common mistakes writers make when using the literary analysis paragraph rubric. It is worth another look at your own paragraphs to see if you have made any of these mistakes. That “first look” at a student’s essay is writing essays.com, incredibly important to most teachers.
It is perfect, our first clue that a student “cares” about the assignment—or doesn’t. Grumpier Old Men. It shows us whether or not a student has read and incorporated the details of the assignment into a writing piece. In the case of the Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric there are specific directions for where to put the assignment details: name, date, etc; there are guidelines for perfect, including a one-word or one phrase theme, and holiday essay there is a place to put a guiding quote. Follow any teacher’s guidelines for formatting, and he or she will be on your side after that quick and critical first look ! GUIDING THEME MISTAKES. This comprises the first third of your paragraph and guides the reader in the direction your paragraph. The three parts act together to clearly state the reason your paragraph exists.
Broad Theme: The most common mistake is to make this a long and complicated sentence. The only purpose of the broad theme is to “engage” the perfect lab report, readers interest by introducing an enduring theme and tying it into your narrow theme. Narrow Theme: The most common mistake is to omit the one word theme and best holiday a specific reference to lab report, the literary piece in grumpier old men, the sentence. This sentence shows how the broad theme is used in the literary piece. One/Two Punch: Don’t go back to ib physics lab report, your broad theme here; this is the place to narrow down your narrow theme even further to a specific character, event or observation. TEXT REFERENCE SUPPORT MISTAKES.
This should fill up the center third of your paragraph. It is the thesis, physical proof of your theme working within the text of your literary piece. Setup: Oftentimes a writer does not provide enough specific detail for perfect ib physics lab report, the reader to frq essay ap european, fully understand the context of the coming quote (the smoking gun). Be sure to fully create the “image” a reader needs to “see” by perfect lab report, including a meaty and makes happy essay specific who, what, when, where, why leading into the actual text support, AKA: The Smoking Gun . Smoking Gun: This can only ib physics be the essays.com, actual text from the perfect, literary piece. Essays.com. The most common mistake is to forget to perfect lab report, cite the source of the quote, or to forget to italicize the quote–or to old men, forget to perfect ib physics lab report, block quote the ever, selection if it is perfect ib physics, longer than two lines on the page. EXPLICATION EXPLANATION MISTAKES. Head and Heart: This is the elizabeth bishop critical essays, foundation of your paragraph. Without it, your paragraph will be as empty as it is shallow. It shows and tells the reader how your theme is perfect, relevant to your text reference. It makes reading your paragraph a worthwhile (edifying) experience.
Head and Heart: By far the most common mistake here is to write about the theme itself instead of how the theme is specifically used in the piece of literature you are analyzing—and even more specifically how the theme is used in your text reference. Check this section and make sure that “every” sentence refers back to the literary piece (and your narrow theme) in some way shape or form. TRANSITION OR CONCLUSION. This part of your paragraph should signal your readers that they have either reached their destination or you are talking the next exit off the highway. There is essays.com, no reason to be wordy here. Perfect. Too many words is like trying to clear a muddy puddle with your hand. The most common mistake here is referencing your broad theme without referencing the piece of literature you just finished analyzing. Get On: The biggest mistake when transitioning to a new paragraph is when there is no logical flow between paragraphs. My rule of thumb is that you “should” be able to thesis constructions, put a conjunctive adverb (moreover, finally, however, etc) or a conjunction (so, yet, and,or, nor, for, but) between the last line of perfect ib physics lab report one paragraph and the first line of the next.
If you can’t do that, there might be something more you need to do…. Get Out: It is critical to end a final or single paragraph with a sense of finality, so my advice is to grumpier old men, finish it clean. The most common mistake here is to introduce a new thought that you haven’t already discussed in your paragraph–or you forget to refer back to your one-word theme AND the literary piece. Never refer back only to perfect lab report, the broad theme. Grumpier Old Men. This final sentence needs to perfect ib physics, capture your narrow theme PLUS the essays.com, added insight of your explanation and explication. PROOFREADING, EDITING REVISING. Few things in ib physics, a student’s life can be as aggravating as receiving a paper back that is full of swirls of red ink and hastily scrolled admonitions to spell correctly, include proper punctuation and grammar, avoid homophones and first person musings. Frq Essay Ap European. More infuriating might be the fact that your teacher is perfect lab report, ignoring your amazing and insightful analysis just because of a few small writing mistakes. In the ever, end, a mistake is a mistake.
All of these “must” be found and corrected by you. Proofread, edit and revise when your mind is fresh and concentration is not a Herculean and Sisyphus-like task. Use a good grammar and spell checker. Let a friend who is particularly good at stuff like this take a look at your work. Give a damn here and you will be amply rewarded! The Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric. “A mighty book requires a mighty theme.” The Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric. L iterary analysis is lab report, a type of writing where a writer literally breaks a story down to its most basic elements and thesis then analyzes how and why those elements work in that particular story. These elements include identifying important themes, comparing and contrasting stories and authors, defining writing techniques and devices—and anything else that relates to the way in ib physics, which a story is structured and told. Literary analysis deals only in what can be proved objectively via the text, and not because how and why a certain story makes you—as an elizabeth essays individual—think and feel subjectively about that story.
The Literary Analysis Paragraph #1 is designed to help any writer find and explicate the perfect, major themes in a story and to define the importance of bishop critical these themes in the story. The fact that you, as the analyst, are dealing with objective and provable facts is the main reason why most teachers forbid the perfect lab report, use of the “I” voice in this type of writing. It is here where I make the distinction between literary analysis and statement literary reflection: a literary reflection “reflects” your unique emotional and intellectual response to the story; whereas, a literary analysis “analyzes” the form, devices, style, and content of a story. In an analysis, the “I” is not needed and does not help you prove your point because the perfect, point is proved using verifiable facts. Elizabeth Bishop Critical. Throwing yourself into the mix just muddies the water and burdens your writing with unnecessary words and distractions. The basic structure of the literary analysis paragraph rubric is, however, essentially the same as the narrative paragraph rubric: you open with a clear and concise guiding theme or topic [broad theme, narrow theme, one/two punch]; you offer supporting facts and proof [smoking gun]; and in your third section of the perfect, paragraph, you explain and explicate how your guiding theme relates to the story [head and heart].
Finally, you “get on or get out.” If you are writing a single paragraph, you get out with a sense of finality; if you are writing a multi-paragraph essay, you may need to find a way to essays.com, transition in a logical and unforced way to the next paragraph in your essay. It is important as a reader, and even more so as a writer, to ib physics, be able to what makes happy, understand the lab report, importance of themes in a piece of literature, for exploring the themes of being human—and being connected (or disconnected) to the rest of humanity is the essential role of what makes people any writer! We don’t read because we care about a writer; and ib physics lab report if you are a writer, you need to understand that nobody cares about “you” as a person any more than some guy living three towns over from you; however, we do care about ourselves, and if as a writer you put us in best ever, touch with a deeper side of our head and heart; if you pull on the strings of our imagination in such a way that we cry when you want us to cry, laugh when you want us to laugh, and think what you want us to perfect ib physics lab report, think—then you have succeeded as a writer, and those people who do not care about you as a person will care about what you write, and makes people they will beat a path to an door where they can find the pages that hold your words. Literary Analysis Paragraph Rubric #1. T he golden rule of perfect lab report writers is to always know what your readers want and expect—and give it to essay, them in well-crafted writing, which almost always means well-constructed paragraphs! I love using the perfect ib physics, term “well-crafted” because it implies that writing well requires a deliberate and writing attentive focus.
Good writing is never finished; it is abandoned. Honestly: give yourself ninety minutes to two hours to finish this. A writer’s first words are seldom his or her best words. Over the years I have read and graded thousands of these paragraphs. It is not hard to lab report, figure out who gave a damn and who didn’t. It is obvious who reads the details of this rubric before creating his or her own paragraph. So do your best. Give a damn. Holiday Essay. It works. The image on the sidebar is a visual to perfect lab report, help you see what a detailed paragraph includes:
The first triangle of the paragraph introduces the theme in a broad way, and then narrows it down to a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in a single paragraph. The blue rectangle is the central part of your paragraph. Writing. It contains the text reference and text support that “proves” your theme is evident in the actual text. The bottom triangle contains the head and heart, which, in many ways, should be the perfect ib physics lab report, most interesting and thoughtful part of your paragraph. It is where you discuss the importance of the theme in the text support and text reference in the smoking gun. See how (as opposed to the upper triangle) it starts narrow and expands to allow you to logically tie back in to people happy, your broad theme in your concluding sentence. Be sure to follow “all” of the perfect ib physics lab report, details of the rubric explained in the steps below, and try your hand at a creating a well-crafted literary analysis paragraph—one that we call a “ whamdammer ” in my class! In the rubric that follows, I use an example paragraph written by Ryan Ewing one of writing my 8 th grade students in lab report, 2013. The strength of Ryan’s paragraph is not just that it is a good paragraph; it s because he follows the details of the rubric throughout his paragraph. Writing Essays.com. If you wish, replace his text with your own text, then cut and paste your words into a new document and save and perfect submit as required by your teacher. phs . It is not hard to figure out who gave a damn and who didn’t.
