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bang book essay Physics Site Map. On Truth Reality. Procedural? The Wave Structure of Matter (WSM) in Space. Below you will find a very good essay on some of the main problems of the Big Bang theory of Cosmology. Michel De Montaigne The Complete Penguin? However, the most compelling arguments against the big bang cosmology theory are; 1. We can deduce the most simple science theory of reality - which then leads to the most simple cosmology theory where our observable universe exists as a finite spherical region of infinite eternal space. 2. From this most simple cosmology we find simple sensible explanations to the many problems of the big bang theory of cosmology. Cosmology is essays, profound because it shows that we humans (all matter) are universal structures! Discrete and doctoral in, separate 'bodies' are an illusion of the senses. by William C. Mitchell. (As Published in Physics Essays Volume 10, Number 2, June 1997) A critical look at procedural the very old big bang problems (of the Quantitate and qualitative singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness) and procedural, the failed solutions of inflation theory; newer Big Bang problems relating to missing mass (as required for a flat inflationary universe), the age of the Quantitate and qualitative universe, radiation from the procedural essays decoupling (smearing of black body spectrum), a contrived Big Bang chronology, the abundance of light elements, and red shift anomalies; and problems, newer yet, regarding inconsistencies of red shift interpretation, curved space, inflation theory, the decelerating expansion of a Big Bang universe, and some additional logical inconsistencies of Big Bang theory are presented. Masters Research Example? Key words: singularity, smooth universe, flat universe, average density, age, black body radiation, neutrinos, chronology, light elements, red shift, curved space, quasars, inflation, decelerating expansion. (Note: Numbers in brackets refer to references at the end of this document.) 1. IS A SINGULARITY ACCEPTABLE?
2. IS THE UNIVERSE SMOOTH? 3. ORIGINAL SMOOTHNESS OR SMOOTHING? 4. IS THE UNIVERSE FLAT? 5. IS DENSITY TOO LOW? 6. UNIVERSE TOO OLD? 7. SOURCE OF RADIATION? 8. CONTRIVED CHRONOLOGY? 9. SOURCE OF LIGHT ELEMENTS?
10. DOPPLER RED SHIFT? 11. WHAT SPACE CURVATURE? 12. DOES INFLATION FIX THE BIG BANG? 13. Procedural Essays? WHAT IS DECELERATING? 14. Doctoral In? DOES LOGIC PREVAIL?
In one of its several variations the big bang cosmological theory is almost universally accepted as the most reasonable theory for procedural essays, the origin and and qualitative, evolution of the procedural universe. In fact, it is so well accepted that virtually every media article, story or program that touches on the subjects of astronomy or cosmology presents the big bang (Big Bang) as a virtual proven fact. And Qualitative? As a result, the great majority of the literate populace of the procedural world, including most of the scientists of the world, accepts big bang theory (Big Bang Theory) as scientific fact. Education establishments involved in the fields of astronomy, astrophysics, theoretical physics and cosmology are dominated by those who have accepted Big Bang as the and qualitative theory to be pursued. Scientists who seriously question the Big Bang are generally considered disruptive, ridiculed and derogatorily referred to as big bang bashers. Procedural? As a result of that attitude alternate cosmological possibilities are left uninvestigated. Michel De Montaigne The Complete Essay Classics? Untold man-hours and vast sums of money are spent in pursuit of data in support of the prevailing theory. Such endeavors are not in keeping with the ideals of procedural, impartial scientific investigation. It is all but forgotten that the Big Bang is not fact, but an unproven theory. Fortunately there long has been an unindoctrinated minority of dissertations in, scientists, both amateur and professional, who continue to procedural essays, discover and present observational evidence and logic that provides reason to doubt the in accepted paradigm. Some of better known and most effective of the scientists in this struggle are Halton Arp of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Germany, Anthony Peratt of the Los Alamos National Laboratories, and Jayant Narlikar of the Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in India.
Other well known astronomers/cosmologists who have long fought for the proper consideration of alternate cosmologies include Geoffrey and Margaret Burbridge, Fred Hoyle, Herman Bondi, Thomas Gold and essays, Eric Lerner. Due to the efforts of those and essays methods in education, other fighters for even-handed cosmological investigation and, despite the powerful influence of mainstream Big Bang cosmologists, evidence against the Big Bang has been building to the point where the world may soon start to doubt it. Some of that evidence is briefly reviewed in this paper. The oldest and perhaps best known problem of Big Bang Theory is that of the singularity. At the first instant of the Big Bang universe, in which its density and temperature were infinitely high, is what is known to mathematicians as a singularity. That situation is considered to be a breakdown of theory. That is, it cannot be assumed that the laws of physics as we know them can apply to that event, thus presenting serious questions about it. In addition, the postulated creation of the entire mass and energy of the procedural essays universe out of doctoral dissertations, nothing in the first instant of time, seems to represent an extreme violation of the law of conservation of mass/energy. According to prevailing theory, before that instant, space and time did not exist.
Although to some, who confuse their religious ideas with science, this is seen as a reasonable interpretation of their religious beliefs, to others the beginning of space and time might represent a significant problem. If there were a Big Bang, it would seem that events during the procedural essays first instant of time would involve the instantaneous acceleration of the enormous number of particles (the entire mass) of the universe to relativistic velocity; and some variations of Big Bang Theory postulate velocities well above the speed of light. Dissertations In? Because the acceleration of even a minute particle to the speed of procedural, light requires an infinite amount of energy, the Big Bang might have required on the order of an infinity times and essays on research methods in education, infinity of ergs; not to mention the additional energy that would be required to overcome the gravitational attraction of the entire mass of the universe. It has been suggested that this singularity problem can be solved by procedural postulating a universe of zero net energy;(2) a universe wherein the positive kinetic energy, the michel potential energy, and procedural essays, the Einsteinian equivalent energy of the mass of the universe is essays, equal and opposite to the negative energy of gravity. Somehow, if the universe is to collapse in the future as some believe, all the energy that was expended in the birth and expansion of the Big Bang universe was only borrowed; someday to be paid back. However, that doesn't provide an adequate explanation for the source of the energy requirement described above. It should be noted that this zero net energy explanation couldn't reasonably be postulated for essays, other than a recollapsing universe.
However, as will be discussed further on, observational evidence has all but ruled out the possibility of the no to essay collapsing Big Bang universe case, thus adding to the incredibility of zero net energy; and certainly it would seem that the positive energy of the potential, kinetic and the enormous mass equivalent energy of the of the universe must be far greater than the negative energy of its gravity. Essays? For any Big Bang universe case the postulated zero net energy idea appears to child in india, be unrealistic. Inflation theory, (3,4) which will be discussed further on, has claimed to solve the singularity problem (and other Big Bang problems as well) but it requires an enormous quantum theory vacuum fluctuation (2) and, according to some, an enormous cosmic repulsive force to provide for a Big Bang. These are purely speculative ideas that have no known means of experimental verification. One of the older problems of essays, Big Bang Theory, that of its postulated large-scale smoothness of the universe, appears to be the result of what was originally a simplifying assumption (5-8) that was made to aid in the solution of Einstein's equations of general relativity on which the Big Bang is based. That apparently resulted in the establishment of smoothness as a basic tenet of Big Bang Theory; that is, the masters research example universe is isotropic (the same in all directions) and homogeneous (the same everywhere).
Those ideas, combined with curved space, provide the basis for the Big Bang concepts of space expansion (rather than simple expansion of matter in essays, space), for a Big Bang that happened everywhere, and for a centerless universe. However, the observed irregularities of the masters research example universe, which include vast galactic formations, (9) gigantic voids and sheets of galaxies, (10) and the Great Wall, (11,12) that is procedural essays, estimated to masters example, stretch across one half billion light years of space, tend to deny that smoothness. The smoothness of the procedural essays distribution of the matter of the universe is masters proposal example, said to be verified by the smoothness of microwave background radiation (MBR) that is received from all directions of procedural, space. De Montaigne The Complete Essay? That radiation is believed by adherents of Big Bang Theory to procedural, have come directly from doctoral, a smooth Big Bang. However, it would seem that both the improbability of a smooth Big Bang explosion (explosions experienced in our time certainly are not smooth), and procedural, presently observed irregularities of the universe, tend to deny a Big Bang as the labour essay in india direct source of MBR. (Regarding the plasma universe explosion postulated by procedural essays Hannes Alfven, a leading advocate of Big Bang cosmology P. Essays On Research In Education? J. E. Peebles wrote, It would be hard to imagine that the explosion produced a spherically symmetric expanding system of galaxies . (13) One wonders why similar doubt is not expressed about a smooth Big Bang.) The enormous expansion of the early universe at speeds far in procedural, excess of that of light, in accordance with inflation theory, is no to, said to solve the Big Bang smoothness problem. However, postulating a different form of expansion doesn't change the present state of the universe, and, as will be discussed further on, it is not clear that inflation can provide an adequate explanation for the expansion of the universe at speeds far in excess of procedural essays, that of light. 3. ORIGINAL SMOOTHNESS OR SMOOTHING?
Another old Big Bang problem that is related to the smoothness problem is called the essay in india horizon problem. In the event, however unlikely, that the universe should ultimately prove to be smooth (on an extremely large scale), an additional problem would have to be faced. Regardless of whether the Big Bang was chaotic or smooth, how it might have become smooth or remained smooth is not explained. Because of the enormous initial rate of expansion of a Big Bang universe, faster-than-light signaling would have been necessary for gravitational (or other) forces to produce or retain that smoothness over essays, billions of years. Quantitate And Qualitative? However, even the transmission of information at or above the speed of light is a violation of the theory of relativity.
The rapid expansion of the very early Big Bang universe in accordance with inflation theory is thought to provide a solution to essays, this horizon problem. As Peebles has also written, The recent tendency is to assume this embarrassment can be resolved by inflation or some other adjustment of the physics of the very early universe . (13) But again, it is not clear just how the more rapid expansion of doctoral dissertations in, inflation might solve this problem. Procedural Essays? An additional older problem of Big Bang Theory is the flatness problem. A special theory is required to explain a flat Euclidean Big Bang universe of uncurved space that is accepted by many mainstream cosmologists. In that universe the average density would be at a critical level, that is, at a balance between the average density of a closed Big Bang universe (expanding at less than escape velocity) that would eventually collapse, and masters research example, the average density of an open Big Bang universe (expanding at greater than escape velocity) whose expansion would continue to increase, but at an ever decreasing rate. The postulated expansion of this flat Big Bang universe (just at escape velocity) would eventually cease to increase, and procedural essays, thereafter remain at a fixed size.
It has been postulated that a universe of drugs, zero net energy, in addition to solving the singularity problem, might solve this flatness problem. However, as mentioned above, that concept is highly suspect. Additionally, the observed low average density of the universe, probably not more than a few percent of the critical amount, appears to deny the possibility of the flat universe case. As in the case of the procedural essays previously mentioned problems, the enormous rate of expansion of the early Big Bang universe as postulated by inflation theory, is said to doctoral dissertations in, provide a solution to the flatness problem. However, it is not clear how an enormously fast rate of procedural essays, expansion might result in an average density at the critical level; and the low observed density of the universe represents an especially severe problem to inflation theory. That situation has provided the incentive for Quantitate and qualitative, a frantic search for the missing mass that would be necessary to increase the essays average density to the expectations of inflation theory. Actually, the density of the universe appears to penguin classics, be insufficient to support any Big Bang universe case: closed, flat or somewhat open.
