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Benito Cereno, Herman Melville - Essay. “Benito Cereno” Herman Melville. The following entry presents criticism of Melville's short story, “Benito Cereno” (1855). See also Billy Budd Criticism , Pierre, or, The Ambiguities Criticism , and Redburn: His First Voyage Criticism . Melville freely adapted “Benito Cereno,” his highly-regarded and ironic tale of a slave mutiny at sea, from an my perfect, episode in day of my life Amasa Delano's Narrative of my perfect cover Voyages and Travels in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (1817). The work was originally serialized in Putnam's Monthly in 1855 and later revised and pros, reprinted in Melville's The Piazza Tales the following year. Ostensibly a story of mystery on the high seas, “Benito Cereno” demonstrates Melville's subtle narrative manipulation of Delano's historical account of an 1805 slave uprising. In the story, Melville presents a naive protagonist who stumbles upon the remnants of a violent rebellion, but fails to recognize the horrors that have occurred. Considered by critics to be one of Melville's finest stories for its symbolic richness and narrative complexity, “Benito Cereno” is additionally acknowledged for its skilled thematic depiction of human depravity and moral relativism. Plot and cover, Major Characters. “Benito Cereno” opens aboard the Bachelor's Delight, an American sealer and merchant ship anchored near a deserted island off the essay on why banning phones while driving be mandatory, southern coast of Chile. Scanning the horizon, Amasa Delano, the vessel's captain, observes a strange ship apparently in need of resume cover aid. Delano boards his whaleboat, has some supplies loaded, and makes his way to the craft, a decaying Spanish merchant vessel called the San Dominick.

Once onboard, Delano sees that the crew is in a dismal state and memorable day of my life essay, that the ship carries a number of black slaves, many of whom, much to Delano's surprise, are not shackled. He speaks with Don Benito Cereno, the ship's grave and resume letter, sickly captain, who assures him that the slaves are docile. Sending his boat back for additional supplies and new sails, Delano remains on the San Dominick and attempts to discover from the tight-lipped Cereno what has caused the currently bleak condition of his craft and catcher rye literary elements, crew. After some time, Cereno—who is constantly attended by Babo, his short Negro slave—explains that the letter, San Dominick met with severe weather off Cape Horn and has endured bouts of sickness and scurvy that killed most of the Spanish crew and passengers, including Don Alexandro Aranda, the slave owner. Noting that the weather has been calm of late, Delano begins to memorable my life essay, suspect that the Spaniard may be mentally as well as physically ill. That evening, Delano dines with Cereno and Babo, and finds that he is unable to resume letter, convince the Spaniard to send Babo out of the room. After dinner, Babo shaves the extremely nervous and agitated Cereno, nicking his check slightly with his blade. Later, Delano discovers that Babo has received a small cut on his check as well, which he claims was given him by Cereno. Delano's whaleboat returns and, as the American prepares to depart, Cereno, having previously refused to join him aboard the Bachelor's Delight, desperately springs into catcher rye literary elements essay the waiting craft.

A shocked Delano looks up to see Babo wielding a knife. Once back at Delano's ship, Cereno explains to Delano that the slaves had mutinied shortly after the San Dominick left port. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter? The Americans then pursue the stolen vessel, subdue the mutineers, and set sail for Lima, where a trial is held. Catcher Rye Literary Elements Essay? Babo is cover letter hanged, and Don Cereno enters a nearby monastery. He dies some three months after giving his court deposition. Edexcel Past Papers Religious? Critics perceive in “Benito Cereno” Melville's principal concern to be with the problem of human savagery, and my perfect letter, its specific manifestation in the institution of slavery. Scholars have forwarded a number of theories regarding this element of the banning of cell phones while nationwide, tale, with most acknowledging that Melville's narrative, while complex and ambiguous, presents a critique of slavery and resume cover, the systems of papers studies gce tyrannical oppression that lead men to commit horrible acts of depravity. Resume Cover? A related strain in to write a compare on the story involves Melville's denigration of colonial expansionism and warns of the lurking dangers associated with the my perfect resume, widespread American belief in Manifest Destiny during the mid nineteenth-century. Focusing on the figure of Amasa Delano, a number of commentators see in “Benito Cereno” Melville's complex use of narrative structure and his portrayal of the story's naive and highly credulous protagonist, who is unable to comprehend the evils that Babo and his fellow slaves have performed upon past papers religious studies, their former captors. Commentators also see in resume letter the work a subtle critique of historical narrative as a medium of catcher rye literary elements truth, given Delano's inability and unwillingness to perceive that a slave revolt has occurred aboard the San Dominick and that many of its original crew members have been slain. Thus, Melville's manipulation of Amasa Delano's historical Narrative as a text that purports itself as a factual account calls into question the notion of historical and indeed moral truth, as well as the ordinary separation between historical fact and fiction.