It is obvious who reads the details of best holiday ever essay this rubric before creating his or her own paragraph. So do your best. Ib Physics. Give a damn. It works. The image on the sidebar is statement, a visual to help you see what a detailed paragraph includes:
The first triangle of the perfect ib physics lab report, paragraph introduces the theme in a broad way, and then narrows it down to a more focused theme that you can effectively write about in a single paragraph. The blue rectangle is the central part of ap european your paragraph. It contains the text reference and text support that “proves” your theme is evident in ib physics lab report, the actual text. Ap European. The bottom triangle contains the head and ib physics heart, which, in many ways, should be the most interesting and thoughtful part of your paragraph. It is where you discuss the importance of the theme in the text support and essays.com text reference in the smoking gun. See how (as opposed to the upper triangle) it starts narrow and expands to allow you to logically tie back in to lab report, your broad theme in your concluding sentence. Be sure to follow “all” of the details of the rubric explained in the steps below, and try your hand at essay a creating a well-crafted literary analysis paragraph—one that we call a “ whamdammer ” in perfect lab report, my class! In the rubric that follows, I use an example paragraph written by frq essay, Ryan Ewing one of my 8 th grade students in 2013. The strength of perfect ib physics lab report Ryan’s paragraph is not just that it is a good paragraph; it s because he follows the details of the what people happy essay, rubric throughout his paragraph.
If you wish, replace his text with your own text, then cut and paste your words into a new document and save and lab report submit as required by your teacher. #1: The Assignment Information: Who are you and what are your writing about? As Mae West said, “It is elizabeth bishop critical, better to look marvellous than to perfect ib physics lab report, feel marvellous.” In that spirit, create assignments that “look” good. Grumpier Old Men Essay. In the top right corner of your assignment post your name, class, section, assignment name and date.
Huck Finn Paragraph. #2. The Universal Theme. State the perfect ib physics lab report, unifying theme! A paragraph needs to have a unifying theme that is developed and explained throughout the paragraph.
In this rubric, we are only writing about a single important theme that can be captured n a single word or short phrase. Your one word or short phrase theme is the specific aspect of the human condition that is a central theme in the writing piece– but do not mention the writing piece here. It should be centered below your quote and above your opening paragraph in size 18, bold font. Your theme should be one word (ideally) or a short phrase—not a full sentence. Quote from the statement, text that captures your unifying theme. This quote is by no means “necessary” for a good paragraph, and you would not include it in an essay, but it is a good practice when writing a paragraph, and helps to keep you focused on the theme of your paragraph–and it sets the tone, mood and direction for your reader. Choose a quote from the writing piece” that fully captures the ib physics, theme you wish to explore in your paragraph. This quote is the main source for your text reference and text support in your paragraph. This can be longer or shorter than you will need or use in your paragraph. Center your quote above your paragraph in people happy essay, italics (No quotation marks.) Be sure to cite your source using brackets: For example, [ The Odyssey , Book VII, Lines 331-335]
Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. Lab Report. I was ever so glad to essays.com, see Jim. I warn’t lonesome now. I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the people where I was. I talked along, but he only set there and perfect ib physics lab report looked at me; never said nothing. [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] #4: The Broad Theme. The Universal Theme of the essays.com, Paragraph! This is your first sentence of a body paragraph. In a way, it is almost like the “title” of your paragraph. It is meant to indicate the direction of the paragraph in a compelling and perfect ib physics lab report interesting way by creating a clear, concise, and memorable statement of a universal theme—a universal reality that relevant, interesting and compelling to your readers. Do not mention the writing piece in writing, this sentence because this sentence is supposed to introduce the theme of your paragraph in a general way that is perfect lab report, interesting to a potential reader.
Oftentimes, especially in a longer, multi-paragraph essay, it makes sense to remove this broad theme, but in a one-paragraph response, I’d leave it in there. Nothing beats spending time with a good friend. #5. The Narrow Theme. Introduce the bishop critical essays, Theme in the Literature You Are Analysing. This is essentially the more focused topic sentence of lab report your paragraph —and as such, it is the most important sentence in your paragraph! The Narrow Theme narrows down your theme in a specific way by writing a phrase or sentence that captures how your one-word theme is used in the literature you are analysing. Frq Essay. This is your “clear, concise and memorable” topic sentence. Be sure to include a specific reference to the writing piece AND a specific reference to your one-word theme in this sentence. In the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn , by Mark Twain, Huck and Jim grow to be two inseparable friends that set out on a great journey together.
#6: The One/Two Punch. Really Narrow Down Your Theme! Follow your Narrow Theme with one or two more sentences with what I call the one/two punch that add detail or explanation to your theme and narrows down the perfect ib physics, topic even further. The two companions go through a lot over their time together, but they never give up on each other. Jim and Huck are as different as people can be, physically; however, it is their similar minds that bring them together as friends. What about essay exploring and writing about more than one theme in a single paragraph?
The Literary Analysis Rubric is designed to help writers explicate individual themes in individual paragraphs, but there are occasions where you need or want to explore two or more themes in perfect ib physics lab report, a single paragraph. With a bit of tweaking, you can still use the basic rules of this rubric and weave in a discussion and exploration of bishop additional themes within the same paragraph. My one rule is that there needs to be either a symbiotic relationship between the themes OR an perfect antagonistic relationship that develops in essays.com, such a way in the story that it is ib physics lab report, important to discuss the thesis, relationship between these themes. Friendship and Hospitality are both major themes in The Odyssey , and it makes a lot of sense to describe the perfect ib physics, relationship between these two themes. Likewise, Fate and bishop critical Free Will are important—although opposite—themes that recur throughout The Odyssey ; hence, exploring the roles and relationship of these contradictory themes in the same paragraph makes a lot of perfect ib physics sense.
Be sure to introduce all of the essays.com, themes in your broad theme/narrow theme/one-two punch. Add Text Reference: Who? What? When? Where? Why? The setup is the text “reference” that describes in detail (and explicates) the perfect ib physics lab report, “scene” leading in to your quote (the smoking gun) from the literary piece. The setup and the smoking gun work together to add the “proof” that you have read and studied the constructions, piece of literature you are analysing. Without the smoking gun, you are just rambling around and perfect lab report going nowhere—unless your readers are already fully aware of everything that happens in your piece of frq essay ap european literature. The setup to your smoking gun should include a who, what , when, where, why reference to a scene from the piece of perfect ib physics lab report literature you are analysing.
Use specific images and actions to describe the scene leading into the quote (smoking gun!) Notice the colon Ryan uses to “introduce” the quote. What Happy Essay. Notice, too, that he describes this scene in perfect, the present tense! And he reinforces the writing, theme of friendship again! In the first couple of days after he ran away from his pap’s house, Huck feels very much alone in the vast world that he is ib physics lab report, hiding in: no friends , no nothing—that is, before he finds Jim. One day, while Huck is essays.com, out exploring the island, he stumbles upon Jim’s camp; while he is appalled that Jim would run away from Ms. Ib Physics. Watson, he is happy that he now has a companion on the island. Even though Jim thinks Huck is a ghost at first, Huck is quick to convince him that he is not: Adding Quotes The Proof That the Theme Is in the Story! The smoking gun is the quote (text support, aka: actual text from the piece of literature) you use from the writing piece you are analyzing. A literary analysis without text support is like an egg without a yolk!
Text reference (setup) and what makes happy essay text support (smoking gun) work together to prove you’ve read and analyzed the text and perfect prepares your reader for statement constructions, your head and heart section of the paragraph. Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. I was ever so glad to see Jim. I warn’t lonesome now. I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the ib physics lab report, people where I was. [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] Using Outside Source Analysis. We only write well about that which we know well, so it is important that a scholar “studies and researches” his or her topic as thoroughly as possible before writing. It is writing, perfectly acceptable (and I think desirable) to perfect ib physics, include some references from reputable sources that support your own conclusions and analysis. It not only shows that you are not alone in your thinking, it also shows that you have done more than simply express your own thoughts—it shows you have researched and documented more “proof” that your analysis is valid.
How to frq essay ap european, cite outside sources… It is imperative that you cite any outside source that you use. It is unwise and unethical if you don’t cite in a clear and acceptable way. Ask your teacher which format is acceptable. If you are writing on your own, chose the style you wish: MLA, APA, Chicago, etc.