That situation presents what is called the missing mass problem. The directly observed density of the universe is estimated at only one to two percent of the required density for the above cases. Calculations based on observed dynamics of galactic rotation of a small sample of galaxies indicate there may be as much as ten times that amount of matter in their vicinities. There is insufficient evidence to indicate that is true of the majority of galaxies, and little evidence that the essays average density of intergalactic space is nearly that high. However, even if the density of all of space were found to be as high as in the vicinity of those sample galaxies, resulting in an average density on the order of child essay in india, ten percent of the critical amount, that is still far short of the level necessary for essays, the usual Big Bang cases. If the Big Bang universe is flat, requiring its average density to essays on research methods in education, be at essays the critical level (somewhat less for the open Big Bang universe and somewhat more for the closed Big Bang universe), as much as 99 percent of its mass might consist of Quantitate and qualitative, non-baryonic matter of no known characteristics other than gravitational attraction. Investigators have made valiant efforts, both theoretical and observational, to find that missing matter, both cold dark matter (CDM) and hot dark matter (HDM). All sorts of exotic stuff, including photinos, gravitinos, small black holes, magnetic monopoles, solitons, cosmic strings and sheets, MACHOS (massive astrophysical halo objects), WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles), massive neutrinos (meaning neutrinos that have mass), and several others have been proposed, but no significant observational evidence in support of those has been discovered. [Because it has been said that the universe, in addition to photons, is procedural, flooded with neutrinos from the Big Bang, some theorists had suggested that electron neutrinos are more massive than previously thought by particle physicists; possibly as much as 30 eV (rather than less than 10 eV) which might be sufficient to solve the missing mass problem. For the same reason, it has more recently been suggested that muon neutrinos might have a mass of about 2500 MeV, more than 10,000 times greater than previously estimated. Research Proposal? However, experiments failed to support an electron neutrino of 30 eV, (14) and there is no experimental evidence in support of a muon neutrino of essays, 2500 MeV.] Inflation theory, that is Quantitate and qualitative, claimed to solve several of the major problems of conventional Big Bang Theory, postulates a flat universe. (15) For that reason the significance of the missing mass problem has in recent years increased in the minds of procedural, those who support that theory.
As mentioned, that has provided increased incentive for the as yet unsuccessful search for missing mass. Quantitate? A major problem, known as the age paradox, (16) plagues Big Bang Theory: The postulated age of the Big Bang universe may be incompatible with observations. Despite the insistence of some Big Bang advocates on a lower value, recent observations of procedural essays, distant galaxies have confirmed the Hubble constant to doctoral in, be approximately 80 km/sec/Megaparsec (about 24.5 km/sec/million light years). (13,17) Hubble time, the age 12 billion years. The age of a flat or near flat Big Bang universe, as postulated by Big Bang theorists in recent years, would be two thirds of that, or about 8 billion years; somewhat more than that for essays, an open Big Bang universe, and somewhat less than that for a closed Big Bang universe. Michel Penguin Classics? That age is only about one half of the known age of some stars and galaxies, (18,19) presenting an obviously impossible situation. Conversely, a flat Big Bang universe having an age of 15 billion years, would require a Hubble time of 22.5 billion years and a Hubble constant of procedural essays, about 42.2 km/sec/Mpc; little more than one half of the observed value. Even if the age of the Big Bang universe was considerably more than 8 billion years (and the Hubble constant correspondingly smaller), there may not have been time for the formation of and qualitative, observed gigantic galactic configurations. The time required for those to form (due to gravity) in accordance with Big Bang Theory) has been estimated to be on the order of 100 billion years. The heavy elements observed in the solar system, and in other stars and galaxies, require at least one previous stellar cycle. (20,21) The formation of those stars, their life time, their collapse, explosion and dispersal, and the subsequent formation of our galaxy, sun and planets might well have required a period considerably greater than 8 billion years. Because of the high probability of more than one previous stellar cycle in this process, an age of at least tens of billions of years may have been required.
Astronomical observations support a period of rotation of our galaxy of essays, 1/4 billion years. (22,23) At that rate, if the Big Bang had occurred on the order of 10 billion years ago, there would have been time for only 40 rotations. However, astronomical theory tells us that the rate of rotation has increased from dissertations, a much lower rate as the galaxy has evolved, (24) providing time for considerably less than 40 rotations. As judged by the present spiral form of the essays galaxy, it might be expected that an drugs order of magnitude more revolutions, and thus an order of magnitude more that 10 billion years, may have been required for the formation of our galaxy. These comments apply to other spiral galaxies as well as our own. Possibly adding to procedural essays, this age problem, there have been observations of polarization of radiation received from distant quasars indicating the masters presence of relatively strong magnetic fields. Some of those quasars are reckoned by Big Bang theorists to be observed as they were at less than one tenth of the age of the universe, (25) far sooner than such fields might have developed in accordance with Big Bang Theory. On the whole it would seem that the age of the procedural universe is more likely to be at least several tens of billions of years, rather than 10 to 15 billion years as believed by Big Bang advocates. As in the case of the missing mass problem, Big Bang age problems alone appear to essays in education, provide convincing evidence against all of Big Bang Theory. It should be noted that Big Bang theorists' estimates of the age of the universe are based on their belief in an expanding universe. That in turn is based on the accepted Doppler interpretation of red shift which, as we will see, may present additional difficulties.
The microwave background radiation (MBR), that is received uniformly from all directions of space, considered by many to be the most important evidence in essays, support of Big Bang Theory, may be inconsistent with that theory. In addition to the previous comment that one would expect the methods observed gigantic galactic formations to cause irregularities in the isotropy of MBR reception, the observed spectrum of the MBR, corresponding to a near perfect black body temperature of 2.7 K, doesn't agree very well with temperatures predicted by essays various Big Bang theorists. Those predictions had varied over a range of 5 to research proposal, 50 K. (26) History also shows that some Big Bang cosmologists' predictions of MBR temperature have been adjusted after-the-fact to agree with observed temperatures. The prediction of 5 K (by Ralph Alpher and procedural, Robert Herman in 1948), (27) which has been selected as a basis for doctoral in, agreement with the observed temperature, was made by those who had accepted a Big Bang scenario that included concepts that were incorrect. Those included the idea that all of the elements of the procedural essays universe were produced in the Big Bang, which was later determined to be erroneous. If the temperature of the universe was at absolute zero, all matter would collapse. The temperature of radiation from space might reasonably be expected to doctoral in, be some small number of degrees above that temperature. In fact, some physicists (including Sir Arthur Eddington in 1926 and Andrew McKeller in 1942)(28) had estimated temperatures in the range of 2 to 3 K; closer to that of the MBR than has been estimated by Big Bang cosmologists. According to Big Bang theorists, the decoupling era, from whence MBR is said to have originated, may have lasted at least several hundred thousand years. (29) It has occurred to procedural essays, me that, if radiation comes to us directly from that period, later radiation would have lower source temperature and less red shift, resulting in essays on research, distortion, smearing, (24) of the postulated black body spectrum from the decoupling. Big Bang theorists may have assumed that the temperature and red shift changes of that period would cancel; but unless the universe had linear (fixed-rate) expansion, that cancellation could not be perfect.
Because Big Bang theorists believe, not in a fixed rate of expansion, but in a non-linear decelerating expansion, it would seem reasonable to suppose that a less than perfect black body spectrum might be received from the Big Bang decoupling than that which is observed. Smearing of a black body spectrum from the decoupling would also result if the shape of the essays Big Bang universe were less than perfectly spherical during that period. Although Big Bang advocates believe in that smoothness, it may be difficult for michel de montaigne the complete classics, others to accept an explosion of procedural, such symmetry. If MBR from the decoupling had caused thermal equalization (thermalization) of the matter of the space that surrounds us, as other theorists have suggested, and research, that matter were quite remote, the large irregularities of galactic formations might be expected to cause fairly large directional variations of the essays MBR. If the MBR is radiated from thermalized matter relatively close to us (but perhaps outside of our galaxy), the MBR might possess the observed isotropy. However, the possibility should not be overlooked that, as the work of child in india, Eddington, McKeller and others indicates, the essays observed MBR may be the result of sources of energy other than the Big Bang decoupling. Some Big Bang cosmologists have contended that thermalization of surrounding space could not produce a spectrum so closely resembling that of black body radiation. However there is theoretical support for the existence of particles in space (called whiskers) (30-32) that in turn supports the possibility of thermalization. Physical evidence of Quantitate and qualitative, these particles has been found in meteorites that have struck the earth. (33,34) Further doubt about the Big Bang as a source of the MBR results from consideration of the amplitude of MBR signal strength received here on earth. Procedural? Calculations indicate that the received energy may be orders of magnitude lower than would be expected from the enormous energy release of the drugs essay postulated Big Bang decoupling. (24) According to Big Bang Theory, positively curved space provides the explanation for omnidirectional reception of MBR from the decoupling.
However, characteristics of the positively curved space of a closed universe cannot be ascribed to essays, the flat or somewhat open universe that is accepted by the majority of Big Bang theorists. As presented above, the closed Big Bang universe would seem to be ruled out by age and density considerations. But if that had not been the case, and space were positively curved as postulated for the closed Big Bang universe case, neutrinos from the methods Big Bang would be raining on us as well as photons. Those have not been detected. By similar reasoning, in a Big Bang universe of positively curved space, rather than being clumped at great distances (as they are perceived to be by the presently accepted interpretation of red shift data), quasars would be more evenly distributed in direction, distance and speed. If that were found to be true it might tend to procedural essays, deny one of the alleged proofs of Big Bang Theory, that of an evolving universe. Photons [that is, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the infrared region] are believed to originate from the michel the complete essay penguin Big Bang decoupling, to procedural essays, be red-shifted by about 1,000, and to be received from all directions of space as MBR. According to Big Bang Theory, neutrinos are also said to originate from the Big Bang, but at a much earlier time. They, like the MBR, are believed to fill the space that surrounds us. Essay In India? According to quantum wave theory, although they are particles rather than EMR, they are considered to have a red shift much greater than that of Big Bang photons.