Like most of Melville's writing, “Benito Cereno” was largely unappreciated during his lifetime and resume, it was not until a thorough reassessment of his oeuvre was made in the early twentieth century that critics and readers began to take notice of the merits of this work. In the ensuing years, critics have praised Melville's manipulation of narrative form to create a compelling mystery that delves into chapter the ambiguities of good and evil. Others have remarked upon the technical virtuosity of the tale, as well as Melville's skillful use of irony and the symbolic imagery of nature. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter? Modern critics have continued to debate the matter of Melville's opinions on slavery as depicted in the story, though most concede that the author's intentions are far from racist. “Benito Cereno” is generally considered one of the most brilliantly realized pieces of short narrative fiction in pros action essay nineteenth-century American literature. Access our Benito Cereno Study Guide for Free. Typee: A Peep at Polynesian Life. During a Four Months' Residence in a Valley of the letter, Marquesas (novel) 1846.

Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in rye literary essay the South Seas (novel) 1847. Mardi: And a Voyage Thither (novel) 1849. Redburn: His First Voyage (novel) 1849. My Perfect Cover Letter? White-Jacket; or, The World in a Man-of-War (novel) 1850. Moby-Dick; or, The Whale (novel) 1851; also published as The Whale (novel) 1851. Pierre; or, The Ambiguities (novel) 1852.

Israel Potter: His Fifty Years in Exile (novel) 1855. The Piazza Tales (short stories) 1856. The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade (novel) 1857. Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War (poetry) 1866. Clarel: A Poem and to write essay on, Pilgrimage in the Holy Land (poetry) 1876. John Marr and Other Sailors (poetry) 1888. Timoleon (poetry) 1891. Cover Letter? Billy Budd and Other Prose Pieces (novel and short stories) 1924. Allan Moore Emery (essay date 1984) SOURCE: “‘Benito Cereno’ and Manifest Destiny,” in Nineteenth-Century Fiction, Vol. 39, No.

1, June, 1984, pp. 48-68. [ In the following essay, Emery examines Melville's critique of American expansionism in “Benito Cereno.” ] Like most authors of the first rank, Herman Melville has commonly been considered a devotee of the timeless, one who, especially in Moby-Dick (1851), sought ultimate answers to life's eternal questions. Memorable Day Of My Life Essay? Only during the past two decades has Melville's “topicality” come to resume, be recognized, as critics have underlined with increasing frequency his timely interest in racial prejudice and technological progress, in English slums and. (The entire section is 8354 words.) Get Free Access to this Benito Cereno Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the chapters, themes, and edexcel past religious gce, characters so you can understand them on my perfect resume letter, your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. SOURCE: “Masquerades of Language in past studies Melville's Benito Cereno, ” in resume cover Arizona Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2, Summer, 1988, pp. 5-21. [ In the following essay, Hauss probes the pros essay, link between language and political oppression in “Benito Cereno.” ] … the principle relic of resume cover faded grandeur was the ample oval of the shield-like stern-piece, intricately carved with the arms of action Castille and Leon, medallioned about by groups of mythological or symbolical devices; uppermost and my perfect, central of which was a dark satyr in a mask, holding his foot on the prostrate neck of a writhing figure, likewise masked. 1. (The entire section is 5596 words.) Get Free Access to this Benito Cereno Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more.

Gloria Horsley-Meacham (essay date 1991) SOURCE: “Bull of the pros action, Nile: Symbol, History, and Racial Myth in ‘Benito Cereno,’” in The New England Quarterly, Vol. LXIV, No. 2, June, 1991, pp. 225-42. [ In the following essay, Horsley-Meacham argues that while “Benito Cereno” ostensibly upholds racial myths, it contains a subversively “egalitarian and humane” element. Cover? ] Herman Melville seems an astute observer of African sensibilities when, in Moby Dick, his sharp-witted Daggoo inveighs against conventional associations with his color, declaring: “Who's afraid of black's afraid of me!” 1 Yet, in what essay on a later work, “Benito Cereno,” a setting perfectly designed to explore Black ethos. (The entire section is 5927 words.) SOURCE: “Voicing Slavery Through Silence: Narrative Mutiny in Melville's Benito Cereno, ” in Mosaic, Vol. 26, No. 2, Spring, 1993, pp. 21-38. [ In the following essay, Haegert studies the my perfect, complex narrative structure of “Benito Cereno” and its relation to the work as anti-imperialist fiction. ] If anything can be said to dominate our cultural and historical preoccupations of recent years, it is the need for greater reticence and restraint in of cell should be mandatory portraying the resume cover, “alien” life of others. This pervasive concern with reticence—with the need to listen to rather than to speak for the cultural experience of other peoples—has become a staple feature of such.

(The entire section is 8665 words.) SOURCE: “The Idea of Nature in essay banning of cell phones driving Benito Cereno, ” in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol. My Perfect Resume? 30, No. 2, Spring, 1993, pp. 161-68. [ In the following essay, Martin discusses the of cell be mandatory nationwide, allegorical qualities of nature depicted in “Benito Cereno.” ] Although many critics have analyzed specific natural images in Melville's “Benito Cereno,” no one has yet focused exclusively on the role of my perfect resume cover nature in the novella, nor looked fully at its problematic relation to essay, Delano. Such an examination can both reveal much about Melville's artistry and my perfect resume, enhance our understanding of the protagonist's special kind of self-delusion. Midway through the novella, Delano performs an act that is at. Phd Thesis? (The entire section is 3501 words.) SOURCE: “The Gaze of History in “Benito Cereno,’” in Studies in Short Fiction, Vol.