If you are not sure how to cite a source, look it up online. There are some great resources out there, such as citelighter.com, easybib.com, and a host of others. Things to remember… The best place for outside source material is in the Head Heart. Analyze, Explain Explicate the Theme in the Passage. This is the “brains brilliance” part of your paragraph. It shows your reader your how much you know and how insightful you are about ib physics lab report your theme and makes people happy essay how it used in the literary work you are discussing. Write at least four sentences that, explicate, illustrate, and elaborate upon your topic sentence and the “Theme” as it used in literary piece, specifically the smoking gun! Huck declares a friend as someone who he can trust; by saying that he was not scared of lab report Jim telling on him, he is showing that he trusts Jim as a good friend . He knows that Jim is the constructions, kind of person that would comfort him and perfect give him good company –that is exactly what a good friend does.
Huck is essay, white kid who hasn’t quite yet developed feeling for others. Jim, on the other hand, is a slave; however, their similar taste for adventure is perfect, what ultimately makes them friends . Note: It is important to keep hammering home the main theme word or phrase–though you can (and maybe should) use a bit more variation than in here. If this paragraph is statement constructions, “transitioning” to a new paragraph, (as is usually the case in perfect, an essay) craft your words in a way that sets up the next paragraph. This creates what is called “logical flow.” If the paragraph is simply ending, (as in a brief literature response) try and best holiday ever find a way of tying back into your opening theme in a new and refreshing way. This gives your readers a concise and confident visual and mental cue that you have said all you need to say. Be sure—one more time—to include a reference to your theme in the conclusion. For Example: Throughout the rest of the novel, Jim and Huck remain close friends.
They come to realize that neither of them could have evaded capture for so long if it weren’t for perfect ib physics lab report, their friendship. For Huck and Jim, their friendship has allowed them to succeed and thrive together on a difficult journey. A writing piece is never finished. Makes People Happy. It is perfect, abandoned. Once you are this far, now is the time to go back, edit, revise and to do whatever needs to be done to make this a worthy and enduring piece of literature in its own right. I know this is a lot of work for a paragraph (usually at leas t to hours of good work)–but it is what you need to do if you want to ap european, create a clear, concise, compelling, well supported and interesting literary analysis paragraph! Copy and Paste the Completed Paragraph. Put it all together and edit and revise as needed!
After you have completed all of the perfect lab report, steps, put it all together, proofread carefully, edit and elizabeth revise, and turn in the assignment as required. I have put in bold how often Ryan reinforces the perfect ib physics, theme of writing essays.com friendship in this paragraph. Ib Physics Lab Report. This emphasis indicate that the paragraph has unity, while the ap european, rubric creates logic flow; however, it is the way you craft your words and sentences that gives the paragraph fluency and flow–which is as important as anything! Huck Finn Paragraph. Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. Ib Physics. I was ever so glad to see Jim. I warn’t lonesome now. What Happy Essay. I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the people where I was. I talked along, but he only perfect ib physics set there and looked at me; never said nothing. [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII ] Nothing beats spending time with a good friend.
In the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, by Mark Twain, Huck and Jim grow to be two inseparable friends that set out on a great journey together. The two companions go through a lot over their time together, but they never give up on each other. They are as different as people can be, physically; however, it is their similar minds that bring them together as friends. In the first couple of days after he ran away from his pap’s house, Huck feels very much alone in the vast world that he is hiding in; no friends, no nothing—that is, before he finds Jim! One day, while Huck is out exploring the island, he stumbles upon Jim’s camp; while he is appalled that Jim would run away from Ms. Watson, he is happy that he now has a companion on the island. Even though Jim thinks Huck is a ghost at first, Huck is quick to writing, convince him that he is not: “ Well, I warn’t long making him understand I warn’t dead. I was ever so glad to see Jim. Perfect Ib Physics Lab Report. I warn’t lonesome now.
I told him I warn’t afraid of HIM telling the people where I was.” [The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Chapter VIII] Huck declares a friend as someone whom he can trust; by thesis statement, saying that he was not scared of Jim telling on him, he is showing that he trusts Jim as a good friend. He knows that Jim is the kind of person that would comfort him and give him good company—and that is exactly what a good friend does. Huck is white kid who hasn’t quite yet developed feeling for perfect lab report, the black slaves that have been so much a part of his life. Bishop Critical Essays. Jim, on the other hand, is a slave; however, their similar taste for adventure is what ultimately makes them friends. Ib Physics Lab Report. Throughout the rest of the novel, Jim and Huck remain close friends.
They come to realize that neither of them could have evaded capture for so long if it weren’t for their friendship. For Huck and Jim, their friendship has allowed them to succeed and thrive together on a difficult journey. Now that’s a fine looking paragraph! Explore more of The Crafted Word Rubrics. If we don’t learn from what we do, we learn little of real value. If we don’t make the time to explore, reflect and rethink our ways of doing things, we will never grow, evolve and reach our greatest potential or tap into the possibilities in bishop, our lives. by Fitz | February 18, 2017 | Assess, Journal | 1 Comment. by Fitz | November 16, 2016 | Essays, Journal | 0 Comments.
by Fitz | November 14, 2016 | Essays, Journal | 7 Comments. The most powerful and enduring connection we share as a human race is ib physics lab report, our desire and thesis need to share stories. We engage in the art of storytelling more than most of us ever realize; whether we are describing our kids’ soccer games, critiquing the latest HBO series, telling a ribald joke, or remembering a long lost friend, event, memory, book, or experience. by Fitz | April 27, 2016 | Essays, Journal, Write | 31 Comments.
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Address by President Obama to the 71st Session of the ib physics lab report, United Nations General Assembly. The United Nations. Statement Constructions? New York, New York. Ib Physics Lab Report? PRESIDENT OBAMA: Mr. President; Mr. Secretary General; fellow delegates; ladies and elizabeth bishop essays gentlemen: As I address this hall as President for the final time, let me recount the progress that we’ve made these last eight years. From the depths of the greatest financial crisis of our time, we coordinated our response to avoid further catastrophe and return the global economy to growth. We’ve taken away terrorist safe havens, strengthened the nonproliferation regime, resolved the ib physics lab report, Iranian nuclear issue through diplomacy. We opened relations with Cuba, helped Colombia end Latin America’s longest war, and elizabeth essays we welcome a democratically elected leader of Myanmar to this Assembly. Perfect Lab Report? Our assistance is helping people feed themselves, care for the sick, power communities across Africa, and promote models of development rather than dependence. And we have made international institutions like the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund more representative, while establishing a framework to what makes happy, protect our planet from the ravages of climate change.
This is ib physics important work. It has made a real difference in the lives of our people. And it could not have happened had we not worked together. And yet, around the globe we are seeing the same forces of global integration that have made us interdependent also expose deep fault lines in the existing international order. Writing Essays.com? We see it in the headlines every day. Ib Physics? Around the essays.com, world, refugees flow across borders in flight from perfect ib physics lab report brutal conflict. Financial disruptions continue to weigh upon our workers and entire communities. Across vast swaths of the Middle East, basic security, basic order has broken down. We see too many governments muzzling journalists, and quashing dissent, and censoring the flow of information.
Terrorist networks use social media to holiday essay, prey upon the minds of our youth, endangering open societies and spurring anger against innocent immigrants and Muslims. Powerful nations contest the constraints placed on ib physics lab report, them by international law. This is the paradox that defines our world today. A quarter century after the end of the Cold War, the world is by best holiday ever many measures less violent and more prosperous than ever before, and yet our societies are filled with uncertainty, and unease, and strife. Despite enormous progress, as people lose trust in institutions, governing becomes more difficult and ib physics tensions between nations become more quick to surface. And so I believe that at this moment we all face a choice. We can choose to press forward with a better model of what people cooperation and integration.
Or we can retreat into a world sharply divided, and ultimately in conflict, along age-old lines of nation and tribe and race and religion. Ib Physics? I want to suggest to you today that we must go forward, and not backward. I believe that as imperfect as they are, the principles of open markets and accountable governance, of democracy and human rights and international law that we have forged remain the firmest foundation for human progress in this century. I make this argument not based on bishop critical essays, theory or ideology, but on facts -- facts that all too often, we forget in the immediacy of current events. Here’s the most important fact: The integration of our global economy has made life better for billions of perfect ib physics men, women and essays.com children.
Over the perfect ib physics lab report, last 25 years, the number of people living in extreme poverty has been cut from nearly 40 percent of humanity to under 10 percent. That's unprecedented. And it's not an abstraction. It means children have enough to eat; mothers don’t die in childbirth. Meanwhile, cracking the genetic code promises to cure diseases that have plagued us for grumpier centuries.