Their energy is therefore too low to allow their detection: their frequency below the essays capability of available technology. Labour? Although neutrinos from nearby sources (from the sun and procedural essays, from Supernova 1987A) have been detected, the treatment of on research methods, Big Bang neutrinos as waves is said to provide an explanation for the lack of their detection. However, the application of wave theory to neutrinos, but not to other particles (electrons, protons, neutrons, etc.) believed to have originated in the Big Bang at or before the procedural time of the decoupling, appears to no to drugs, present a logical inconsistency. It would seem that, upon procedural consideration of the Quantitate and qualitative available evidence, rather than supporting Big Bang Theory, the presence of MBR might actually be counted against it. It seems more reasonable to postulate natural radiation from matter or energetic processes in relatively nearby space as the source of MBR. The time line of events from the first instant of the Big Bang until the essays present time, as presented by various cosmologists in their attempts to reconcile Big Bang Theory with quantum theory, have been inconsistent with their own versions of Big Bang Theory thus presenting serious chronology problems. As an example of this, although there are few if any Big Bang adherents who believe in a universe that has expanded at a constant rate since the Big Bang, the chronology that is most often presented indicates a fixed-rate universe that is 10 billion years old. (3,35,36) That chronology, indicating a Hubble time of 10 billion years, requires a Hubble constant of almost 100 km/sec/Mpc (30 km/sec/million light years), a value far in excess of that accepted by Big Bang supporters. For a Hubble constant of that value, all of the usual Big Bang cosmological cases (somewhat open, flat or closed) would require the Big Bang to have occurred at about 2/3 of Hubble time, or approximately 6 billion years ago, which is doctoral dissertations in, incompatible with current Big Bang thinking. The great majority of Big Bang advocates believe in a considerable degree of gravitational deceleration of the expansion of the universe since the Big Bang for either a somewhat open, a flat or a closed universe. For those cases the plot of energy and temperature vs. time would require considerable decreasing slope as time progresses, rather than the linear expansion that is usually depicted.
Furthermore, the nonlinearity required for a decelerating expansion, would require considerable modification to essays, the occurrence of quantum theory events (and other events, such as the decoupling), in the Big Bang chronology as customarily presented. Study of this matter leads one to suspect that the timing of the and qualitative events of the Big Bang Theory chronology as usually shown may merely have been contrived. Any amount of energy, measured or theoretical, required for the creation of particles of procedural, quantum theory can be placed between the infinite energy (infinite temperature and density) of the Big Bang singularity and the present low energy level of space (a temperature of 2.7 K). Adding to these inconsistencies is the lack of consideration of the impact of inflation theory on Big Bang chronology. Although many of those who present chronological information have accepted inflation theory, and must be aware of its impact, they continue to describe Big Bang events essentially in accordance with a chronology, already inconsistent with pre-inflation Big Bang Theory, that shows a linear decrease in energy and a linear increase in size as functions of time. The agreement of the observed abundance of light elements in research example, the universe with those predicted by various Big Bang cosmologists is frequently cited as one of the essays primary proofs of their theory, but this proof also faces some difficulties. The study of historical data shows that over the years predictions of the ratio of helium to hydrogen in a Big Bang universe have been repeatedly adjusted to agree with the latest available estimates of that ratio as observed in the real universe. (Human science is very fallible!) The estimated ratio is dependent on a ratio of baryons to photons (the baryon number) that has also been arbitrarily adjusted to methods, agree with the currently established helium to hydrogen ratio. These appear to have not been predictions, but merely adjustments of theory (retrodictions) to accommodate current data. Big Bang cosmologists tell us that the procedural essays observed ratio of helium to hydrogen in the universe could only have been the result of Big Bang thermonucleosynthesis.
However, that presumes, not only masters example a precise knowledge of the processes of a Big Bang, but a precise knowledge of the procedural essays processes of masters proposal, other possible cosmologies. Procedural Essays? If, for child essay in india, example, another cosmology should suggest that helium has accumulated as a result of other processes (37,38) (such as stellar nucleosynthesis over tens of procedural essays, billions of essays in education, years), having given other cosmological possibilities little or no consideration, on what basis might a Big Bang theorist deny that? In addition to helium, Big Bang theorists have in the past maintained that other light elements including boron, beryllium and lithium, can only have been produced by Big Bang nucleosynthesis (fusion). Procedural Essays? However, it has been found that these elements can be produced by cosmic rays acting on supernovae remnants (fission). Essay Penguin Classics? (29) It is also possible for deuterium to have been produced by processes in the formation of galaxies, rather than in Big Bang nucleosynthesis as claimed by procedural essays those theorists. Essays Methods In Education? Adding to procedural essays, those problems, recent observations have shown that the research abundance of essays, helium is less than that indicated by standard Big Bang Theory, and that the ratios of beryllium and boron are inconsistent with that theory. (39-41) Inconsistencies regarding the current interpretation of observed red shift present many problems to essays methods in education, Big Bang Theory. Many of those have to do with the distant massive bodies that are called quasars.
As presently utilized, red shift data results in the perception of extremely great masses and essays, brilliances of quasars. Variations in the level of radiation from these sources (27,42) require their size to be extremely small and essays methods in education, their densities to be extremely great. These extreme characteristics suggest that the present interpretation of red shift data as Doppler shift doesn't tell the whole story about the speed and distance of procedural, remote massive bodies in space. Red shift data as presently used also shows quasars to be clumped at labour great distances (great relative velocities). According to Big Bang Theory that would require the procedural formation of large numbers of michel the complete essay penguin classics, quasars too soon after the Big Bang. That interpretation of red shift data also results in the anomaly of quasars at various distances, and thus of various ages, that are observed to have similar electromagnetic spectrums. But perhaps even in greater conflict with Big Bang Theory, the clumping of distant quasars in all directions would appear to put us at the center of the universe.
That situation, known as the Copernican Problem, is in direct conflict with the basic Big Bang Theory tenet of procedural, smoothness; that is, isotropy and homogeneity. Dependence on no to drugs, Doppler red shift for the determination of velocity and distance also results in the perception of an unreasonably large number of procedural, distant quasars having associated superluminal flares. (32,43) Some simple mathematics can show that, if the perceived distance of those quasars was less, fewer of such flares would be indicated. (Also, mathematical investigation of the velocity relationships between quasars perceived to be at great distances and their perceived superluminal flares, has provided unintelligible results.) Big Bang theorists accept special relativity, and in education, thus the application of the Lorentz transformations to the red shift of radiation from galaxies and quasars that are believe to be at procedural great distances and receding from us at relativistic speeds. Those speeds are thus believed to result in red shifts that are greater than would be expected by the linear application of a Hubble constant. That would appear to be reasonable for essays on research, a universe consisting of matter that is essays, expanding as the normal result of an explosion. However, because Big Bang theorists insist that it is methods in education, not the procedural essays matter of the essay universe, but the space of the universe that is expanding, I have suggested an additional problem: Although the Lorentz transformations may apply to matter, they do not apply to massless space. It is therefore inappropriate to apply them to a Big Bang universe. In addition to procedural essays, quasar related problems, there is considerable observational evidence indicating that the presently accepted interpretation of red shift data is to some degree erroneous.
Observations over many years by highly regarded astronomers have shown many companion galaxies(27) to have considerably higher red shifts than those of unmistakably neighbouring galaxies. Most notable among those astronomers is Halton Arp, who has also provided considerable evidence that radiation from newly formed galaxies is in some manner red shifted by other than Doppler effect. (44) Although it has long ago been ruled out by Big Bang cosmologists as an important factor, massive dense bodies, that may not be massive enough and dense enough to become black holes, may be massive enough and dense enough to cause appreciable amounts of gravitational red shift (Einstein shift)(24,49) of their radiation. In support of this it is known, for example, that even our sun has a small gravitational red shift (z 0.000002); and it is proposal, suggested that the differences in masses and radii of stars of procedural, some binary pairs(50) may be the cause of observed differences in their average red shift. Any of research example, these possible causes of red shift may add to Doppler red shift (if that exists) and thus cause the essays appearance of greater relative speed and distance of quasars and other massive bodies in space. Quantitate And Qualitative? If that should prove to essays, be so, problems regarding the interpretation of no to drugs, red shift data might be eased or eliminated.
It seems obvious that, if other causes of the red shift of radiation from massive bodies were given consideration, problems resulting from the conventional interpretation of red shift might be eased. Quasars might be found to be much closer and their velocity much lower, thus solving the procedural essays perception of excessive brilliance, mass, density, large numbers of superluminal flares and other problems, including the clumping of quasars at great distances. (If red shift were found to have causes other than or in child labour essay in india, addition to Doppler effects, the velocity of distant quasars would fall on a lower, more linear portion of a plot of essays, velocity vs. Michel De Montaigne Penguin? red shift that incorporates relativistic effects [as derived from the Einstein- Lorentz transformations]. Essays? The perception of in, clumping would thus be reduced.) It should be pointed out that Hubble himself was not convinced that red shift was exclusively due to Doppler effect. Up to the time of his death he maintained that velocities inferred from red shift measurements should be referred to procedural essays, as apparent velocities. (45,51) No references to negatively curved space can be found in Einstein's Relativity, The Special and General Theories, or in other early books on Einstein's work such as Biography of Physics by George Gamow or Understanding Relativity by Stanley Goldberg. In all of those there is on research in education, only discussion of positively curved space resulting from procedural essays, gravitational attraction (or equivalent acceleration). Not only have Big Bang theorists thoroughly accepted the questionable concept of positively curved space but, based on some later interpretations of masters proposal example, relativity, (5,8) they have decided that space may be negatively curved. Accordingly, the closed Big Bang universe has positively curved space, the flat Big Bang universe has uncurved space, and the open Big Bang universe has negatively curved saddle shaped space. (In the second two of these space doesn't close on itself, and it has no edge.) According to Einstein, space is procedural essays, curved due to the presence of matter, but is only positively curved. Therefore, if it is believed that space is uncurved or negatively curved, it has occurred to me that there must be something in the Big Bang universe to overcome the positive curvature resulting from the presence of the matter of the universe.
If the on research methods universe is flat, that something must be just sufficient to compensate for the gravitational influence of the matter of the universe and, if the universe is essays, open, it must be sufficient to overpower that influence. In other words, logic would seem to indicate that Big Bang theorists' acceptance of uncurved space of a flat universe, or the negatively curved space of an open universe, implicitly acknowledges the essay existence of negative gravity. There must be more than an equation to provide the rationale for flat or negative curvature in a universe of significant mass; the mathematics must represent some physical phenomena; something like cosmic repulsion. (24) For many years it had been thought that a term in Einstein's equations known as cosmic repulsion was his greatest mistake; even he had reached that conclusion. But it would seem that Big Bang cosmologists have changed their minds on that score. Some of them have now accepted cosmic repulsion, now called the cosmological constant, as an essential feature of inflation theory. (1) Some Big Bang theorists have also suggested (quite logically) that cosmic repulsion provides the solution to the age paradox. If it is essays, like negative gravity, and of sufficient magnitude, the expansion of the universe in the past may have been slower than indicated by the presently observed Hubble constant. If that is so, the masters research proposal Big Bang may have occurred sufficiently long ago for their universe to essays, be older than some stars are observed to be, thus rescuing the Big Bang from michel de montaigne the complete, its age problem. That, of course, would result in essays, a kind of universe not normally envisioned by masters example Big Bang enthusiasts; one that has an ever increasing rate of expansion. (As interpreted from red shift data in the usual manner, out to a red shift of one [z = 1], astronomical evidence would appear to indicate a universe having a fixed rate of expansion. (13) However, because of measurement uncertainties and possible relativistic effects at a relative distance of procedural essays, about one billion light years and beyond, there is considerable doubt concerning the constancy of the child essay in india Hubble constant.) It would seem that logical inconsistencies regarding the procedural curvature of space might tend to discredit the prevailing Big Bang cosmology.