32, No. 2, Spring, 1995, pp. 171-83. [ In the my perfect resume cover, following essay, Pahl explores the ways in which Melville's historical narrative in “Benito Cereno” represents “the illusion of moral truth.” ] There is no document of civilization which is not at the same time a document of barbarism. —Walter Benjamin, “Theses on the Philosophy of History,” p. 256. Historiography is as much a product of the passion of forgetting as it is the product of the passion of edexcel remembering. (The entire section is 6000 words.) SOURCE: “‘The Creature of His Own Tasteful Hands’: Herman Melville's Benito Cereno and the ‘Empire of Might,’” in Modern Philology, Vol. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter? 93, No. 4, May, 1996, pp. 445-67. [ In the following essay, Bartley analyzes “Benito Cereno” as a portrayal of inverted tyranny. ] But how is it with the American slave? … He is the most memorable essay said to be happy; happy men can speak. But ask the cover letter, slave what is rye literary elements essay his condition—what his state of mind—what he thinks of enslavement? and you had as well addressed your inquiries to the silent dead. There comes no voice from the enslaved. We are left to gather his feelings by imagining what ours would. (The entire section is 10493 words.) SOURCE: “At the Crossroads of the Nineteenth Century: ‘Benito Cereno’ and the Sublime,” in America's Modernisms: Revaluing the my perfect letter, Canon, edited by Kathryne V. Lindberg and Joseph G. Kronick, Louisiana State University Press, 1996, pp.

77-100. [ In the following essay, Sussman interprets the sublime and ironic qualities of “Benito Cereno.” ] Still swept up in the whirlwind that emanates in the nineteenth century, twentieth-century readers share the predicament of Benjamin's Angelus Novus, 1 even on the threshold of a millennial hyperspace in which the spatial barriers once separating social and cultural anomalies have been obliterated. The wind blowing. (The entire section is 10988 words.) Bloch, Bernard B. “Babo and Babeuf: Melville's ‘Benito Cereno.’” In Melville Society Extracts, No. 96 (March 1994): 9-12. Employs textual evidence related to phd thesis, naming and word play in “Benito Cereno” in order to argue that Melville presents an anti-slavery sentiment in the story. Eaton, Mark A. Resume Cover? “‘Lost in Their Mazes’: Framing Facts and Fictions in Benito Cereno. ” In Journal of Narrative Technique 24, No. Rye Literary? 3 (Fall 1994): 212-36. Argues that “Benito Cereno” disputes the my perfect resume cover, authority of historical narratives, citing narrative framing techniques and the story's mediation between. (The entire section is past papers religious studies 918 words.) Benito Cereno Homework Help Questions. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter? The power of blackness is shown to action, be both a literal and my perfect, symbolic element intrinsic to the themes in Benito Cereno. On its literal level, there is a power of blackness shown in how the essay on why banning phones be mandatory, slaves.

The purposes of Herman Melville’s short novel Benito Cereno have been interpreted in a number of ways, including the following: to expose the social, political, economic, and especially racial. Benito Cereno tells the tale of a Spanish slave ship. After a revolt, the slaves kill most of the my perfect resume, Spaniards and plan to sail the ship to their freedom. The true condition of the slaves on the ship. Ask a question.

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Obama Reckons with a Trump Presidency. “We’re going to have to redesign the social compact,” Obama said. “And I know how to build a bridge to that new social compact.” Inside a stunned White House, the cover letter, President considers his legacy and America’s future. “We’re going to have to redesign the social compact,” Obama said. “And I know how to build a bridge to that new social compact.” The morning after Donald Trump was elected President of the United States, Barack Obama summoned staff members to the Oval Office. Pros? Some were fairly junior and had never been in the room before. My Perfect Resume Letter? They were sombre, hollowed out, some fighting tears, humiliated by the defeat, fearful of autocracy’s moving vans pulling up to the door. Although Obama and his people admit that the election results caught them completely by surprise—“We had no plan for edexcel papers studies gce this,” one told me—the President sought to resume, be reassuring. “This is not the apocalypse,” Obama said. History does not move in edexcel papers religious straight lines; sometimes it goes sideways, sometimes it goes backward. A couple of days later, when I asked the President about that consolation, he offered this: “I don’t believe in apocalyptic—until the apocalypse comes.

I think nothing is the end of the world until the end of the world.” Obama’s insistence on hope felt more willed than audacious. It spoke to the civic duty he felt to prevent despair not only my perfect cover letter, among the pros on affirmative essay, young people in the West Wing but also among countless Americans across the country. At the White House, as elsewhere, dread and dejection were compounded by shock. Administration officials recalled the collective sense of confidence about the election that had persisted for many months, the my perfect resume cover, sense of balloons and confetti waiting to be released. Last January, on the eve of his final State of the Union address, Obama submitted to a breezy walk-and-talk interview in the White House with the “Today” show.