The Internet can deliver the perfect ib physics lab report, entirety of bishop essays human knowledge to a young girl in a remote village on a single hand-held device. In medicine and in manufacturing, in education and communications, we’re experiencing a transformation of perfect ib physics how human beings live on a scale that recalls the revolutions in agriculture and thesis industry. And as a result, a person born today is perfect ib physics lab report more likely to be healthy, to thesis, live longer, and to have access to ib physics, opportunity than at any time in frq essay ap european, human history. Moreover, the collapse of perfect lab report colonialism and communism has allowed more people than ever before to live with the freedom to choose their leaders. Despite the elizabeth bishop critical, real and ib physics troubling areas where freedom appears in retreat, the fact remains that the number of democracies around the world has nearly doubled in the last 25 years. In remote corners of the world, citizens are demanding respect for the dignity of all people no matter their gender, or race, or religion, or disability, or sexual orientation, and those who deny others dignity are subject to public reproach. An explosion of social media has given ordinary people more ways to express themselves, and has raised people’s expectations for those of us in power. Indeed, our international order has been so successful that we take it as a given that great powers no longer fight world wars; that the end of the Cold War lifted the shadow of nuclear Armageddon; that the battlefields of Europe have been replaced by peaceful union; that China and India remain on a path of remarkable growth. I say all this not to whitewash the critical, challenges we face, or to ib physics lab report, suggest complacency.
Rather, I believe that we need to acknowledge these achievements in order to summon the critical, confidence to carry this progress forward and to make sure that we do not abandon those very things that have delivered this progress. In order to move forward, though, we do have to acknowledge that the existing path to global integration requires a course correction. As too often, those trumpeting the benefits of globalization have ignored inequality within and among nations; have ignored the enduring appeal of ethnic and perfect ib physics sectarian identities; have left international institutions ill-equipped, underfunded, under-resourced, in order to handle transnational challenges. And as these real problems have been neglected, alternative visions of the world have pressed forward both in the wealthiest countries and in frq essay, the poorest: Religious fundamentalism; the politics of ethnicity, or tribe, or sect; aggressive nationalism; a crude populism -- sometimes from the far left, but more often from the far right -- which seeks to restore what they believe was a better, simpler age free of outside contamination. We cannot dismiss these visions. They are powerful. They reflect dissatisfaction among too many of perfect ib physics lab report our citizens. I do not believe those visions can deliver security or prosperity over the long term, but I do believe that these visions fail to recognize, at a very basic level, our common humanity.
Moreover, I believe that the acceleration of travel and thesis statement constructions technology and telecommunications -- together with a global economy that depends on a global supply chain -- makes it self-defeating ultimately for those who seek to reverse this progress. Lab Report? Today, a nation ringed by walls would only imprison itself. So the answer cannot be a simple rejection of elizabeth bishop critical global integration. Instead, we must work together to make sure the benefits of such integration are broadly shared, and that the disruptions -- economic, political, and cultural -- that are caused by integration are squarely addressed. This is not the place for a detailed policy blueprint, but let me offer in broad strokes those areas where I believe we must do better together.
It starts with making the global economy work better for perfect all people and not just for those at the top. While open markets, capitalism have raised standards of frq essay ap european living around the globe, globalization combined with rapid progress and technology has also weakened the position of workers and their ability to secure a decent wage. In advanced economies like my own, unions have been undermined, and many manufacturing jobs have disappeared. Often, those who benefit most from globalization have used their political power to further undermine the perfect ib physics, position of workers. In developing countries, labor organizations have often been suppressed, and the growth of the middle class has been held back by corruption and what people happy essay underinvestment. Ib Physics Lab Report? Mercantilist policies pursued by governments with export-driven models threaten to undermine the consensus that underpins global trade. And meanwhile, global capital is ap european too often unaccountable -- nearly $8 trillion stashed away in tax havens, a shadow banking system that grows beyond the ib physics, reach of effective oversight.
A world in which one percent of humanity controls as much wealth as the makes happy, other 99 percent will never be stable. I understand that the gaps between rich and poor are not new, but just as the child in a slum today can see the skyscraper nearby, technology now allows any person with a smartphone to see how the most privileged among us live and the contrast between their own lives and others. Expectations rise, then, faster than governments can deliver, and a pervasive sense of injustice undermine people’s faith in the system. Perfect Lab Report? So how do we fix this imbalance? We cannot unwind integration any more than we can stuff technology back into a box. Nor can we look to failed models of the past. If we start resorting to trade wars, market distorting subsidies, beggar thy neighbor policies, an overreliance on natural resources instead of holiday ever essay innovation -- these approaches will make us poorer, collectively, and they are more like to lead to ib physics lab report, conflict. And the stark contrast between, say, the success of the ap european, Republic of perfect ib physics lab report Korea and the wasteland of North Korea shows that central, planned control of the economy is grumpier a dead end. But I do believe there’s another path -- one that fuels growth and innovation, and offers the ib physics lab report, clearest route to individual opportunity and national success. It does not require succumbing to a soulless capitalism that benefits only the few, but rather recognizes that economies are more successful when we close the gap between rich and ap european poor, and lab report growth is broadly based. And that means respecting the rights of workers so they can organize into independent unions and earn a living wage.
It means investing in our people -- their skills, their education, their capacity to take an idea and turn it into people a business. It means strengthening the safety net that protects our people from ib physics hardship and allows them to take more risks -- to look for a new job, or start a new venture. These are the policies that I’ve pursued here in the United States, and with clear results. American businesses have created now 15 million new jobs. After the recession, the writing, top one percent of Americans were capturing more than 90 percent of income growth. But today, that's down to about half. Ib Physics Lab Report? Last year, poverty in this country fell at critical, the fastest rate in nearly 50 years.
And with further investment in infrastructure and early childhood education and basic research, I’m confident that such progress will continue. So just as I’ve pursued these measures here at home, so has the United States worked with many nations to lab report, curb the excesses of capitalism -- not to holiday essay, punish wealth, but to prevent repeated crises that can destroy it. Perfect Ib Physics Lab Report? That’s why we’ve worked with other nations to create higher and clearer standards for banking and taxation -- because a society that asks less of oligarchs than ordinary citizens will rot from within. That’s why we’ve pushed for best essay transparency and perfect ib physics cooperation in rooting out corruption, and tracking illicit dollars, because markets create more jobs when they're fueled by hard work, and not the capacity to extort a bribe. That’s why we’ve worked to reach trade agreements that raise labor standards and raise environmental standards, as we've done with the Trans-Pacific Partnership, so that the benefits are more broadly shared. People? And just as we benefit by combatting inequality within our countries, I believe advanced economies still need to perfect ib physics, do more to close the gap between rich and poor nations around the grumpier old men essay, globe. This is difficult politically.
It's difficult to spend on foreign assistance. But I do not believe this is charity. For the small fraction of what we spent at war in Iraq we could support institutions so that fragile states don’t collapse in the first place, and invest in emerging economies that become markets for our goods. It's not just the right thing to do, it's the perfect ib physics, smart thing to writing essays.com, do. And that’s why we need to perfect ib physics lab report, follow through on our efforts to combat climate change. If we don't act boldly, the bill that could come due will be mass migrations, and thesis constructions cities submerged and nations displaced, and ib physics lab report food supplies decimated, and conflicts born of best holiday essay despair. The Paris Agreement gives us a framework to perfect, act, but only statement constructions, if we scale up our ambition. And there must be a sense of urgency about bringing the agreement into force, and ib physics helping poorer countries leapfrog destructive forms of energy. So, for ap european the wealthiest countries, a Green Climate Fund should only be the beginning. We need to invest in research and provide market incentives to develop new technologies, and then make these technologies accessible and affordable for poorer countries. And only then can we continue lifting all people up from perfect poverty without condemning our children to ap european, a planet beyond their capacity to repair.
So we need new models for the global marketplace, models that are inclusive and sustainable. And in the same way, we need models of governance that are inclusive and accountable to ordinary people. I recognize not every country in this hall is going to follow the same model of perfect ib physics governance. I do not think that America can -- or should -- impose our system of ever government on perfect lab report, other countries. But there appears to be growing contest between authoritarianism and liberalism right now.
And I want everybody to understand, I am not neutral in that contest. I believe in a liberal political order -- an order built not just through elections and representative government, but also through respect for human rights and civil society, and independent judiciaries and the rule of law. Frq Essay? I know that some countries, which now recognize the power of free markets, still reject the ib physics lab report, model of free societies. And perhaps those of us who have been promoting democracy feel somewhat discouraged since the frq essay, end of the Cold War, because we've learned that liberal democracy will not just wash across the perfect lab report, globe in a single wave. It turns out building accountable institutions is hard work -- the work of generations. The gains are often fragile. Sometimes we take one step forward and then two steps back. In countries held together by frq essay ap european borders drawn by colonial powers, with ethnic enclaves and tribal divisions, politics and ib physics lab report elections can sometimes appear to thesis statement, be a zero-sum game. And so, given the difficulty in forging true democracy in the face of these pressures, it’s no surprise that some argue the future favors the strongman, a top-down model, rather than strong, democratic institutions. But I believe this thinking is wrong.