12. DOES INFLATION FIX THE BIG BANG? Inflation theory, that was invented for the purpose, is said to provide simple solutions to some of the problems of pre-inflation Big Bang Theory. (3,4) However, convincing support for claims of solutions to the singularity, smoothness, horizon, and flatness problems is on research methods in education, lacking. Inflation theorists have alleged that the inflationary expansion of the early Big Bang universe, involving speeds orders of magnitude greater than that of light, (3,4) did not involve the travel of mass or energy, and thus did not violate the theory of relativity in solving the singularity problem. But how inflation, as opposed to ordinary expansion, can in some manner displace all the mass or energy of the universe without physically moving it, defies common understanding. A violation of Einstein's prohibition of essays, speeds in excess of that of light seems to be inherent in that process. The quantum concept of false vacuum, previously postulated only to deal with the spontaneous generation of the tiny fundamental particles of modern physics, is called upon by inflation theory to instantaneously produce the mass and energy of the child entire universe. But this sudden appearance of the universe from the energy of vacuum, (1) still essentially out-of-nothing, does not escape the perception of an enormous violation of the law of conservation of mass/energy. Inflation theorists have also explained that an enormous cosmic repulsive force (an enormously large cosmological constant)(1) provided the expansive force necessary for an exponential expansion of the procedural universe.
However, as previously noted, both the birth of the universe from a gigantic vacuum fluctuation(2,52) and the expansion of the universe from a gigantic cosmic repulsive force are speculations that have no means of verification. Perhaps as a form of insurance for their claim of inflation's enormous expansion of the early universe without violation of the conservation of mass/energy, some inflation theorists have borrowed the Big Bang zero net energy idea that an equivalent amount of energy is merely on proposal example, loan from the energy of the vacuum; that loan to essays, be repaid upon the ultimate collapse of the universe. Research Proposal Example? Because of the procedural essays apparent impossibility of a collapsing closed universe, that repayment might be put off indefinitely. However, even if the Big Bang universe were some day to Quantitate, collapse, that wouldn't happen for many billions of years: seemingly a long time for the loan of procedural essays, all of and qualitative, its mass and energy to go unpaid. Furthermore, those who support inflation theory espouse, not a closed universe, but a flat one, so the zero-net-energy idea appears to conflict with their own beliefs. Essays? It would seem that inflation has also failed to solve the other old problems of Big Bang Theory. To state that inflation smoothed the universe by stretching out irregularities of the first instant of the Big Bang, but left just enough of drugs essay, them to essays, provide the seeds for the later formation of galaxies may be a matter of faith, not science. Essay? To state that inflation at orders of magnitude faster than the speed of procedural, light solved the horizon problem that had been attributed to the high rate of expansion of pre-inflation Big Bang Theory, may be illogical. To state that inflation, that is said to result in an exponential expansion of somewhere between 10 to the 50th power (Guth's original inflation)(3) and 10 to the 1,000,000th power (Linde's new inflation), (4) would cause anything greater than a minutely low average density, far less than the critical density required for a flat Big Bang universe, seems difficult to the complete penguin, accept. Inflation theorists postulate a universe that expanded to unimaginable size, and thus claim that we can observe only a tiny portion of it. But they continue to tell us that quasars can be seen to essays, within a small percentage of the distance to the Big Bang; two very conflicting ideas.
In addition, some Big Bang cosmologists who have accepted inflation, continue to describe events essentially in accordance with the typical chronology of pre-inflation Big Bang, having a linear decrease in temperature (energy) and a linear increase in size as functions of time, without consideration of the research appropriate changes necessary to accommodate inflation. In addition to its apparent failure to solve pre-inflation Big Bang problems, it would seem that inflation has introduced some new problems and complexities. A new quandary, that I have called the Big Bang deceleration problem, has occurred to me. (24) If the universe is expanding and, if that expansion is decelerating due to gravitational attraction of the mass of the procedural essays universe, as Big Bang theorists believe, they have not made it clear whether the expansion of space is essay, decelerating, or whether the expansion of the matter of space is decelerating. Most Big Bang theorists agree that, rather than the essays matter of space, space itself is expanding. However, if the child labour essay expansion of essays, space is decelerating, the physical law that relates the deceleration of space with gravitation has not been made clear. It would seem reasonable to michel classics, expect the expansion of the matter of a Big Bang universe to be decelerating, but, if that is so, matter must have an increasing inward velocity relative to expanding space; or perhaps the essays expansion of both matter and space is decelerating possibly doubling the effect of gravity. A lack of clarity regarding this matter would seem to add to on research methods, the difficulties of Big Bang Theory. In addition to essays, those suggested above, some miscellaneous logical oversights regarding Big Bang Theory are presented in the these closing paragraphs.
The first of masters research example, these has been alluded to, but is repeated for emphasis. Essays? Big Bang cosmologists repeatedly ascribe closed universe attributes to the flat and open Big Bang universe cases. Child Labour Essay In India? Those attributes include the concepts of closed, curved, expanding space that has no edge, and a centerless universe in which the Big Bang happened everywhere: ideas that do not apply to a flat Euclidian universe or an procedural essays open universe of saddle shaped space. It would seem that in those cases the universe must have a center at which the Big Bang once occurred, thus denying a basic tenet of Big Bang Theory. Because they believe it solves one of Big Bang Theory's major problems (despite its apparent unlikelihood), some Big Bang cosmologists still favor a closed cycling Big Bang universe. They feel that, because it didn't come out-of-nothing, but from the remains of a previous universe, the explosion of a collapsed universe avoids the singularity problem. However, there is no theory in physics that can account for the re-explosion, or bounce, of the universe. (2) Famous physics professor John Archibald Wheeler, who believed in the bounce, once said that black holes are laboratory models for the collapsing universe case. Masters Proposal Example? (54) However, prevailing theory denies that a giant black hole might explode. (55) Big Bang advocates have criticized the once competing steady state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold because it provided no explanation for the origin of the universe. However, at the same time, some of those espouse a cycling Big Bang universe, that has repeatedly collapsed and re-exploded in the past (and that might continue to do so in essays, the future), which exhibits the same no-origin flaw that they ascribed to steady state theory. Big Bang theorists have in the past indicated that all galactic formation had started in the same early era, that is, within the first billion years following the Big Bang. However, recent evidence has increasingly indicated much later and continuing formation of galaxies. (56,57) In the light of this evidence the and qualitative previous view is no longer stressed.
However, it would seem that such waffling might tend to discredit Big Bang Theory. Procedural Essays? Furthermore, it seems unlikely for galaxies to have formed from particles of matter that were initially departing from Quantitate and qualitative, each other at or above the speed of light. Procedural Essays? No known force, gravity, electrodynamic or other, may have been strong enough to cause those particles to accrete. This problem has been recognized by some Big Bang theorists in Quantitate, the past who have postulated that turbulence in the early Big Bang could have started the necessary accumulation. However, it is difficult to imagine, even in the presence of essays, turbulence, how the on research in education great departing speed of particles could allow their accretion. Furthermore, the insistence of essays, most Big Bang theorists on extreme smoothness of the Big Bang explosion would also seem to deny that possibility.
Theorists insist that an expanding universe provides important evidence in support of masters example, Big Bang Theory. However, they seem to ignore the fact that expansion (if true) might support other cosmologies, including the rejected steady state cosmology. Recent convincing evidence that the number of families of fundamental particles in the universe is limited to just three, and procedural, recently observed lensing(49,58) of radiation from distant matter by the gravitational fields of closer matter in drugs, space (as predicted by Einstein) have both been cited as added proof of Big Bang Theory. However, as in the cases of Hubble expansion, the presence of MBR, and essays, the abundance of light elements, these observations might provide support to alternate cosmologies equally well. Big Bang theorists have implied that their solution to Olber's paradox, (24,27,59) that the relativistic speeds (large red shifts) of distant bodies of the universe dim the sky, provides proof of Big Bang Theory.
But, instead of research proposal example, relying on that solution, it might be more reasonable to accept the straightforward solution that Olber himself had long ago offered, that closer, smaller, cooler matter can obscure visible radiation from more distant, larger, warmer matter of procedural, space. In his discussion of michel de montaigne classics, C. V. L. Charlier's clustering hierarchical universe(13), P. J. E. Peebles has recognized that the view of distant galaxies is obscured by dust in our galaxy. And certainly telescopic images of procedural essays, supernovae appear to show that dust hides more distant matter. If correct, that solution would seem to support no cosmology in particular. De Montaigne The Complete Penguin? There has been a consistent pattern of neglect of evidence that might tend to discredit the prevailing Big Bang cosmology. Procedural? Examples of this are the michel de montaigne the complete penguin classics vast amount of data compiled over many years by Halton Arp that shows the proximity of objects of higher red shifts to galaxies of lower red shift, (44) and by Anthony Peratt regarding the role of plasma physics in procedural, the formation of galaxies. Doctoral? (60) Although that data is well known, its impact on the field of cosmology is all but ignored. Although the essays problems presented here may seem overwhelming to those who question big bang theory, mainstream cosmologists insist that, like Dr. Pangloss, theirs is the essays in education best of all possible worlds. Essays? They are confident that all Big Bang problems will ultimately be overcome by doctoral dissertations in further pursuit of evidence in support of that theory. However, on the chance that they could be wrong, it might be prudent to also pursue some alternate paths of investigation. One of the more prominent alternate cosmologies that deserves more attention is procedural, that presented by Anthony Peratt and Eric Lerner(61); a plasma cosmology based on the earlier work of Hannes Alfven, wherein electromagnetic forces have determined the evolution of the universe rather than gravitational force in accordance with General Relativity.
I admire Hannes Alfven's logic. The tired light concepts that deny Doppler red shift, and the vast amount of anomalous red shift data that has been presented by doctoral in Halton Arp, both of which tend to deny a major premise of big bang theory, certainly should be taken more seriously. Some Big Bang dissenters, including those who support tired light theories, postulate a static steady state universe. However, I feel that the evidence for expansion, at least in the near universe (out to many thousands of light years?) is quite convincing, and essays, therefore, have proposed a new steady state cosmology (24) similar to the old SS cosmology of Hoyle, Gold, and de montaigne essay, Bondi. (62) In addition to the apparent imperfection of its perfect cosmological principle, a lack of rationale for either the generation of new matter in space or for expansion of the universe, appears to procedural essays, have caused the failure of old SS theory failed to no to drugs essay, win acceptance. This newly postulated SS cosmology overcomes those failings by proposing the generation of new matter from the procedural essays energy of space in accordance with quantum theory, and expansion due to penguin classics, Einstein's previously condemned (but now accepted in inflation theory) cosmic repulsion. (These are proposed, not on the incredibly enormous scales required by inflation theory, but on scales just sufficient for the generation of fundamental particles and to overcome the force of gravity in remote empty space.) One of essays, these postulated alternate cosmologies, combinations or portions of those or others, unknown or omitted here, may or may not prove to be viable but, in view of the michel essay many Problems of the Big Bang Theory, alternates possibilities certainly deserve more serious consideration. 1. P. Davies, Superforce (Simon Schuster, NY, 1984). Procedural? 2. E. P. Tryon, Nature (14 December 1973).
3. A. H. Guth, and de montaigne essay penguin, Paul J. Steinhardt, Sci. Am. (May 1984). 4. A. Linde, New Scientist (7 March 1985). 5. M. Essays? Rees and J. Silk, Sci. Am. (June 1970). 6. E. McMullin, Am. Philos.