Wry and self-possessed, he told Matt Lauer that no matter what happened in the election he was sure that “the overwhelming majority” of Americans would never submit to Donald Trump’s appeals to their fears, that they would see through his “simplistic solutions and scapegoating.” “So when you stand and deliver that State of the Union address,” Lauer said, “in no part of your mind and papers religious studies, brain can you imagine Donald Trump standing up one day and delivering the State of the my perfect resume cover letter, Union address?” Obama chuckled. “Well,” he said, “I can imagine it in a ‘Saturday Night’ skit.” Obama’s mockery of Trump began as early as the on affirmative essay, 2011 White House Correspondents’ Dinner, largely as the resume, result of what a compare contrast essay on Trump’s support of the “birther” conspiracy theory, which claims that Obama was born in Africa and so impugns the legitimacy of resume letter his office. Into the final stretch of this year’s campaign, moments of serene assurance were plentiful. A few weeks before the election, Obama went on “Jimmy Kimmel Live!” and performed a routine in which he read one insulting tweet directed at him after another. Finally, he read one off his phone from the Republican candidate: “President Obama will go down as perhaps the worst president in the history of the United States! @realDonaldTrump.” A short, cool pause, then Obama delivered the zinger: “Well, @realDonaldTrump, at least I will go down as a President.” And then, like a rapper dropping the mike, Obama held out his phone and let it fall to the floor. For tens of millions of the most memorable my life essay Americans, Trump was unthinkable as President. It came to be conceded that he had “tuned into something”: the frequencies of white rural life, the my perfect cover letter, disaffection of people who felt overwhelmed by the forces of day of my life essay globalization, who felt unheard and my perfect resume cover, condescended to by the coastal establishment. Yet Trump himself, by liberal consensus, was a huckster mogul of the social-media age, selling magic potions laced with poison. How could he possibly win?

Still, his triumph, or the rye literary, idea of it, was not beyond prediction. The fissures and frustrations in the American electorate were nothing new, and some commentators were notably alert to them. Before and after the resume cover, election, a passage from Richard Rorty’s 1998 book, “Achieving Our Country,” circulated on social media. Edexcel Past Papers Religious? Rorty, a left-leaning philosopher, who died in 2007, predicted that the neglected working class would not tolerate its marginalization for long. “Something will crack,” he wrote: The nonsuburban electorate will decide that the my perfect resume cover letter, system has failed and start looking around for a strongman to vote for—someone willing to assure them that, once he is elected, the smug bureaucrats, tricky lawyers, overpaid bond salesmen, and my life essay, postmodernist professors will no longer be calling the shots. . . . One thing that is very likely to happen is that the gains made in the past forty years by black and brown Americans, and by homosexuals, will be wiped out. Jocular contempt for women will come back into fashion. . . . All the resentment which badly educated Americans feel about having their manners dictated to my perfect letter, them by college graduates will find an outlet. A man of essay on why the use of cell driving should nationwide inherited fortune and a stint at resume letter, the Wharton School was an unlikely champion of the essay on why banning the use of cell while driving be mandatory nationwide, rural South and cover letter, the Rust Belt—this was no Huey Long—but Trump was shrewd enough to perform his fellow-feeling in blunt terms. “I love the past religious, poorly educated!” he told the crowd after winning the Nevada caucus. “We’re the smartest people, we’re the most loyal people!” When I joined Obama on a campaign trip to North Carolina just four days before the election, Hillary Clinton was hanging on to a lead in nearly every poll. Surely, the professionals said, her “firewall” would hold and provide a comfortable victory. David Plouffe, who ran Obama’s 2008 campaign, said that Clinton was a “one hundred per cent” lock and advised nervous Democrats to stop “wetting the bed.” In battleground states, particularly where it was crucial to get out the African-American vote, Obama was giving one blistering campaign speech after another.

“I’m having fun,” he told me. But, thanks in part to James Comey, the F.B.I. director, and his letter to Congress announcing that he would investigate Clinton’s e-mails again, the race tightened considerably in its final week. When Obama wandered down the aisle of letter Air Force One, I asked him, “Do you feel confident about what to write, Tuesday?” But then, in Obamian fashion, he delved into letter a methodical discussion of polling models and, finally, landed on papers religious studies gce, a more tempered and upbeat version of “nope.” He was “cautiously optimistic.” There were reasons to be so. His Presidency, after all, had seemed poised for a satisfying close. As recently as early 2015, the Obama Administration had been in my perfect cover a funk.

He had underestimated ISIS ; Putin had annexed Crimea; Syria was a catastrophe. His relations with the Republicans in Congress, especially since the crushing 2014 midterms, were at an impasse. Then, in a single week in June, 2015: the Supreme Court ended years of legal assaults on Obamacare; the Court ruled in favor of marriage equality; and, at a funeral following the murder of nine congregants at a black church in Charleston, Obama gave a speech that captivated much of the country. Rather than focus on the race war that the killer had hoped to the most day of my life essay, incite, he spoke of the “reservoir of goodness” in my perfect letter the living and the dead and ended by the most memorable essay, singing “Amazing Grace.” [cartoon id=a20432] A sense of my perfect resume cover letter energy and accomplishment filtered back into the Administration.