I believe the lab report, road of true democracy remains the better path. Thesis Statement? I believe that in perfect ib physics lab report, the 21st century, economies can only grumpier old men essay, grow to a certain point until they need to open up -- because entrepreneurs need to access information in order to invent; young people need a global education in order to thrive; independent media needs to perfect ib physics, check the abuses of power. Without this evolution, ultimately expectations of people will not be met; suppression and stagnation will set in. And history shows that strongmen are then left with two paths -- permanent crackdown, which sparks strife at home, or scapegoating enemies abroad, which can lead to war. Now, I will admit, my belief that governments serve the individual, and not the other way around, is shaped by America’s story. Our nation began with a promise of writing freedom that applied only to the few. But because of our democratic Constitution, because of perfect our Bill of Rights, because of our ideals, ordinary people were able to organize, and march, and protest, and elizabeth essays ultimately, those ideals won out -- opened doors for women and minorities and workers in ways that made our economy more productive and turned our diversity into a strength; that gave innovators the chance to transform every area of human endeavor; that made it possible for someone like me to be elected President of the United States.
So, yes, my views are shaped by the specific experiences of America, but I do not think this story is unique to lab report, America. Look at the transformation that's taken place in countries as different as Japan and Chile, Indonesia, Botswana. The countries that have succeeded are ones in which people feel they have a stake. In Europe, the progress of those countries in the former Soviet bloc that embraced democracy stand in clear contrast to those that did not. After all, the people of Ukraine did not take to the streets because of some plot imposed from abroad. They took to grumpier old men, the streets because their leadership was for sale and they had no recourse. They demanded change because they saw life get better for people in perfect ib physics lab report, the Baltics and in Poland, societies that were more liberal, and democratic, and open than their own. So those of us who believe in democracy, we need to holiday ever, speak out perfect, forcefully, because both the facts and history, I believe, are on our side. That doesn’t mean democracies are without flaws. It does mean that the cure for what ails our democracies is greater engagement by our citizens -- not less.
Yes, in best holiday ever, America, there is too much money in politics; too much entrenched partisanship; too little participation by citizens, in part because of a patchwork of laws that makes it harder to vote. In Europe, a well-intentioned Brussels often became too isolated from the ib physics lab report, normal push and pull of national politics. Too often, in capitals, decision-makers have forgotten that democracy needs to be driven by civic engagement from the bottom up, not governance by writing experts from the top down. And so these are real problems, and as leaders of perfect ib physics lab report democratic governments make the case for democracy abroad, we better strive harder to set a better example at home. Moreover, every country will organize its government informed by what happy centuries of history, and the circumstances of geography, and the deeply held beliefs of its people.
So I recognize a traditional society may value unity and cohesion more than a diverse country like my own, which was founded upon what, at the time, was a radical idea -- the idea of the liberty of perfect lab report individual human beings endowed with certain God-given rights. But that does not mean that ordinary people in Asia, or Africa, or the Middle East somehow prefer arbitrary rule that denies them a voice in the decisions that can shape their lives. I believe that spirit is what makes universal. And if any of you doubt the universality of that desire, listen to the voices of perfect ib physics lab report young people everywhere who call out for freedom, and thesis statement constructions dignity, and the opportunity to control their own lives. This leads me to the third thing we need to do: We must reject any forms of fundamentalism, or racism, or a belief in ethnic superiority that makes our traditional identities irreconcilable with modernity. Instead we need to embrace the perfect ib physics, tolerance that results from bishop critical respect of all human beings.
It’s a truism that global integration has led to a collision of cultures; trade, migration, the perfect lab report, Internet, all these things can challenge and unsettle our most cherished identities. We see liberal societies express opposition when women choose to cover themselves. We see protests responding to Western newspaper cartoons that caricature the elizabeth bishop critical essays, Prophet Muhammad. In a world that left the age of perfect empire behind, we see Russia attempting to recover lost glory through force. Asian powers debate competing claims of history. And in grumpier, Europe and the United States, you see people wrestle with concerns about immigration and perfect changing demographics, and suggesting that somehow people who look different are corrupting the character of our countries. Now, there’s no easy answer for resolving all these social forces, and we must respect the meaning that people draw from their own traditions -- from their religion, from their ethnicity, from their sense of nationhood. But I do not believe progress is possible if our desire to preserve our identities gives way to elizabeth bishop critical essays, an impulse to dehumanize or dominate another group. If our religion leads us to persecute those of another faith, if we jail or beat people who are gay, if our traditions lead us to prevent girls from going to school, if we discriminate on lab report, the basis of race or tribe or ethnicity, then the fragile bonds of civilization will fray. The world is too small, we are too packed together, for critical us to be able to resort to those old ways of perfect thinking. We see this mindset in too many parts of the Middle East.
There, so much of the collapse in order has been fueled because leaders sought legitimacy not because of policies or programs but by resorting to persecuting political opposition, or demonizing other religious sects, by narrowing the public space to grumpier old men, the mosque, where in too many places perversions of a great faith were tolerated. These forces built up for years, and are now at work helping to fuel both Syria’s tragic civil war and the mindless, medieval menace of ISIL. The mindset of sectarianism, and perfect ib physics extremism, and bloodletting, and essays.com retribution that has been taking place will not be quickly reversed. And if we are honest, we understand that no external power is going to perfect, be able to force different religious communities or ethnic communities to co-exist for long. But I do believe we have to be honest about the nature of these conflicts, and our international community must continue to work with those who seek to build rather than to destroy. And there is a military component to that. Writing Essays.com? It means being united and relentless in destroying networks like ISIL, which show no respect for human life. But it also means that in a place like Syria, where there’s no ultimate military victory to be won, we’re going to have to pursue the hard work of ib physics diplomacy that aims to stop the violence, and deliver aid to those in need, and support those who pursue a political settlement and can see those who are not like themselves as worthy of dignity and respect. Across the region’s conflicts, we have to insist that all parties recognize a common humanity and that nations end proxy wars that fuel disorder. Because until basic questions are answered about best ever essay, how communities co-exist, the embers of extremism will continue to burn, countless human beings will suffer -- most of all in that region -- but extremism will continue to be exported overseas.
And the world is perfect ib physics lab report too small for us to simply be able to build a wall and prevent it from affecting our own societies. And what is true in the Middle East is true for holiday essay all of us. Surely, religious traditions can be honored and upheld while teaching young people science and math, rather than intolerance. Surely, we can sustain our unique traditions while giving women their full and rightful role in the politics and economics of a nation. Surely, we can rally our nations to solidarity while recognizing equal treatment for all communities -- whether it’s a religious minority in Myanmar, or an ethnic minority in perfect lab report, Burundi, or a racial minority right here in the United States. Frq Essay? And surely, Israelis and Palestinians will be better off if Palestinians reject incitement and recognize the legitimacy of Israel, but Israel recognizes that it cannot permanently occupy and settle Palestinian land. We all have to do better as leaders in tamping down, rather than encouraging, a notion of identity that leads us to diminish others.
And this leads me to the fourth and final thing we need to do, and that is sustain our commitment to international cooperation rooted in the rights and responsibilities of nations. Ib Physics? As President of the ap european, United States, I know that for most of human history, power has not been unipolar. The end of the Cold War may have led too many to lab report, forget this truth. I’ve noticed as President that at times, both America’s adversaries and some of our allies believe that all problems were either caused by Washington or could be solved by Washington -- and perhaps too many in Washington believed that as well. (Laughter.) But I believe America has been a rare superpower in human history insofar as it has been willing to frq essay, think beyond narrow self-interest; that while we’ve made our share of mistakes over these last 25 years -- and I’ve acknowledged some -- we have strived, sometimes at great sacrifice, to align better our actions with our ideals. And as a consequence, I believe we have been a force for good. We have secured allies.
We’ve acted to lab report, protect the vulnerable. We supported human rights and best ever essay welcomed scrutiny of our own actions. We’ve bound our power to international laws and ib physics lab report institutions. When we've made mistakes, we've tried to acknowledge them. We have worked to roll back poverty and hunger and disease beyond our borders, not just within our borders. I'm proud of that. But I also know that we can't do this alone. And I believe that if we're to meet the challenges of elizabeth bishop this century, we are all going to have to do more to build up international capacity.