Quarterly (July 1881). 7. Essays In Education? G. Gamow, Sci. Am. (March 1954). 8. J. V. Procedural Essays? Narlikar, New Scientist (2 July 1981). 9. F. Flam, Science (November 1991). 10. S. A. Gregory, and L. A. Child? Thompson, Sci.
Am. Procedural Essays? (March 1982). 11. A. Fisher, Popular Science (May 1991). 12. On Research Methods? A. Chaikin, Omni (August 1991). 13. P.J.E. Peebles, Principles of Physical Cosmology (Princeton University Press, 1993). 14. D. Goldsmith, Discover (October 1992).
15. A. F. Davidsen, Science (15 January 1993).16. Procedural Essays? R. Jayawardhana, Astronomy (June 1993). 17. W. Freedman, Sci. Am. (November 1992). 18. J. R. Gott III, J. E. No To Drugs Essay? Gunn, D. N. Schramm and B. Essays? M. Tinsley, Sci. Am. Doctoral Dissertations? (March 1976). 19.
G. Abell, D. Morrison and S. Wolfe, Realm of the Universe (Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, 1988). 20. S. Gilkis, P. M. Lubin, S. Procedural? S. Meyer, and R. F. Silverberg, Sci. Am. (January 1990). 21. D. Hegyi, Interstellar Medium in Encyclopedia of Physics, 2nd ed. (VCH Publishers, NY, 991). 22. J. Silk, The Big Bang (W. H. Freeman, NY, 1989). 23.
S. van der Bergh and J. Hesser, Sci. Am. (January 1993). 24. W. C. No To Essay? Mitchell, The Cult of the Big Bang (Cosmic Sense Books, NV, 1995). 25. Procedural? J. Boslough, Masters of dissertations, Time (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1992). Essays? 26. D. No To Drugs? Sciama, Cosmology Before and After Quasars in Cosmology +1 (W.
H. Freeman, NY,1977). 27. H. Friedman, The Amazing Universe (The National Geographic Society, Washington, DC,1985). 28. S. G. Essays? Brush, Sci. In? Am. (August 1992). Procedural Essays? 29. S. Weinberg, The First Three Minutes (Basic Books, NY, 1977). And Qualitative? 30. R. Essays? V. Coleman, Whiskers in essay, Encyclopedia of essays, Physics, 2nd ed. (VCH Publishers, NY, 1991). 31.
J. Kanipe, Astronomy (April 1992). 32. H. C. Arp, G. Burbridge, J. And Qualitative? V. Narlikar, N. C. Wickramasinghe, Nature (30 August 1990). Essays? 33. P. Yam, Sci. Am. (October 1990). 34. Before There Was Earth, There Was Lightning in Discover (July 1993). 35. J. De Montaigne The Complete Essay Penguin Classics? D. Barrow and J. Silk, Sci.
Am. Essays? (April 1980). 36. D. Essays? N. Schramm, and G. Steigman, Sci. Am. (June 1988). 37. R. Procedural? Cowen, Science News (19 October 1991). 38. S. Bowyer, Sci. Am. (August 1994). 39. A. Gibbons, Sci.
Am. (January 1992). 40. M. Bartusiak, Discover (August 1992). Example? 41. J. A. Essays? Frieman, and labour essay in india, B.-A. Gradwohl, Science (4 June 1993). 42. M. Schmidt, and F. Bello, The Evolution of Quasars in Cosmology + 1 (W. H. Freeman, NY, 1977). 43.
C. D. Dermer, and R. Procedural? Schlickeiser, Science (18 September 1992). 44. H. C. Arp, Fitting Theory to Observation From Stars to Cosmology in Progress in New Cosmologies: Beyond the Big Bang (Plenum Press, NY, 1993). 45. E. Hubble, Observational Approach to Cosmology, (Oxford University Press, 1937). (see also) 46.
G. Reber, Endless, Boundless, Stable Universe, (University of Tasmania, 1977). 47. P. Proposal? Marmet and G. Reber, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Sci. (April 1989). 48. P. Marmet, Phys. Essays 1,24, (1988). 49. Procedural? P. J. E. Peebles, D. N. Schramm, E. L. Turner and R. G. Kron, Nature (29 August 1991).
50. P. Marmet, IEEE Trans. on Plasma Phys. (February 1990). 51. D. E. Osterbrock, J. A. Gwinn and R. S. Brashear, Sci. Masters Research? Am. (July 1993). 52. G. Gale, Cosmological Fecundity: Theories of Multiple Universes in Physical Cosmology and Philosophy edited by J. Leslie (Macmillan, NY, 1990) 53. B. J. Carr, Irish Astron. J. (March 1982). 54.
J. A. Wheeler, Beyond the End of procedural, Time in C. W. Misner, K. A. Throne and J. A. Wheeler, Gravitation (W. H. Freeman, NY, 1971). 55. T. J.-L. Courvoisier, and essays methods, E. I. Robson, Sci. Am. Procedural? (June 1991). 56. F. Flam, Science (28 February 1992). 57. S. Flamsteed, Discover (24 June 1992).
58. Quantitate? Jacqueline N. Hewitt, Gravitational Lenses in Encyclopedia of Physics , 2nd ed. (VCH Publishers, NY, 1991). 59. A. Webster, The Cosmic Background Radiation in Cosmology +1 (W. H. Freeman, NY,1977). 60. A. L. Peratt, IEEE Trans. of Plasma Sci. (December 1996).
61. E. Essays? J. Lerner, The Big Bang Never Happened (Times Books, 1991). 62. H. Bondi , F. Essay In India? Hoyle, and T. Procedural Essays? Gold, Rival Theories of Cosmology (Oxford University Press,1960). We have three other essays on various problems of the Big Bang Theory (all are very good) which provide compelling evidence that the Big Bang theory is wrong. Most importantly we can now also show that the most simple cosmology, founded on infinite eternal space, explains and solves these problems of cosmology relating to the Big Bang theory. Wave Structure of Matter Cosmology: How our Finite Spherical Observable Universe exists within Infinite Eternal Space. Connect in an Inter-Connected Universe! In a time of universal deceit - telling the masters proposal truth is a revolutionary act. Hell is Truth Seen Too Late. You must be the change you wish to essays, see in the world.
When forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence: Time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter. . Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended . Proposal Example? In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning. . The particle can only appear as a limited region in space in which the field strength or the energy density are particularly high. . The free, unhampered exchange of ideas and scientific conclusions is necessary for procedural, the sound development of science, as it is in all spheres of cultural life. . We must not conceal from masters research proposal example, ourselves that no improvement in the present depressing situation is possible without a severe struggle; for the handful of those who are really determined to do something is minute in comparison with the mass of the lukewarm and the misguided. . Humanity is going to need a substantially new way of procedural essays, thinking if it is to survive! ( Albert Einstein ) Support simple sensible science that works. All that is necessary for masters research, evil to succeed is for good people to procedural, do nothing. Bill Mitchell: The Big Bang Theory Under Fire. Excellent Essay on Problems of the Big Bang Theory of Cosmology. 'The Gift of Truth Excels all Other Gifts.' (Buddha) One of the top ten shops at Cafepress for the past two years (out of 3 million shops!). A brilliant collection of portraits and quotes from 500 of the greatest minds in Quantitate and qualitative, human history. Ancient Greek Philosophy. Chinese Indian Metaphysics. 20th Century Philosophers. Physics Prints Science Quote.
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Making Bad Decisions Essays and Research Papers. aren’t going as she expected, and procedural essays, problems got bigger and bigger as time passed by. After few months working there, she started doubting about michel essay classics, her . decision of working there. Did she take the right decision ? This study will help us answer this question throughout the study. The problem started from the beginning when she was still making the decision of choosing either to work for Deep Dive Pizza, where she had her internship or at procedural, Potomac Waters, a way bigger company with more potential in the. Bad , Decision making , Deep diving 993 Words | 3 Pages. Decision Making Edited by Devi Rajnikanth IBS Case Development Centre Icfai BooksTM # 71, Nagarjuna Hills, Punjagutta, . Hyderabad – 500082 Andhra Pradesh, INDIA Phone: 91 - 40 - 23435387/91, Fax: 91 - 40 - 23435386 e-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.books.iupindia.org, www.ibscdc.org © 2009 The Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted. All rights reserved , Barings Bank , Copyright 1040 Words | 5 Pages. Decision making from and qualitative cognitive or normative perspective can be defined as the process of selecting best logical choice from . various available options and choices.
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? Decision making is intrinsic in the society no matter if it is a crucial decision or not. Many models and theories . have been recommended to analyze how humans make choices both individually and also in groups such as organizations. Procedural? This literature review covers a diversity of such models and theories including types of masters research example, choices and procedural essays, influences of decision making . In order to understand the no to behavior of how individuals make choices, we have to essays first analyze the doctoral dissertations in fundamental levels of decision making. Cognition , Decision making , Decision making software 1716 Words | 9 Pages. ? Decision making across the organization Introduction Capital Intensive: A business process or an procedural essays industry that . requires large amounts of money and other financial resources to produce a good or service. A business is considered capital intensive based on the ratio of the capital required to the amount of labor that is required. (investopedia) Labor Intensive: A process or industry that requires a large amount of labor to produce its goods or services. The degree of labor intensity.
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Approaches to Decision Making Paper Ericka Shryock Axia College HCA/250 I have chosen to dissertations in write my paper on . Procedural? Scenario 2. Nursing homes do need to be kept at low risk for infections because the elderly have a low immune system and are unable to fight infection off like someone of a younger age could. There are so many times that you go into nursing homes and see that sometimes the elderly are not taken care of the way they should be. I have worked in this field and I have seen it. In. Cognition , Decision making , Decision making software 709 Words | 3 Pages. Compensation: The Case of General Electric by Nwabueze, Scott, Horak, and Chhotu, new management came in example the form of Jeffrey Immelt in 2003 and changes were . Procedural? made.
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CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING Making decisions is a critical element of . organizational life. In this chapter, we'll describe how decisions in organizations are made. But first, we discuss perceptual processes and show how they are linked to individual decision making (p. 121). 1 Perception: A process by which individuals organize and child, interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to essays their environment.
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Cognition , Critical thinking , Decision making 1345 Words | 5 Pages. In today’s business and personal world, ethical decisions are made on a daily basis. We make our decisions based on the company . Essays? as well as our personal ground rules. And Qualitative? Ethic is a standard that tells us how we should behave. It is hard to essays learn and even harder to michel de montaigne the complete essay classics teach. Essays? In the video of and qualitative, a hit and run ethical decision case that we watched in class two weeks ago, a high educated woman faced ethical issue, acted unethically. The woman feared of procedural essays, deranging her reputation and image to her students, decided. Bus , Business ethics , Decision making 1953 Words | 5 Pages. A recently published article seems to lend new information as to the way in which emotions influence our decision - making process. . While emotions and reasoning are considered inherently separate by some, new experiments are challenging that perception. A series of studies done by experimental psychologists now show us that emotion plays a very natural role in decision - making situations. Child In India? The experiments, ranging in type from neuroimaging to simple classical conditioning, suggest that emotions can.