Long before Election Day, books were being published about its legacy: an past papers religious, economy steered clear of a beckoning Depression, the my perfect cover letter, rescue of the edexcel past papers religious gce, automobile industry, Wall Street reform, the banning of torture, the passage of Obamacare, marriage equality, and the Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act, the end of the cover letter, war in Iraq, heavy investment in renewable-energy technologies, the appointment of Sonia Sotomayor and Elena Kagan to the Supreme Court, the killing of Osama bin Laden, the memorable day of essay, Iran nuclear deal, the opening of Cuba, the Paris agreement on cover letter, climate change, two terms long on dignity and short on scandal. Obama’s approval ratings reached a new high. Clinton’s election as the edexcel religious studies gce, first female President would complete the narrative, and Obama, his aides suggested, would be free to sit in my perfect resume the healing sun of Oahu and contemplate nothing more rigorous than the unrushed composition of a high-priced memoir. Air Force One landed at Fort Bragg and the motorcade headed to a gym packed with supporters at catcher rye literary essay, Fayetteville State University. In shirtsleeves and with crisp, practiced enthusiasm, Obama delivered his campaign stump speech. His appeal for Clinton was rooted in resume letter the preservation of his own legacy. Pros? “All the progress that we’ve made these last eight years,” he said, “goes out the resume letter, window if we don’t win this election!” He revived some of his early tropes, cautioning the what to write essay on, crowd not to be “bamboozled” by my perfect resume cover letter, the G.O.P.—an echo from on why banning phones driving should be mandatory, Malcolm X—and recited the litany of Trump’s acts of disrespect toward blacks, women, Muslims, the disabled, Gold Star parents. I was standing to the side of the stage. Nearby, a stout older man appeared in the aisle, dressed in a worn, beribboned military uniform and holding a Trump sign. People spotted him quickly and the jeering began. Then came the chant “Hil-la-ry!

Hil-la-ry!” Obama picked up the curdled vibe and located its source. “Hold up!” he said. “Hold up!” The crowd would not quiet down. Letter? He repeated the phrase—“Hold up!”—sixteen more times, and still nothing. It took a long, disturbing while before he could recapture the crowd’s attention and phd thesis methodology, get people to lay off the old man. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter? What followed was a lecture in political civility. “I’m serious, listen up,” he said. “You’ve got an older gentleman who is supporting his candidate. . . . You don’t have to worry about him. This is what I mean about folks not being focussed. First of all, we live in a country that respects free speech. Second of the use of cell driving should nationwide all, it looks like maybe he might have served in our military, and we’ve got to respect that. Third of my perfect all, he was elderly, and we’ve got to respect our elders. . . . Edexcel Papers Religious Studies? Now, I want you to pay attention.

Because if we don’t, if we lose focus, we could have problems.” That night in Hershey, Pennsylvania, Trump informed his supporters that in Fayetteville Obama had been abusive to the protester: “He spent so much time screaming at this protester and, frankly, it was a disgrace.” Either Trump was retailing an account he’d found online in the alt-right media or he was knowingly lying. My Perfect Cover Letter? In other words, Trump was Trump. As the plane headed to a compare contrast on, Charlotte, I sat with Roy Cooper, the attorney general of North Carolina and my perfect cover, its Democratic candidate for governor, and David Simas, Obama’s political director. Cooper, who had worked in essay on why banning of cell phones the tobacco fields as a kid, now seemed as disconnected from the Trump voter in rural North Carolina as any pointy-headed quote machine in the CNN greenroom. “I’m as perplexed as the next person,” he said. Simas was more analytical. He was the numbers guy, who knew every twitch of voter movement in every county, or hoped he did. He was nowhere near as sanguine as Plouffe, and, as he went through the early-vote tallies in resume letter Florida, North Carolina, and Nevada, he was concerned about the somewhat modest African-American turnout, though emboldened by a “tsunami” of day of my life essay support from Hispanics. Meanwhile, he said, “the so-called hidden Trump vote” was not showing up in any outsized way. I asked Simas why he seemed more confident than Obama.

He smiled and said it was a matter of roles: “I haven’t been the President of the resume, United States for two terms and now looking to confirm my legacy.” Yet Simas, too, knew that there was potential trouble ahead. “Within ten days of the Republican Convention, Trump consolidated the Republican base faster than Romney did in 2012,” he said. “The base of the Republican Party is also different from the most memorable day of my life essay, what we thought. For movement conservatives, the assumption is that Democratic or Republican voters are ideological on issues. The Trump candidacy shows otherwise. They rally around the my perfect resume, team and the antipathy to Secretary Clinton.” What frustrated Obama and his staff was the knowledge that, in large measure, they were reaching their own people but no further.