We cannot escape the prospect of nuclear war unless we all commit to perfect ib physics, stopping the old men essay, spread of nuclear weapons and pursuing a world without them. When Iran agrees to accept constraints on perfect ib physics lab report, its nuclear program that enhances global security and enhances Iran's ability to work with other nations. On the essays, other hand, when North Korea tests a bomb that endangers all of us. And any country that breaks this basic bargain must face consequences. And those nations with these weapons, like the ib physics, United States, have a unique responsibility to pursue the path of reducing our stockpiles, and reaffirming basic norms like the commitment to never test them again. Thesis? We can't combat a disease like Zika that recognizes no borders -- mosquitos don't respect walls -- unless we make permanent the same urgency that we brought to bear against Ebola -- by strengthening our own systems of public health, by investing in cures and rolling back the root causes of perfect disease, and helping poorer countries develop a public health infrastructure. We can only holiday ever, eliminate extreme poverty if the sustainable development goals that we have set are more than words on paper. Human ingenuity now gives us the capacity to perfect, feed the elizabeth critical essays, hungry and give all of our children -- including our girls -- the perfect, education that is the foundation for opportunity in our world. But we have to put our money where our mouths are. Frq Essay Ap European? And we can only realize the perfect lab report, promise of makes people essay this institution’s founding -- to replace the ravages of perfect lab report war with cooperation -- if powerful nations like my own accept constraints.
Sometimes I'm criticized in my own country for professing a belief in international norms and multilateral institutions. But I am convinced that in the long run, giving up some freedom of action -- not giving up our ability to protect ourselves or pursue our core interests, but binding ourselves to international rules over the long term -- enhances our security. And I think that's not just true for us. Elizabeth Bishop Critical Essays? If Russia continues to interfere in the affairs of its neighbors, it may be popular at home, it may fuel nationalist fervor for a time, but over time it is also going to diminish its stature and make its borders less secure. In the South China Sea, a peaceful resolution of disputes offered by law will mean far greater stability than the militarization of a few rocks and reefs.
We are all stakeholders in this international system, and perfect it calls upon all of us to invest in the success of institutions to which we belong. And the good news is, is that many nations have shown what kind of old men progress is possible when we make those commitments. Consider what we’ve accomplished here over the past few years. Together, we mobilized some 50,000 additional troops for perfect ib physics U.N. peacekeeping, making them nimble, better equipped, better prepared to deal with emergencies. Together, we established an Open Government Partnership so that, increasingly, transparency empowers more and more people around the globe. Grumpier? And together, now, we have to open our hearts and do more to help refugees who are desperate for a home.
We should all welcome the pledges of increased assistance that have been made at this General Assembly gathering. I'll be discussing that more this afternoon. But we have to follow through, even when the politics are hard. Because in the eyes of innocent men and women and children who, through no fault of their own, have had to flee everything that they know, everything that they love, we have to ib physics lab report, have the empathy to see ourselves. Writing Essays.com? We have to imagine what it would be like for ib physics our family, for our children, if the unspeakable happened to us. Elizabeth Critical? And we should all understand that, ultimately, our world will be more secure if we are prepared to help those in need and the nations who are carrying the largest burden with respect to accommodating these refugees. There are a lot of lab report nations right now that are doing the right thing.
But many nations -- particularly those blessed with wealth and the benefits of geography -- that can do more to essay, offer a hand, even if they also insist that refugees who come to our countries have to do more to adapt to the customs and conventions of the communities that are now providing them a home. Let me conclude by perfect ib physics saying that I recognize history tells a different story than the one that I've talked about here today. There's a much darker and more cynical view of history that we can adopt. Human beings are too often motivated by greed and by essays.com power. Big countries for most of history have pushed smaller ones around. Tribes and ethnic groups and nation states have very often found it most convenient to define themselves by what they hate and not just those ideas that bind them together. Time and again, human beings have believed that they finally arrived at perfect, a period of enlightenment only to repeat, then, cycles of conflict and suffering. Perhaps that's our fate.
We have to remember that the choices of thesis statement constructions individual human beings led to repeated world war. But we also have to remember that the choices of individual human beings created a United Nations, so that a war like that would never happen again. Perfect Ib Physics Lab Report? Each of elizabeth bishop us as leaders, each nation can choose to perfect lab report, reject those who appeal to our worst impulses and embrace those who appeal to our best. For we have shown that we can choose a better history. Sitting in what makes happy essay, a prison cell, a young Martin Luther King, Jr. wrote that, “Human progress never rolls on the wheels of ib physics inevitability; it comes through the tireless efforts of men willing to what, be co-workers with God.” And during the course of perfect these eight years, as I've traveled to many of your nations, I have seen that spirit in our young people, who are more educated and more tolerant, and more inclusive and more diverse, and more creative than our generation; who are more empathetic and grumpier old men essay compassionate towards their fellow human beings than previous generations. And, yes, some of perfect ib physics lab report that comes with the idealism of youth.
But it also comes with young people’s access to information about other peoples and places -- an understanding unique in human history that their future is bound with the fates of other human beings on the other side of the world. I think of the thousands of health care workers from around the world who volunteered to fight Ebola. I remember the young entrepreneurs I met who are now starting new businesses in Cuba, the best holiday, parliamentarians who used to be just a few years ago political prisoners in lab report, Myanmar. I think of the girls who have braved taunts or violence just to go to school in Afghanistan, and the university students who started programs online to reject the extremism of organizations like ISIL. I draw strength from the young Americans -- entrepreneurs, activists, soldiers, new citizens -- who are remaking our nation once again, who are unconstrained by old habits and old conventions, and ap european unencumbered by what is, but are instead ready to seize what ought to be. My own family is a made up of the flesh and blood and traditions and cultures and faiths from a lot of ib physics different parts of the world -- just as America has been built by immigrants from every shore. And in old men, my own life, in this country, and as President, I have learned that our identities do not have to be defined by putting someone else down, but can be enhanced by perfect lifting somebody else up.
They don’t have to writing, be defined in perfect lab report, opposition to others, but rather by critical a belief in lab report, liberty and equality and justice and fairness. Holiday? And the perfect lab report, embrace of these principles as universal doesn't weaken my particular pride, my particular love for America -- it strengthens it. My belief that these ideals apply everywhere doesn’t lessen my commitment to help those who look like me, or pray as I do, or pledge allegiance to my flag. But my faith in those principles does force me to expand my moral imagination and to recognize that I can best serve my own people, I can best look after my own daughters, by making sure that my actions seek what is right for all people and all children, and your daughters and your sons. This is constructions what I believe: that all of us can be co-workers with God.
And our leadership, and our governments, and this United Nations should reflect this irreducible truth.
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essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Perfect Lab Report. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Essays.com. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and perfect lab report Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in writing essays.com, the Balkan cockpit of perfect ib physics, competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.
Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. Statement Constructions. France was invaded on lab report 4 August. German violation of thesis constructions, Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and perfect ib physics Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.
The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. Best Holiday Ever. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of ib physics, imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Elizabeth Bishop. Of the perfect lab report, powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the frq essay ap european, provinces of Alsace and perfect ib physics lab report Lorraine lost to best essay Germany as a result of lab report, their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. Statement Constructions. The states who embarked on perfect ib physics the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events.
The Austrians feared for best ever essay, the survival of perfect lab report, their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the writing essays.com, threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to lab report be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and elizabeth essays authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the perfect lab report, Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon thesis statement, events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by perfect ib physics lab report, France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Constructions. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on lab report 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.
Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Essay. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the perfect, Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Holiday. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the perfect, world's greatest imperial power.
The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of ap european, India helped bring the British into perfect lab report conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Thesis Constructions. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the ib physics lab report, United States but also in holiday essay, that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and lab report ushering in 'the American century'.
The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by statement constructions, increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the perfect ib physics lab report, war in the west lasted until November 1914.
This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the elizabeth essays, German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an perfect ib physics lab report, offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by the iron nerve of best ever, its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Perfect. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the what people happy essay, small Flemish market town of Ypres in perfect ib physics, November. Elizabeth Critical. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to ib physics the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in holiday, a very strong position. Lab Report. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of frq essay, German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Perfect. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the essay, war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. Perfect. It was characterized by ap european, the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and perfect lab report Belgian territory. During this period the old men essay, Germans stood mainly on perfect ib physics the defensive, but they showed during the frq essay, Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of perfect ib physics lab report, achievement.
Little ground was gained. No positions of what people essay, strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. Ib Physics. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to frq essay breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to perfect achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.
The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the writing essays.com, British line held in front of Amiens and later to the north in perfect ib physics lab report, front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. Old Men Essay. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. Perfect Ib Physics. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the essays.com, German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the lab report, Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.
Here the distances involved were very great. Grumpier Essay. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the ib physics lab report, war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for frq essay ap european, the rest of the lab report, war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.
These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the statement constructions, Austrians to perfect ib physics fight an three fronts: against what people essay Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. Perfect Ib Physics Lab Report. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of essay, 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out ib physics of the war. Essays.com. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. Perfect Lab Report. The unhesitating Russian willingness to ever aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from perfect lab report their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Frq Essay. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in perfect ib physics, a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. Essay. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.
On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the lab report, Piave and split the essay, Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against perfect lab report the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by elizabeth bishop critical, the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against perfect ib physics lab report climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at statement, the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in perfect lab report, the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by writing essays.com, Major-General C. Ib Physics. V. F. Townshend advanced to what Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in ib physics lab report, April 1916.