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Even when. Cognition , Decision engineering , Decision making 2381 Words | 7 Pages. ? Making a Decision Mine Security and Privacy HCS 514 August 25, 2014 Professor Steve Kovak . Making a Decision Making a decision for de montaigne essay, any problem is procedural essays not an no to drugs easy task. Using tools and procedural, techniques to in assist can assist in this process. The purpose of procedural essays, this paper is to address a current issue facing my current issue, this issue is patients complaining about doctoral dissertations, staff not having enough time for residents. Procedural Essays? I will be using the doctoral in devils advicate and a visual add. Cognition , Decision making , Decision making software 1167 Words | 6 Pages. Theories, Models, and Decision Making. Models, and Decision Making There are many theories, models, and principles in describing the ways that people make . decisions . The expected utility theory is essays based on a normative theory of behavior.
It describes how people would behave if they followed certain requirement of no to, rational decision making (Plous, 1993, p. 80). Further studies showed that paradoxes such as framing effects violated the procedural essays principles of expected utility theory which made researches turn to alternative models of decision making. Decision making , Decision theory , Economics of uncertainty 823 Words | 3 Pages. Decision Making Model Analysis The definition of decision making according to Wikipedia is the . cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives (2006, ¶ 1). Methods? Every decision made creates a final choice. Decision making begins when one needs to accomplish something but is unsure how. Decision making can be a rational or irrational reasoning process (Wikipedia, 2006).
Many decision - making models have been developed. One of the models is the Vigilant decision making. Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 1431 Words | 5 Pages. Ethical Decision Making In Business. wrong when a conflict arises, but it is our moral responsibility to resolve the dilemmas to the best of our ability. Procedural Essays? This paper is going to explore the topic . of the complete essay, ethical decision - making and procedural, establish ground rules for the process and analyze possible ethical implications that may arise. On Research Methods? What are the ground rules? Making an ethical decision , at times, can be extremely difficult, as emotions tend to procedural hinder ones judgment. For example, if a husband came upon his wife being beat to death, his first impulse. Business ethics , Decision making , Ethics 1184 Words | 4 Pages.
? The Decision Making Process: Utilizing the “5 As” Week 3 Latoyia Jones HCS/514 Managing in Today’s Health Care . Organizations June 16, 2014 Instructor: Sara Brown The Decision Making Process: Utlilized the 5 “As” A decision is an act of michel de montaigne the complete, reaching a conclusion in one’s mind. The decision making process is essays a cognitive process that results in the selection of one proposed idea over another. In order for the decision making process to be productive, a careful planning process must take place. Cognition , Decision making , Evidence-based medicine 825 Words | 6 Pages. A decision is a determination of a question or doubt by in making a judgment. Essays? Decisions are a part of child labour in india, everyday life . for normal human beings and procedural, can be as insignificant as to where to eat lunch, or as important as whether to pop the marriage question to a longtime girlfriend. Decisions can be made in a variety of ways, but most of the time they are either made individually or in a group setting. Both individual decision making and group decision making have their pros and masters proposal, cons, and essays, can even determine. Critical thinking , Decision making , Decision theory 995 Words | 3 Pages. Influences Of Cognitive Biases On Decision Making.
?TEAMWORK 2 The influence of essays on research methods, Cognitive biases on decision making process Team member: Mareva Pautonnier, Mylene Zicry, Ermin . Procedural? Rejzovic, Pierre Picault, Wang Yushu, Zhu Yizhen 1. Introduction and and qualitative, definition Cognitive biases are patterns of thinking whose goal is to acquire information by making experiences in according to an opinion or idea that we consider correct. Thinking of essays, our experiences, we distinguish the perception, evaluation and logic interpretation mistakes. Cognitive biases were first. Cognition , Cognitive bias , Cognitive biases 1537 Words | 5 Pages. ? Decision Making Case Study Tia Caddel HCS/514 February 16, 2015 Steven Bonell Managers are required to make . decisions to solve problems within an organization. The degree of the decision can range from simple to complex depending on the circumstances surrounding the decision needing to be made.
According to Liebler McConnell (2012), “the greater the on research methods in education impact in terms of time, resources, and degree of risk, the more time, money, and effort that must be directed toward making such decisions ” (pg. Decision making , Management 1323 Words | 7 Pages. Personal Values and Decision Making. PERSONAL VALUES AND DECISION MAKING PROCESS To discuss personal values and decision making , we need . to know the definition of decision making is 'A principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirable.' “Values are a major motivating force for people because they categorise how people attach meaning, worth and essays, importance to things. And Qualitative? When a person's values are matched, they feel complete and satisfied. If values are not met, there is a sense of procedural, dissatisfaction, unease or incongruity. Business ethics , Cognition , Decision making 1096 Words | 3 Pages.
A Good Decision Making is the advantage of de montaigne the complete classics, linking with Xiu.com for eBay. They link with each other because they have a common . business idea and goal. Essays? However, a good decision making is very important to achieve the business goal. Decision - making are important skills for business. Masters Example? Problem-solving and decision - making are linked.
They also require creativity in identifying and developing options. Procedural? SWOT analysis and PEST analysis are very useful to Quantitate and qualitative help decision - making and problem-solving. SWOT analysis. Decision making , Management , Marketing 692 Words | 3 Pages. Ethical Decision Making Guadalupe Ornelas University of Phoenix PSYCH545 . Procedural? April 30, 2012 Christi Moore, Ph.D. Ethical Decision Making In a modern environment where cost cutting procedures drive modern procedures to cutting-edge levels of competition ethical decision making is more than ever relevant in the field of dissertations in, psychology. Complex ethical dilemmas are likely to appear camouflaged with our own personal emotions. Procedural? Today’s fast paced and competitive. Cognition , Decision making , Ethics 1767 Words | 6 Pages. ?Lindsey Diana Ethics-PHI-220-402 Dianne Wendt October 25, 2011 Ethical Decision Making Paper A health care case in need of . evaluation using the steps to ethical decision making is described in child Ethical Dimensions in the Health Professions by Ruth B. Purtilo and Regina F. Doherty. Procedural? According to doctoral dissertations the book, a student named Andrea was working in the outpatient clinic one morning when she saw someone she knew.
Her father’s business partner, Mr. Brown, whose health was failing and procedural, interfering with. Decision making , Decision theory , Drug addiction 1899 Words | 7 Pages. Moral Decision Making in Leadership. in Leadership Date May 1st, 2012 Moral Decision Making in Leadership Leadership is not an easy task. This is mainly because in . every situation, the and qualitative leader is expected to make some decisions that determine the direction that his company takes. As such, if he makes a mistake, there is a very great possibility that the whole organization will be misled (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes 2). As such, the leaders need to procedural essays be very effective in masters their decision making skills. This is mainly because if they.
An. Business ethics , Decision making , Ethics 2469 Words | 6 Pages. The Hidden Traps In Decision Making. The Hidden Traps In Decision Making Hammond, John S., Ralph L. Procedural? Keeney, and Howard Raiffa. Harvard Business Review . January 2006, Vol. 84 Issue 1, p. 118-126 Decision - making is apart of no to drugs essay, our every day routine. Making the right or wrong decisions can have a significant impact on our careers, health, education and almost all aspects of procedural, life. Before devising a strategic course of action, wise managers evaluate the situation confronting them. Making the right decisions is the most important. Business Decision Mapping , Cognition , Critical thinking 1352 Words | 4 Pages.
Managerial Decision Making and Management Organizational Change Managerial Decision Making and . Organizational Change Two very important aspects of good leadership include managerial decision - making and managing organizational change. The two are closely related, enough so that for one to be affective the other has to be just as successfully managed. A good leader possesses the quality of good managerial decision - making , learning from experience, creating change, diversity and creative decision -making. Decision making , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 1443 Words | 5 Pages. Decision - Making Case Study HCS/514 Decision - Making Case Study The current state of the . Penguin? economy has had a significant impact on essays health care across the country.
Recipients of Medicaid services have especially been hit hard in in india the health care arena with budget cuts and reduced services. The Maricopa County Clinic is not different when it comes to budget cuts. The department providing outpatient services to Medicaid clients has received a 15% budget cut. Essays? The current budget constraint. Budget constraint , Decision making , Health care 1281 Words | 4 Pages.
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? iGex houses latest IT Infrastructure. ? iGex uses Licensed software tools, to keep abreast of the latest technology and updates. ? iGex owns development capacity for open source and license software. ? iGex provides reliable 24?7 support to their clients with online customer care service, as it has clientele all over procedural essays, the world. ? Corporate Presentation Address:
428, Kalasagar Mall, Near Sattadhar Cross Road, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. List of Figures: Fig.No. Fig. Name Page No. 1 Fig. And Qualitative. 1.5.1 php logo 21. 2 Fig. 1.5.2 CodeIgnitor Logo.
3 Fig 1.5.3 MySql Logo. 4 Fig. 18.104.22.168 Software Development Life Cycle. 5 Fig. 2.2.2 Gantt Chart. 6 Fig 22.214.171.124 Activity Canva. 7 Fig 126.96.36.199 Environment Canvas.
8 Fig 188.8.131.52 Interaction Canvas. 9 Fig 184.108.40.206 Object Canvas 30. 10 Fig 220.127.116.11 User Canvas 30. 11 Fig 2.4.2 Empathy Summary: 31. 12 Fig 2.4.4 Product Development 32. 13 Fig 4.5.1 Activity Admin 33. 14 Fig. 4.5.2 Activity User 42. 15 Fig 4.5.3 Collaboration Admin 43.
16 Fig 4.5.4 Collaboration User 44. 17 Fig. 4.5.5 Sequence Admin 45. 18 Fig. 4.5.6 Sequence User 46. 19 Fig 4.5.7 Use case 47. 20 Fig 4.5.8 Class Diagram 48. Table.No Table. Name Page No. 10 Table 5.1.10 54. 11 Table 5.1.11 54.
12 Table 5.1.12 54. 13 Table 5.1.13 55. 14 Table 5.1.14 56. 15 Table 5.1.15 56. ? My Project definition is “Car Race Booking System.” An Abbreviations of this application are as follows: ? Booking System: People book their slots online for the Drive Day. ? Organizer: The Team responsible for developing the procedural, website.
? OTP (One Time Password) ? Developers: The team responsible for developing software system. ? For Class Diagram: ? For Activity Diagram: ? For Use Case Diagram: ? For Sequence Diagram: ? For Collaboration Diagram: 1.1 Project Summary. We are developing an online Car Race Booking System PHP based website. Labour Essay In India. This website is using for view, book search different types of Rally. We book the different types of procedural, rallies held in forest, desert, etc. Child Labour Essay In India. We book slots for interested people for rally using coupons which are distributed on the different web-sites. We are also providing a secure registration and profile management facilities for procedural essays Customers.
Our website providing online payment system through PayPal. We are regular updates to michel de montaigne the complete classics registered users about procedural new rallies.Our website is to help of Users to get connected in essay their own region. 1.2 Project Purpose. The administration module will enable a system administrator to essays manage time date and locations for rallies.Secure registration and profile management facilities for michel de montaigne the complete Customers. Regular updates to registered users about new rallies. Our purpose is procedural, customer book race slots without go to Quantitate and qualitative any booking agent and booking a race in own house. 1.3 Project Scope. ? The main Scope is Consumers who are interested in booking online race slot by PayPal.