They spoke to elements, the networks and the major cable outlets, the major papers and the mainstream Web sites, and, in resume an attempt to find people “where they are,” forums such as Bill Maher’s and edexcel, Samantha Bee’s late-night cable shows, and my perfect resume cover letter, Marc Maron’s podcast. But they would never reach the rye literary elements, collective readerships of Breitbart News, the Drudge Report, WND, Newsmax, InfoWars, and lesser-knowns like Western Journalism—not to mention the closed loop of peer-to-peer right-wing rumor-mongering. “Until recently, religious institutions, academia, and resume letter, media set out the parameters of acceptable discourse, and it ranged from the unthinkable to the radical to the acceptable to policy,” Simas said. “The continuum has changed. Had Donald Trump said the things he said during the campaign eight years ago—about banning Muslims, about Mexicans, about the disabled, about women—his Republican opponents, faith leaders, academia would have denounced him and essay on why banning the use of cell while driving should nationwide, there would be no way around those voices. Now, through Facebook and Twitter, you can get around them. There is social permission for resume this kind of discourse. Plus, through the same social media, you can find people who agree with you, who validate these thoughts and opinions. This creates a whole new permission structure, a sense of social affirmation for what was once thought unthinkable.

This is a foundational change.” That day, as they travelled, Obama and Simas talked almost obsessively about an article in BuzzFeed that described how the Macedonian town of Veles had experienced a “digital gold rush” when a small group of young people there published more than a hundred pro-Trump Web sites, with hundreds of thousands of Facebook followers. Pros? The sites had names like TrumpVision365.com and cover, WorldPoliticus.com, and most of the posts were wildly sensationalist, recycled from American alt-right sites. If you read such sites, you learned that Pope Francis had endorsed Trump and that Clinton had actually encouraged Trump to run, because he “can’t be bought.” The new media ecosystem “means everything is true and nothing is true,” Obama told me later. What A Compare Contrast On? “An explanation of climate change from my perfect letter, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist looks exactly the same on chapter, your Facebook page as the denial of my perfect resume climate change by somebody on the Koch brothers’ payroll. Catcher? And the capacity to disseminate misinformation, wild conspiracy theories, to paint the my perfect resume cover letter, opposition in wildly negative light without any rebuttal—that has accelerated in ways that much more sharply polarize the electorate and make it very difficult to pros action essay, have a common conversation.” That marked a decisive change from previous political eras, he maintained. My Perfect Resume Letter? “Ideally, in a democracy, everybody would agree that climate change is the consequence of man-made behavior, because that’s what ninety-nine per cent of what to write contrast essay on scientists tell us,” he said. “And then we would have a debate about how to fix it. That’s how, in the seventies, eighties, and nineties, you had Republicans supporting the Clean Air Act and you had a market-based fix for acid rain rather than a command-and-control approach. So you’d argue about means, but there was a baseline of facts that we could all work off of. My Perfect Resume Cover? And now we just don’t have that.” [cartoon id=a20504] That night in Charlotte, Obama was even more energetic at the microphone.

There was not one visible Trump supporter to divert him or the crowd. On Affirmative Action? He unspooled the cover, usual litany of Trump’s violations of fact and human dignity. The race was personal to him, it seemed, and not merely because Trump threatened his legacy. “Every day, this is a candidate who has said things that just four years ago, just eight years ago, twelve, we would have considered completely disqualifying,” he told the catcher elements essay, audience. “I mean, imagine if in 2008 I had said any of the things that this man said. Imagine if I had behaved in my perfect letter the way this man behaved.

Imagine what Republicans would have said! Imagine what the press would have said!” On the way out of the pavilion, Obama signed a few books, posed for phd thesis methodology some pictures, and seemed distinctly pleased with the way things were going. “I’m like Mick Jagger,” he said. Resume Letter? “I’m old, I’m gray, but people still turn out.” In the car, riding back to the Charlotte airport, Obama slumped in his seat and read a few e-mails on the most day of, his phone. My Perfect Cover? Then he brought up a video of the White House Halloween party. “Check this out,” he said, holding the essay on why banning the use while should be mandatory, phone up to me. On the screen was a toddler with slicked-back hair and my perfect resume letter, a Superman costume.

The child’s superpowers extended to an unusual political knowledge: he called Obama “ POTUS ,” which seemed curiously precocious, until I learned that he was the pros essay, two-year-old son of Josh Earnest, Obama’s press secretary. As we rode toward the airport, Obama talked about Trump. “We’ve seen this coming,” he said. “Donald Trump is not an outlier; he is a culmination, a logical conclusion of the rhetoric and tactics of the Republican Party for the past ten, fifteen, twenty years. What surprised me was the resume, degree to which those tactics and rhetoric completely jumped the rails. There were no governing principles, there was no one to say, ‘No, this is going too far, this isn’t what we stand for.’ But we’ve seen it for eight years, even with reasonable people like John Boehner, who, when push came to shove, wouldn’t push back against these currents.” I asked about rye literary essay, Trump’s capacity to eliminate serially a long string of Republican contenders. “Donald Trump beating fifteen people said less about his skills and my perfect cover, more about the lack of skills of the people he beat,” Obama said. “But, obviously, he tapped into something. He’s able to banning of cell while nationwide, distill the letter, anger and catcher rye literary essay, resentment and the sense of aggrievement. Cover? And he is skillful at challenging the conventions in a way that makes people feel something and that gives them some satisfaction.” Obama noted that many of Trump’s supporters had voted for him—in Iowa, in Michigan and Wisconsin, in Florida and North Carolina. Part of the reason, he said, was that he had the good fortune to phd thesis, appear on the scene before the collapse of the old media order.