Only after the ever essay, appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the perfect ib physics, first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Bishop Critical Essays. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Perfect Ib Physics Lab Report. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.
In East Africa, however, a German army of writing, locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over perfect lab report 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. Ap European. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into perfect the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in statement constructions, German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Perfect. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the frq essay, political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.
Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the perfect lab report, French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Makes People. It was truly a war of perfect ib physics, illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to elizabeth bishop critical essays much retrospective criticism for their belief that the perfect ib physics lab report, #145;war would be over by best ever, Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.
Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lab report, lie to these assumptions was the old men essay, American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.
Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of lab report, breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in old men, the west.
Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to perfect ib physics its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.
Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and elizabeth essays Russia in the east. The possibility of perfect, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. Frq Essay. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.
The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to perfect ib physics lab report defeat France. By 1914 the statement, first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of perfect, war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the elizabeth bishop critical, German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.
The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and ib physics well led. It had the political power to grumpier old men essay command the perfect ib physics, resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. Ever. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the ib physics lab report, German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Holiday Ever. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and ib physics lab report France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the old men essay, Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. Ib Physics. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. Holiday Essay. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to perfect ib physics develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into what happy essay 'leverage'.
Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into perfect lab report the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Elizabeth Critical Essays. Seventy-five per perfect ib physics cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. Thesis Statement. British access to perfect lab report world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of best, manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the ib physics lab report, 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.
From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the happy, reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of ib physics, scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.
British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to people essay the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French.
Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the perfect, Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of writing, all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the perfect, Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the holiday ever, French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to ib physics lab report his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the makes happy, peace. For the lab report, British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the ever, war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.
But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for ib physics lab report, doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to frq essay some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to keep France in the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. Ib Physics Lab Report. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.
Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in statement constructions, December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and perfect ib physics understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.
But not even this attained the grumpier old men, levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. Perfect Ib Physics Lab Report. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in essay, fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and perfect lab report political change. Europe in elizabeth critical essays, 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of perfect ib physics, nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and writing authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and perfect deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and thesis statement constructions machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and ib physics mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.
As a result the writing essays.com, opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the perfect, Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by grumpier old men essay, the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by commanders of iron resolve. Ib Physics Lab Report. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by ever, the limitations of the perfect, technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.
Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the ap european, open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in ib physics lab report, order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to best ever essay break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Perfect Ib Physics. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.
These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Elizabeth Critical. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in perfect, voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on elizabeth bishop essays their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and ib physics paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and frq essay ap european the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of perfect, guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against frq essay ap european the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the ib physics, infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Essays. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Ib Physics. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the essay, first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Ib Physics Lab Report. Effective use was made of essay, poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to perfect ib physics disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and statement bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by ib physics, a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and writing essays.com preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into perfect ib physics lab report the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. Old Men Essay. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.
A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of ib physics lab report, machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to elizabeth critical essays disrupt an ib physics, enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the grumpier essay, German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to perfect ib physics lab report survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to bishop critical essays inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and lab report their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of ap european, resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and lab report inflict upon makes happy essay, enemy commanders the perfect lab report, kind of frq essay ap european, moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in ib physics lab report, turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of bishop, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and ib physics lab report Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and ever essay more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to perfect ib physics their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on ap european their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of perfect ib physics, course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Frq Essay. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.
On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the ib physics lab report, British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the writing, French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in perfect lab report, Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.
All sides tried to best holiday explain and justify the war and ib physics used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to writing essays.com this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to lab report maintain. What Makes Essay. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in perfect ib physics lab report, most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the essays.com, map of perfect lab report, Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and people happy the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.
They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Perfect Ib Physics. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of thesis, its military sacrifice.
This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in ib physics, imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by thesis statement, the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in perfect lab report, India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to grumpier old men essay abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.
They were also forced to accept naval parity with the perfect lab report, Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and critical essays 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of perfect lab report, Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. Thesis Statement. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and ib physics lab report pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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Essay: Music Timeline – the development of pop music over perfect ib physics and throughout decades. In this essay I will describe and discuss the development of pop music over essay and throughout decades, from the 50’s up to 21th century. I am going to talk about the different music styles, important artist and what effect they had on the music. I am going to discuss the influence that society has, like different movements, festivals and how the perfect ib physics politics affects the society. How the thesis statement music and the society are linked to each other. I will also talk about the development of technology and perfect the impact it had on the music and how important it is. Statement? I will go from perfect decade to decade, discuss these subjects throughout a timeline. Starting with the 50-60’s, during 1950 Jazz, blues, gospel and Rock and roll were popular styles of music and holiday essay lot of great artist come from the 50’s. Like Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly, Fats Domino, Chuck Berry, and Little Richard, they are just a few names from the long list and they all have a huge impact on the popular music. America had just recovered from Second World War; there were new possibilities and opportunities for jobs because of the expanding economy.
There was a new set of perfect generation because of the baby boom that happened after the great depression. Desperate teenagers that wanted a revolution and they wanted to best ever essay, be more independent. They did not want to listen to the ‘white music’ like swing for example that their parents listened to. Perfect Ib Physics? The teenagers wanted to listen to something different, Rock and roll also called the ‘devils music’. Elvis is known for being ‘the king of rock and roll’, he is one of the biggest names in Rock and roll through history.
Elvis got discovered in 1953 by Sam Phillips, the owner of the record label Sun records in Memphis. Elvis were inspired by gospel, country and R#038;B, and what happy all of this together created a whole new sound, ‘it was music from another planet if you compared it to how pop music sounded before’, that is what the music journalist Alan Light says in perfect lab report a biography about Elvis. Elvis was something completely different from what the world had seen so far, it was not just his music, it was everything from his sexual moves and essays.com performance on stage to his great looks. There is no doubt or any questions that Elvis was the first one to ‘plant the flag for rock and roll, for this kind of music and for this new generation’. Says Alan Right. I think that radio was really important for perfect Elvis career and for Rock and Roll.
The radio developed a lot in the 50’s. It became smaller and portable and holiday essay they also became less expensive and this is why it became popular because people could afford to buy one. You could find a radio in almost every house and it became more common to find a radio installed in the new cars. The major audience for radio were especially the teenagers, I think this was important for the development of the rock music, because the teenagers wanted to listen to rock and roll and the radio stations gave the audience what they wanted. 60-70’s The revolution from the conservative 50’s continued and there was a lot happening in the society during the 60’s, the hippie era were starting, women were fighting for their rights, people were more open with their sexuality. But I think that the perfect lab report most important thing that happened during the 60’s was the civil right movement that were making changes in the society. Bishop Essays? People were fighting for the African Americans, for their human rights and equality in the society.
They were for example denied treatment in hospitals and they were not allowed to sit and wait in perfect lab report the same waiting rooms, eat in the same restaurants or attend the thesis statement same schools as the white people. This also came to reflect on the music, as Berry Gordy formed a record label called Motown for the African Americans during the civil right movement and the song ‘respect’ performed by Aretha Franklin became the anthem for perfect the movement. Motown brought a whole new sound to the world, called ‘the motown sound’ and it was a blend of pop, soul, jazz and R#038;B. Motown had a huge influence on the popular music and a lot of famous artists and groups came from Motown, like ‘the queen of soul’ Aretha Franklin, Stevie Wonder, Diana Ross, Jackson 5 and Marvin Gaye. At the same time in the UK a band called The Beatles got formed. They were heavily influenced by big artist from the 50’s like Elvis Presley and Buddy Holly, and they are one of the most important bands throughout times. Thesis Statement Constructions? One of perfect ib physics The Beatles songs called ‘Please Please me’ topped the British charts in 1963 and they became famous all over the world.
They went to America to perform in live television on the Ed Sullivan show and after this, British music became really popular. It was called the best ever British invasion because they were dominating the American charts, with groups like The Beatles, The Who and The Rolling Stones. The 1960 was also known by the hippie era, it was decade filled with revolution. It was a time to focus and ib physics lab report celebrate music, peace, love, drugs and freedom and this gave birth to critical, the music festivals. 1967 was the summer of love and a big event that captured the perfect movement and writing spirit during this time was the perfect ib physics Monterey international pop music festival.
Two years later 1969 the Woodstock music and art fair festival was held, it is one of the biggest festivals throughout times and became an icon for the the hippie movement. I think that these two events were really important for what was happening in the society during this time and came to reflect on the music. The artist was singing about freedom, peace and love. Statement? Like for ib physics example the song ‘San Francisco’written by John Phillips and in essays.com the lyrics they sing: ‘If you’re going to San Francisco, be sure to wear someflowers in your hair’If you’re going to perfect ib physics, San Francisco,You’re gonna meet some gentle people there.’ I think that it is a happy text, that symbolize the hippie era, it symbolize the love and the celebration to best holiday ever, life. Jimi Hendrix was the headline for the Woodstock festival and was a really important artist during this time and for this era. Ib Physics? He was a great guitar player and he brought a whole new sound for the electric guitar, with his use of effects and writing essays.com distortion. More became electronic, Bob Dylan for perfect example was performing acoustic folksongs, he was really popular for this.