? They can use this website to search the essays, rallies, view race tracks. ? Users must register for book slot. . ? User can also managing their profiles know about new rallies. 1.4 Project Objectives. Registration for the customers requires them to provide their personal details. The objective behind this is labour essay in india, that the registered customer can get the procedural, updates regularly about the Quantitate and qualitative, race to his/her registered number or email id. The registration of customers is procedural essays, confirmed by the. Admin. The customer can search for a Drive Day of the rally interested after registration. After searching, the customer can view the masters research, track of the selected rally and then book the slots.
Booked slots will have to procedural be confirmed by the Admin, the aim here is to avoid overlapping of multiple slot booking. Admin will send a confirmation e-mail to the customer through our own personalized mailing system, notifying the customer that their slots have been confirmed. 1.5 Technology Review. This is a web based application developed using technology PHP in the front end. Fig. 1.5.1 php logo. PHP is a server-side scripting language designed for web development but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
Fig 1.5.3 MySql Logo. MySQL is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Procedural Essays. The MySQL development project has made its source code available under the terms of the doctoral dissertations in, GNU General Public License, as well as under a variety of essays, proprietary agreements. 1.6 Literature Review. 1.6.1 Study of and qualitative, current Existing System: o In this website, the organizer Brisbane Sporting Car Club Ltd organizes the procedural, rally in Queensland, Australia.
In this system, organization gives the essays methods in education, schedule of the essays, rally, maintains the records of the rally and child labour essay shows the essays, result of the rally which is hold in child essay Queensland. It provides the procedural, details of the sponsors and future rally schedule that is hold in no to essay Queensland. o In this website, the organizer organizes the essays, rally called FIA WRC-World Rally Championship in and qualitative Australia. In this system, it gives the schedule information about the rally, keeps the track about rallies and provides the procedural essays, news and dissertations other media about the rally. It books the procedural, sits called the michel the complete penguin classics, baskets. Procedural Essays. It also gives the Quantitate and qualitative, information about the procedural, future events about the rally. o In this website, the organizer organizes the car race at Coseley School and research example Leisure Centre. In this system, it provides the information about schedule of the procedural essays, race day, venue, and results.
It keeps the records about the race that will hold in past. It books the research example, tickets of essays, rally by registration. It also provides the photo gallery of the race. 1.6.2 Limitation of child essay in india, Existing System: ? Very complicated sitemap. ? Inefficiency and procedural estimation of cost. ? Very hard to use for new users. ? Does not provide secure transactions for payment. ? No cancellation facility.
1.6.3 Usability Of Project: ? To create simple, easy to use web application. ? To provide accuracy and precision with reduced human intervention. ? Anytime anywhere booking facility. ? 24 x 7 booking service. 1.6.4 Innovative Ideas Of Project: ? Secure payment system for essays methods every customer. ? Location for non familiar people with race venue. ? Quick updates by essays, notification of updates by email or sms. ? Conformation of the transaction by labour essay in india, OTP. ? Registration via coupons. 2.1 Project Planning: 2.1.1 Project Development Approach And Justification:
The systems development life cycle (SDLC), also referred to as the application development life-cycle, is a term used in systems engineering, information systems and software engineering to procedural describe a process for essays methods in education planning, creating, testing, and deploying an procedural, information system. A systems development life cycle is composed of drugs essay, a number of clearly defined and distinct work phases which are used by systems engineers and essays systems developers to plan for, design, build, test, and deliver information systems. Child Labour. Like anything that is manufactured on an assembly line, an SDLC aims to produce high quality systems that meet or exceed customer expectations, based on customer requirements, by essays, delivering systems which move through each clearly defined phase, within scheduled time-frames and cost estimates. Fig. Essay. 18.104.22.168 Software Development Life Cycle. 2.1.1 Project Plan: We are planning our project completing in given time duration. Procedural Essays. We are also gathering customer’s requirement and satisfying all that needs.
We are using best functionality to developing this website. Required Database was designed and normalized as required. Code was written in such a way that maximum functionality was coded with minimum possible lines of masters proposal, code. 2.2 Project Scheduling: Fig. 2.2.2 Gantt Chart. 2.2 Risk Management: 2.2.1 Risk Identification: All projects have risks. If a potential risk of the project is not identified early, then the essays, project will be at high risk to complete as per schedule.
Hence, it is the most important process in risk management planning. 2.2.2 Risk Analysis: It is the second step of risk management. Impact is the effect of the risk in case it happens. There are some technical and de montaigne classics business factors while assigning impact. ? Loss of business, financial loss. ? Hardware integration problems. 2.3 Canvas Designing: 2.4.2 AEIOU Framework: Fig 22.214.171.124 Activity Canva.
Fig 126.96.36.199 Environment Canvas. Fig 188.8.131.52 Interaction Canvas. Fig 184.108.40.206 Object Canvas. Fig 220.127.116.11 User Canvas. 2.4.2 Empathy Summary: Fig 2.4.2 Empathy Summary: Fig 2.4.3 Ideation. 2.4.4 Product Development: Fig 2.4.4 Product Development. SYSTEM REQUIREMENT STUDY. Customer as an actor demands for particular product along with specification of all the essays, requirements.
Customer can: ? Create a new product request. ? Specify all requirements. ? Optionally attach design specifications. ? View all past request and its details. The main job of an administrator is to manage the tasks performed by the user. Admin performs the and qualitative, following tasks: ? Creating whole systems. ? Configure all the parameters for displaying information.
? Configure role of the procedural, user be it the employee or the proposal, customer. 3.2 Software Requirements: ? Language: PHP, Java Script, jQuery. ? For Development: CodeIgniter. 3.3 Specific Requirements: ? All requirements are very well known, clear and procedural fixed. ? Whole technology should be understood. ? Code simplicity is one the doctoral, best feature to understand the coding phase. ? Login, Registration will be done efficiently. ? The important key is contact number, verified the number or register the essays, number.
? The whole system takes an hour to understand all requirements, specifications and functionality for a normal user. ? Developers need to be up-skilling and expected to bring great code to an organization. ? Developers must follow the specific standards, which the technology is used. ? Maintainability: If any requirement occurs, then it should be easily incorporated in the system. ? Portability: The application should be portable on any browser. ? Response time for transaction: This term represents the time for a database transaction. This application will take one to child essay in india two seconds (average) for database transaction. ? Capacity: The system can accommodate around the many customer’s capacity in this application. ? Resource Utilization: This application contain resources like, o Laptop, mobile, tablet, etc. o Communication is done through internet.
? Cost Sensitivity: Under all circumstances, the maximum cost payable as submitted by the user will be the maximum cost charged to the user. This section includes following supportability requirements: ? Naming Conventions: All code will be written as specified by the Pascal Naming Convention (for Class name and procedural Methods name), Camel Casing Convention (Method arguments and the complete essay penguin classics local variables) and Hungarian Naming Convention (Data type identification). ? Coding Standards: All codes will be written as required by the php Coding Standards. ? Cost-Effective-To-Maintain: It may covers divers level of documentation, such as system documentation as well as test documentation. 3.3.6 Design Constrain. There are many aspects of procedural, any design project that must be considered to determine the child essay in india, feasibility of the system. Software Language: All coding will be done in standard of php platform. Scheduling Constraints: Exhaustive searches of the entire set of combinations of procedural essays, jobs will not be done. Heuristics will be developed for this scheduling problem.
3.4 Assumptions and Dependency. There are no assumptions in this web application. 4.1 Requirements Of New System: 4.1.1 User Requirements: User must be aware the system works properly with full availability, reliability, security and safety.
The user responsibilities are as follows: ? Should know the data needed to address the problem. ? Should know how to use it. ? Should adhere to guidelines and child in india prescribed standard. 4.1.2 System Requirements: This web application is designed to booking the slots of race . It must fulfill all the procedural, functional and non-functional requirements. 4.2 Feasibility Study:
4.2.1 Technical Feasibility: Technical feasibility determines whether the work for the project is masters proposal, being done with the present equipment, current procedures, existing software’s technology and available persons or not. Thus it is important to check the system to be technically feasible. System would be implemented using php technology which is quite easy to procedural use and user friendly IDE CodeIgnitor. o Database server- MySql. o Technologies- PHP. 4.2.2 Economical Feasibility:
Economic feasibility looks at the financial aspects of the project. No To Drugs. Economic feasibility concern with returns from the investments in project. The software resources requirements for the proposed system is PHP development environment, MySql that are already owned by essays, the client and do not require additional investment. 4.2.3 Implementation Feasibility: Implementation feasibility deals with the the complete penguin classics, study whether the service, which is being developed will run in procedural essays the environment available with us, will the Quantitate and qualitative, management of the procedural, organization approve the system?
Implementation feasibility is about basic infrastructure and material required to essays methods develop the system. It is found that: ? Infrastructure provided was a high configuration computer system to procedural implement the application. ? The required software’s like CodeIgnitor, MySql is provided. ? Literature like books, technical manuals and reports. ? Proper and timely guidance was provided by the guide. 4.3 Requirements Validation: It is a process in doctoral dissertations in which it is checked that gathered requirements represents the same system that customer really wants or it is procedural essays, showing different. The basic objective of requirement validation is that the SRS reflects the actual requirements correctly and and qualitative accurately. The common methods for procedural essays requirement validation are as follows:
It is review by group of people to find errors and michel de montaigne classics point out other matters of concern. It may be formal or informal. The requirements can be checked using executable model of the procedural essays, system. Prototype which is build during analysis, can be used for requirement validation. ? Test Case Generation: In this technique, various tasks are developed for requirements and they are- Verifiability, Comprehensibility, Traceability and Adaptability. 4.4Features of New System: ? This system is a web based application. ? It is an system which is for specific organization. ? Provide easy navigation and user-friendly interface: ? Payment Gateway Integration : 4.5 Oriented Approach: Fig 4.5.1 Activity Admin.
Fig. 4.5.2 Activity User. Fig 4.5.3 Collaboration Admin. Fig 4.5.4 Collaboration User. Fig. 4.5.5 Sequence Admin. Fig. On Research Methods In Education. 4.5.6 Sequence User. Fig 4.5.7 Use case. Fig 4.5.8 Class Diagram. 5.1 Database Design:
Description: To store the essays, login id and password and name of admin. Primary Key: UserId. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. UserId int Primary key. UserName varchar(50) Not Null. Password varchar(50) Not Null. IsActive bit Not Null. UserType int Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null.
Description: to store the Detail of Booking. Primary Key: BookId. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. BookId int Primary Key. CustId int Foreign Key. SlotId int Not Null. VoucherNo varchar(50) Not Null. IsConfirmed bit Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null.
ModiifiedDate datetime Not Null. Status varchar(25) Not Null. TransId varchar(25) Not Null. Amount decimal(10, 2) Not Null. IsCustParticipant bit Not Null. PartName varchar(50) Not Null.
PartEmail varchar(50) Not Null. PartPhoneNo varchar(12) Not Null. IsCancelled bit Not Null. IsSendNotiToRecipient bit Not Null. Description: To Store the detail of company contact detail. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. CompanyId int Primary Key.
CompanyName varchar(50) Not Null. ContactPerson varchar(50) Not Null. ContactNO varchar(12) Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. 5.1.4 Company Master: Description: To store Company Details. Primary Key: CompanyId. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. CompanyId int Primary key.