In the late nineties, when he was a state senator representing Hyde Park, on the South Side of Chicago, he started making trips to the southern counties of Illinois with a white political operative named Dan Shomon. Resume Cover? As a legislator, Obama had never before been south of Springfield. Michelle Obama was at home, pregnant, and Obama figured that this was his last chance before the baby arrived. As he headed south, he came to realize that he was now in a place that was closer in religious studies character and outlook to Tennessee and my perfect resume, Arkansas than to Chicago. He met with people on factory floors and at on affirmative, the local Maid-Rite. In Du Quoin, he learned about the problems posed by an all-white branch of the Chicago gang called the Gangster Disciples; in Old Shawneetown, he learned about farm life from people like Steve and Kappy Scates, who are friends to this day. “What those trips proved is my perfect letter that he appealed to rural white people,” Shomon once told me. On Affirmative Essay? “They would vote for him, they liked him.” In 2004, Obama won a seat in the U.S. My Perfect Resume Cover? Senate, defeating in the primary a sitting state comptroller and white Party regular named Dan Hynes, who had had the support of edexcel past papers religious studies gce nearly every county chairman in the state.

“People didn’t see me coming,” Obama said as we drove through the night. “In southern Illinois, in those counties I won, I was at V.F.W.s and fish fries hearing people’s stories and my perfect resume cover, talking to catcher elements essay, folks, so that they knew me. They weren’t getting me through Fox or Rush Limbaugh or Breitbart or RedState. “In ’08, they saw me coming, but I was a guy named Barack Hussein Obama coming up against the Clinton machine, so no way! So they weren’t focussed on me, and I established a connection. Then came the stuff: Ayers and resume cover, Reverend Wright and all the rest. What I’m suggesting is that the lens through which people understand politics and politicians is phd thesis chapter extraordinarily powerful. And Trump understands the new ecosystem, in which facts and my perfect resume, truth don’t matter. You attract attention, rouse emotions, and then move on. You can surf those emotions.

I’ve said it before, but if I watched Fox I wouldn’t vote for me!” Obama will go down in history as the first African-American President, and he derives immense pride from that, but he never fails to essay on why banning the use phones while nationwide, insist on the complexity of his story. “I’m half Scotch-Irish, man!” he said. “When folks like Jim Webb write about my perfect resume, Scotch-Irish stock in on affirmative essay West Virginia and Kansas and so on, those are my people! They don’t know it, always, but they are.” Now, on the eve of the election, nothing was in the bag. My Perfect Cover Letter? “What’s powerful is that ideas can change on a dime,” Obama said as we pulled up to pros, Air Force One. “Public attitudes can be shaped and shift so radically. Two years ago, Hillary Clinton’s popularity was at sixty-five per cent, and people were contrasting her popularity with mine. There was all this talk about my perfect letter, how she was going to need to find ways to distance herself from me.

Now, suddenly, she has problems with public opinion. Part of it is, I’m less the focus. But it all happens so fast. This is a puzzle I’m going to edexcel gce, be thinking about a lot. I have complete confidence in the American people—that if I can have a conversation with them they’ll choose what’s right.

At an emotional level, they want to do the right thing if they have the my perfect, information.” And yet in an age of edexcel past papers religious studies filter bubbles and social-media silos, he knew, the “information” that reached people was increasingly shaped by letter, what they wanted to be true. And that was no longer in his hands or anyone else’s. [cartoon id=a18703] Obama’s final appearance, on the eve of Election Day, was at an outdoor rally next to Independence Hall, in Philadelphia, alongside Jon Bon Jovi, Bruce Springsteen, and the Clintons. But it was preceded by edexcel studies, visits to Florida, Michigan, and New Hampshire, where he travelled with Maggie Hassan, that state’s Democratic candidate for the Senate. As Obama later recounted to me, he found himself reminiscing with her about the tense magic of a campaign’s conclusion: “I love the stillness and the mystery of the day or two before elections, because in a lot of ways everything goes radio-silent. Nobody at that point is really listening to an argument.

The infrastructure is my perfect letter set. And now it’s this weird alchemy that’s taking place in the country, and you just have to edexcel past, kind of wait and see how it works. But there’s always this mystery to it, this possibility.” “Which, in my perfect cover some ways, is powerful and affirming of the day of, humanity of democracy, right?” he said to me. “It’s not mechanical. Cover? It’s not a formula. It’s not set. It’s not fixed.

There is always the possibility of surprise. And in that sense it’s a little bit like sports. It doesn’t matter what the odds are. Weird stuff happens. And that makes it scary if you’re rooting for one team or the to write a compare contrast on, other, but that’s the my perfect, drama of it.” On Election Night, Obama was upstairs in the White House residence. Tens of millions of people turned on televisions and started checking their phones and pros action, laptops long before the polls on my perfect resume cover letter, the East Coast closed, but Obama did not. “I generally don’t start paying attention to the most, returns until, like, ten o’clock,” he said, “because, first of all, I got a lot of people who do that for resume me, and, second of all, there’s really nothing there, so it’s all a bunch of speculation or anxiety that’s playing itself out, and people are attaching themselves to various numbers.” Obama said he had thought that the race was going to be very close. The negatives for both candidates were remarkably high, and there was so much volatility that whichever candidate was in the news most lost ground. “And for reasons that you’re well aware of”—Obama-ese for Comey’s letter and the acid drip, by way of essay Russia, of WikiLeaks—“Hillary had been in the news a lot for a week going into the election.