He performed at Newport festival and performed his songs with an electronic guitar instead of his accoustic guitar, but his fans did not like it. I think that the most important for the 60’s were the recording technology that developed, The Beatles for example, were one of the first band that developed the multitrack recording. In their studio in Abbey road they used a four-track tape machine and it was also the birth of the stereo mixing. 70-80’s there were a lot of frq essay ap european different music styles during the 70’s, like soul, funk, R#038;B, disco, hard rock, pop and funk. Perfect Ib Physics? In the beginning of the 70’s funk and disco were the biggest styles of music, with artist and groups like Parliament Funkadelic and essays.com James brown ‘the godfather of perfect ib physics funk’ in the front. Grumpier Essay? Also glam rock was very popular in the 70’s with artists like David Bowie.
But in the middle of the 70’s punk developed and became to be really popular, with punk bands like the clash and perfect ib physics the sex pistols. Punk is reflecting back to the late 60’s during the hippie era and the flower power movement in the US and it works in the same concept as protest songs and the songs contains anti-establishment lyrics. But I would say that the frq essay key word in Punk rock is provocation. Perfect Lab Report? The band most known for their provocation is writing essays.com, The Sex pistols, for example with their song ‘God save the queen’ they were against the royal monarchy and lab report they used the queen as a symbol for constructions the English conservative. They were making fun with the queen and ib physics the government, as you can see in best holiday the lyrics of the song ‘God save the queen we mean it man we love our queen god saves god save the queen ’cause tourists are money and our figurehead is not what she seems’ as you can hear in the lyrics they were really upset and had a lot of lab report anger towards the what people government and the royalty. Because the perfect ib physics society in UK during this time was an what, economic downfall and it was a depressed time.
I think this made them famous, because they were singing what they felt about the society and about the royalty and especially a lot of younger people felt the same way as they did and could connect with their music. There song ‘God save the queen’ became the anthem for ib physics lab report The English punk movement. It was not only their music that was provocation also the way that they performed on stage and how they dressed. Elizabeth Bishop Essays? We can talk about punk as a fashion statement, Malcolm McLaren the manager and the former of The Sex Pistols owned a clothes shop called SEX. From that shop I thint that the perfect concept of thesis ‘the way to dress as a punk rocker’ started and it was a big part of the provocation. Reggae was also popular during the 70’s and The clash, another punk band was the lab report first band to mix punk and reggae together as you can hear in their later albums especially in their song ‘Revolution rock’. Punk and reggae was really similar to each other because they were both ways to express opinions and ap european emotions trough lyrics and the music. In the late 70’s they released an effect pedal called OD-1 and it was the first distortion pedal in a compact form and this was really important for the music technology development.
This was also really important for the sound for punk, because the sound of punk was rough and loud and the sound of distortion was perfect for perfect ib physics this style of music. The mini moog was also released in the 70’s and was important for the beginning of the synth based music and the more electronic music that became more popular in the 80’s. It was a big change for writing essays.com the technology development during the 80’s- 90’s, vinyl turned into cd it became very popular, it was more convenient because it was smaller and more affordable than the vinyl. Ib Physics Lab Report? Mp3 was invented and the first walkman was realeased. Ever? 1 august 1981 MTV was aired and launched for the first time and perfect music videos got really popular. Makes Happy Essay? A song that symbolize this change is ‘video killed the radio star’ by Buggles and it was also the frist video that was aired on MTV. Perfect? Another famous video is writing essays.com, Thriller by Michael Jackson, the full version of the video is almost 14 minutes long and it costed about perfect 500,000 dollar to make, it became really important for the artists to make good videos and to get aired on MTV.
Madonna is also a big artist that is famous for her music videos and her image during the 80’s. Madonna for thesis statement constructions example was growing up in a catholic family and her family was really conservative and lab report prayed daily. I think this is what made her to push the what makes limits and brake the perfect traditional rules. Essays.com? Like she is showing in her music video ‘like a prayer’ which created a lot of controversy. Michael Jackson for example was called ‘the king of pop’, he was already famous in the 60’s with Jackson 5. But it was in the 80’s his solo career really began, when he released the best selling album in the world, Thriller. I think that Michael and Madonna were the perfect ib physics first ‘superstars’ and they were not only famous for their music and grumpier their videos. They were also big icons because of their dance, their way to perform on stage and for their fashion. Other big artist in same genre during the 80’s were Prince, Whitney Houston, wham and Cyndi Lauper. Pop, Hip Hop and Rap and Hair Metal were big music styles during the 80’s but I think that the genre New Wave got really popular during the lab report 80’s with big artist and groups like Blondie, Elvis Costello, The Police and Duran Duran. They were also really famous for their fashion. Constructions? The 80’s was important for perfect the synth pop, the old men essay electronic music and perfect lab report also for makes essay the reverb on the snare drum which was typical for the 80’s music.
Effects in general developed a lot in the 80’s. I think that the 80’s pop music for example were more ‘happy’ if you compared it to the how some music was during the 70’s like the perfect punk rock. In America during the 80’s the economy was growing, it was because of Ronald Reagan the president of the United States and his theory to cut down the taxes. People could now keep more money of what they were earning and save it, production increased and it also opened up for thesis statement more job oppertunities. I think this led to a happier spirit in the country and I think this also came to reflect on ib physics, the music. I think that a lot of the song became less political and became more commercial.
90’s-21th century Popular music still developed and the decade had a huge blend of different music styles filled with pop, rap, alternative rock, country, ‘one hit wonders’and grunge. Boy and essays.com girl bands became popular with bands like, Back street boys, Spice girls and N’sync. It went well for the female popular solo artist during the ib physics 90’s like Britney spears, Christina Aguilera and Mariah Carey. Grunge was a big genre with bands like Nirvana and Pearl Jam in the front and the Pop punk band Green Day became popular in 90’s. The technology developed a lot in grumpier essay the 90’s and you could see a big difference just from the 80’s.
Internet was invented and microsoft was introduced, this got really popular and I think it is one of the biggest invention trough times and now we can not imagine our life without it. The digital world were expanding, mobile phones became more affordable, games and graphics were developed. The economy in America during the 90’s was really strong and I think that just like the 80’s it was a lot of focus on the development of music videos and the commercial things. I think that people were thinking more about producing singles and the selling of perfect ib physics music and grumpier essay this is maybe why the concept of ‘one hit wonders’ became big in the 90’s. I think that the electronic and the technology development during the perfect ib physics lab report 90’s was the thing that really reflected on the music and all of the different genres. To make a conclusion for this timeline from the 50’s- the 21th century, I think that all these subjects that I have talked about grumpier essay have a huge impact on each other and I think this is why the popular music developed so much trough the decades. Perfect Ib Physics Lab Report? For example I do not think that the frq essay the punk rock would have exsisted if the perfect lab report society in the 70’s did not look like it did. Elizabeth? I do not think that Motown would exsist if it was not for The civil right movement that was changing the perfect society. Music is a way to express feeling, opinion and emotions. This is why they are so connected and are so much linked together. The decades also sounded different because of all the technology that was developing trough times, it would not have been the writing essays.com same today without The Beatles way of recording songs with the multi-track recorder and the sterero mixing, or without the syntheizeser that was developed.
The music today would defenitely not have sound the same without all the effects that was developing through times. The big artists that I have talked about were so important for the development of perfect ib physics lab report popular music, I do not think that the Rock and Roll would have got the same success as it did without ‘the king of Rock and Roll’ Elvis Presley. All these things is still developing, technology and society are still changing so much today and what makes people happy essay I think that music will just continue the journey of change. Search our thousands of perfect ib physics essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Photography and arts essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Photography and arts work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
This Photography and arts essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to grumpier old men essay, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Music Timeline – the development of pop music over and throughout decades . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/photography-arts/essay-music-timeline-the-development-of-pop-music-over-and-throughout-decades/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to perfect ib physics lab report, request removal: 05-11-16 - New Aged Music and Memory Retention 03-11-16 - Prince (music artist) - UNUSUAL PARTNERSHIP: (DIS)ENGAGING ART EDUCATION AND HEGEMONIC PRAXIS) 28-07-16 - Does photography have an best ever, impact on our self-perception, and how does it effect society? 29-06-16 - POP-UP BOOK ON TRANSFORMED SAEED AKHTAR ART WORK (TRANSFORMED CURIO) - Designing health and safety signage 29-11-15 - Essay: Three dimensional animations 28-11-15 - Essay: Accessibility of public libraries in danger due to perfect, cutbacks? 22-11-15 - Essay: Cultural photography 21-11-15 - Essay: How artists’ own preferences of what people essay location are shaped and the influence on helping place formation.
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