CompanyName varchar(50) Not Null. ContactPerson varchar(50) Not Null. ContactNO varchar(50) Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. 5.1.5 Table Name: Course_Master. Description: To store the Detail Of Course or Race.. Primary Key: CourseID. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. CourseID int Primary key. CourseName varchar(50) Not Null. LocationID int Foreign Key.
Price decimal(10, 2) Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. 5.1.6 Table Name: Course_Master. Description: To store the michel de montaigne the complete essay penguin, Detail Of Course or Race.. Primary Key: CourseID.
Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. CourseID int Primary key. CourseName varchar(50) Not Null. LocationID int Foreign Key. Price decimal(10, 2) Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. 5.1.7 Table Name: CustDetai. Description: To store the procedural essays, details of customers. Primary Key: CustId.
Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. CustId int Primary key. RaceId varchar(50) Foreign Key. CustName varchar(50) Not Null. Email varchar(50) Not Null. Password varchar(50) Not Null. PhoneNo varchar(12) Not Null.
VoucherNo varchar(15) Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. IsBookingConfirmed bit Not Null. IsEmailConfirmed bit Not Null. IsActive bit Not Null. EmailVerificationCode varchar(20) Not Null. Street varchar(120) Not Null.
City varchar(20) Not Null. Postcode varchar(20) Not Null. State varchar(20) Not Null. 5.1.8 Table Name:DealMaster. Description: To store the child labour essay, details of Maps. Primary Key: DirectionID. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. DirectionID int Primary Key. Title varchar(200) Not Null.
TextColumn varchar(5000) Not Null. LocationID int Not Null. DirectionMap varchar(200) Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. TripNoteFile varchar(200) Not Null. 5.1.9 Table Name:DirectionMaster. Description: To store the details of Maps. Primary Key: DirectionID. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint.
DirectionID int Primary key. Title varchar(50) Not Null. TextColumn varchar(50) Not Null. LocationID int Foreign Key. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. DirectionMap varchar(200) Not Null.
5.1.9 Table Name:ErrorList. Description: To store the details of errors. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. ErrorId bigint Primary Key. ErrorCode varchar(50) Not Null. ErrorDate datetime Not Null. ErrorName varchar(250) Not Null. EventName varchar(50) Not Null. IPAdd varchar(50) Not Null.
PageUrl varchar(250) Not Null. 5.1.10 Table Name:LocationMaster. Description: To store the details of procedural, location. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. LocationID int Primary Key. LocationName varchar(10) Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedBy int Not Null. 5.1.11 Table Name: MessageMaster. Description: To store the Detail of the michel de montaigne the complete essay penguin, message.
Primary Key: MessageID. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. MessageID int Primary key. Message varchar(500) Not Null. 5.1.12 Table Name: RaceSlot. Description: To store the procedural essays, Detail Of Race Slot.
Primary Key: SlotID. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. SlotID int Primary key. LocationID int Foreign Key. CourseID int Foreign Key. StartDate datetime Not Null. StartTime varchar(20) Not Null. EndTime varchar(20) Not Null. Status varchar(200) Not Null. NoOfSeat int Not Null. CreatedDate datetime Not Null.
ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. BookedSeat int Not Null. MoveNotes varchar(MAX) Not Null. IsDeleted bit Not Null. IsCancelled bit Not Null. 5.1.13 Table Name: SiteSetting. Description: To store the Detail Of Site..
Primary Key: SettingID. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. SettingID int Primary key. NoOfDays int Not Null. EmailForNotification varchar(50) Not Null. Password varchar(50) Not Null. HostName varchar(50) Not Null.
CancelationCharegDays int Not Null. CancellationPercet Decimal(5,2) Not Null. PaypalID varchar(100) Not Null. SMSHttpApi varchar(100) Not Null. EmailSignature varchar(100) Not Null. LblForCoupon varchar(100) Not Null.
DaysbeforeRegStop int Not Null. 5.1.14Table Name: tblfaq. Description: To store the child labour in india, Detail of procedural, frequently asked questions. Primary Key: FaqId. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. FaqId int Primary key. Question varchar(500) Not Null. Ans varchar(500) Not Null. 5.1.15 Table Name: VoucherMastr. Description: To store the Detail of the research, voucher..
Primary Key: VoucherID. Field Name Data Type (With Size) Constraint. VoucherID int Primary key. VoucherNo varchar(25) Not Null. Status smallint Not Null. CreateDate datetime Not Null. ModifiedDate datetime Not Null. RaceID int Not Null. Cancelpercent int Not Null. CouponPrice decimal(10, 2) Not Null. PurchaserName varchar(100) Not Null.
StateId int Not Null. DealId varchar(100) Not Null. ActivationCount int Not Null. A strategy for procedural software testing integrates the design of child essay, software test cases into procedural essays a well-planned series of steps that result in successful development of the software. The strategy incorporates test planning, test case design and the result collection and evaluation. Testing begins “in the small” and progresses “to the large”. Quantitate. Initially individual components are tested using white box and black box techniques. After the procedural essays, individual components have been tested and added to doctoral dissertations in the system, integration testing takes place. Once the full software product is completed, system testing is performed.
The best specification document should be reviewed like all other software engineering work products. Strategic Approach to Software Testing: ? Testing begins at the component level and works outward toward the essays, integration of the entire computer-based system. ? Testing is conducted by the developer of the software and by an independent test group. ? Different testing techniques are appropriate at doctoral in the different points in time. ? Testing and debugging are different activities, but debugging must be accommodated in any testing strategy. ? Software testing is procedural essays, a part of broader group activities called verification and validation that are involved in and qualitative software quality assurance. Levels of Testing in Software: ? Black box and white box testing. ? Module interfaces are tested for proper information flow. ? Local data are examined to ensure that integrity is maintained. ? Boundary conditions are tested. ? Basis path testing should be used.
? All error handling paths are should be tested. ? Drivers and/or stubs need to procedural essays be developed to test incomplete software. 2) Integration Testing: Top-down integration testing: ? Main control module used as a test driver and stubs are substitutes for in components directly subordinate to procedural it. ? Subordinate stubs are replaced one at a time with real components. Bottom-up integration testing: ? Low level components are combined in clusters that performed a specific software function. ? A driver is written to coordinate test case input and output.
? The cluster is tested. ? Drivers are removed and clusters are combined moving upward in de montaigne the complete essay penguin classics the program structure. 3) Regression Testing: ? Representative sample of procedural, existing test cases is used to doctoral exercise all software functions. ? Additional test cases focusing software functions likely to be affected by the change. ? Tests cases that focus on the changed software components. 4) Smoke Testing: ? Software components already translated into essays code are integrated into a build. ? A series of tests designed to expose errors that will keep the build from performing its functions are created.
? The build is integrated with the order builds and the entire product is smoke tested daily (either top-down or bottom-up integration may be used). 5) Exploratory testing: ? Exploratory testing is labour, also called adhoc testing, but in reality it’s not completely adhoc. ? Ad hoc testing is an unplanned, unstructured, may be even an impulsive journey through the system with the intent of finding bugs. Procedural. Exploratory testing is simultaneous learning, test design, and on research test execution. In other words, exploratory testing is any testing done to procedural essays the extent that the tester proactively controls the design of the dissertations, tests as those tests are performed and procedural essays uses information gained while testing to design better tests. 6) Black box testing: ? Black box testing is doctoral in, a testing strategy based solely on procedural essays, requirements and specifications.
? Black box testing requires no knowledge of internal paths, structures, or implementation of the software being tested. 7) White box testing: ? White box testing is no to drugs, a testing strategy based on internal paths, code structures, and implementation of the software being tested. Essays. White box testing generally requires detailed programming skills. 8) Pusability testing: ? Usability testing is drugs essay, a testing methodology where the procedural, end customer is asked to use the software to see if the product is easy to use, to see the on research methods, customer’s perception and task time. The best way to finalize the customer point of view for usability is by using prototype or mock-up software during the initial stages. ? By giving the customer the prototype before the development start-up we confirm that we are not missing anything from the user point of procedural, view. 9) Random testing: ? Random testing is sometimes called monkey testing. In Random testing, data is generated randomly often using a tool. For instance, the following figure shows how randomly-generated data is sent to essays the system. ? This data is generated either using a tool or some automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input the system is then tested and results are observed accordingly.
SR NO. LABEL DESCRIPTION EXPECTED RESULT ACTUAL RESULT. 1 Coupons Coupons are added for the registration. Procedural. For the register of tickets for Quantitate the drive day Test is procedural essays, successfully completed. 2 Password When password is correct after the system is logged on doctoral, Message will generated “enter valid password” Test is successfully completed. 3 Admin Management Admin can change the update time of rally and other formats Admin changed.
Test is successfully completed. 4 Requirement Management Admin can add or remove the profile of racer and maps for the rally Maps and profiles are added or removed in procedural the particular table Test is successfully completed. 5 Viewing Details Admin can view all the details of the customer through his registered id If number is not registered then admin cannot view the details of the child essay in india, customer Test is successfully completed. 6 User Management Providing Coupons for the online bookings Provided Coupons and registration Test is successfully completed. SR NO. LABEL DESCRIPTION EXPECTED RESULT ACTUAL RESULT. 1 Profile Show and update his/her bookings On bookings profile, he/she can change and procedural essays cancel the bookings Test is successfully completed. 2 Sign Up He/She can sign up by adding proper formatted data in registration form On submitted, without any error registration will be done. No To Drugs. On error, field must be filled with proper formatted data by user Test is successfully completed. 3 Requirement specification Specify requirements with required contact number, email, name, address etc Specified requirements can be viewed successfully Test is procedural, successfully completed. 4 Login He/She can login with their own username and password after registration and essays in education book their slots online for the drive day.
On submitted, without any error login will be done. On error, field must be filled with proper formatted data by user Test is successfully completed. Limitation and essays Future Enhancement. ? Lot of mundane and michel de montaigne classics repetitive work. ? Inefficiency and procedural essays estimation of cost. ? Maintenance of labour in india, records for future references. ? Internet connection loss. ? Payment error occurs if slow internet connection. 7.2 Future Enhancement: ? Can provide facility of chatting for quick answer asked by procedural essays, user.
Conclusion and Discussion. 8.1Self Analysis Of Project Viabilities: When studied about current system, some draw backs are to be found; ? Inefficiency and example estimation of cost. ? Maintenance of essays, records for future references. ? Loss of connection may be occurred. 8.2Problem Encountered And Possible Solutions: Problems Possible Solutions. Slow Internet Connection Use High Internet Connection.
Payment error Use High Internet Connection. Protection of data. 8.3Summary of Project: For this project, I have completed the whole analysis phase which includes Project Report, All GTU PMMS Activities (PPR, PSAR, PLAGIARISM, CANVAS). Search our thousands of essays on research, essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Computer Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to procedural help you. Each of us is qualified to essays in education a high level in our area of expertise, and procedural essays we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Computer Science work in your email box, in essays on research methods in education as little as 3 hours.
This Computer Science essay was submitted to procedural us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, An IDP Project Report On Car Race Booking System . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/computer-science/idp-project-report-car-race-booking-system/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on dissertations, our website then please click on essays, the link below to no to drugs essay request removal:
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