And that was going to create, given the dynamics of this race, some challenges.” At around 7:30 P.M ., Obama heard from David Simas that there were some “surprising numbers” coming from resume cover, rural counties in Florida. Trump was ahead by a much bigger margin than the models had anticipated—“and, in what contrast essay on fact, a larger margin than Romney had beaten me in these areas, or McCain had beaten me in these areas.” Even by ten o’clock, Obama said, “I’m still not watching television, which is just a general rule that I’ve maintained for the last eight years, not watching political television.” Not watching, in the Obama household, he said, “is part of my perfect resume how you stay focussed on the task, as opposed to worrying about the noise.” Michelle Obama removed herself even further from the tumult. “The First Lady, by phd thesis chapter, about 10 P.M ., goes to sleep,” Obama said. “She decided she didn’t need the stress.” By then, it was clear that the models were wrong and my perfect resume letter, that Clinton was going to past papers studies, lose North Carolina and Florida—and that the difficulties she was having in the South were showing up in Pennsylvania, Michigan, and my perfect resume cover, Wisconsin. Obama is hardly as cool and bloodless as advertised, but he will not perform, or even recount, his emotions on command.

When I kept prodding him for a reaction beyond sheer fact and rye literary elements, discernment, he stayed in that calm zone he likes to inhabit, the my perfect cover letter, analyst of even his own gut. His story was ending in calamity, and yet he watched it from the outside in. “Look, how am I reacting to methodology chapter, it?” he said. “I had told people ahead of Election Day that I had an experience like this. This is my perfect resume cover part of politics. And that was in New Hampshire”—where he lost to Clinton, in edexcel papers religious studies the 2008 Democratic primary. “We had come out of Iowa on this rocket ship and the last poll internally that we had taken in New Hampshire three days later showed us up ten.

And I still remember Axelrod and Plouffe and Gibbs knocking on the door, as I’m getting ready to go downstairs, and my perfect resume cover letter, they’ve got this kind of edexcel papers studies sheepish look on their faces. And I said, ‘What’s going on, gentlemen?’ And they said, ‘Well, I think this may not work out the way we expected.’ ” He went on, “There is deep disappointment. In New Hampshire, when I lost, it was only the second election in what proved to cover, be an interminable primary season. And people forget that was actually the on affirmative action essay, night I gave the ‘Yes, we can’ speech. It was in the face of defeat, not victory, that we talked about my perfect cover letter, ‘Yes, we can.’ And I remember flying down to Boston. Essay The Use Phones Driving Should Be Mandatory? We had a fund-raiser and I had to speak to a bunch of supporters down there the next day. And Axelrod was surprised. He was, like, ‘You don’t seem that upset.’ And I said, ‘You know, I think this is cover letter right. I think this is how it should be. I haven’t earned this yet.’ You don’t go from being a first-term senator, no matter how popular, winning one caucus, and suddenly you’re anointed.

The American people are showing some wisdom here in edexcel religious saying, ‘You know what, we got to take this thing out for a spin, we’ve got to get a better sense of how this thing navigates the curves, because that’s what a President is going to need.’ ” I found this curious—the comparison between Obama’s temporary setback in New Hampshire and Donald Trump’s ascension to the Presidency. My Perfect Resume? But he seemed to edexcel papers religious, catch up with the disjunction. “In this situation, the consequences are much higher,” he said. “It’s terminal. It’s the end of the road on the election. You can’t recover from the election. Resume Letter? And obviously my feelings about the country and where these election results might lead the country are more serious.

And in some ways it’s also more frustrating, because it wasn’t my campaign, so it’s a little bit like a parent watching a kid in a sporting match, and you don’t feel like you have as much control over it.” My longest recent conversation with Obama came the day after he first met with President-elect Donald Trump, in the Oval Office. I arrived at the West Wing waiting area at memorable essay, around nine-thirty. Letter? There was a copy of rye literary USA Today on the table. The headline was “ RISE IN RACIST ACTS FOLLOWS ELECTION .” It was accompanied by resume cover letter, a photograph of a softball-field dugout in Wellsville, New York, spray-painted with a swastika and catcher essay, the words “Make America White Again.” The paper reported other such acts in Maple Grove, Minnesota, at the University of Vermont Hillel Organization, and at Texas State University, in San Marcos, where police were trying to determine who had distributed flyers reading “Now that our man Trump is elected and Republicans own both the resume cover, Senate and the House—time to organize tar feather VIGILANTE SQUADS and go arrest and phones should be mandatory, torture those deviant university leaders spouting off all this diversity garbage.” Below that story was an account of Obama’s encounter with Trump. Obama had steeled himself for the meeting, determined to act with high courtesy and without condescension. His task was to impress upon Trump the gravity of the my perfect, office. He seemed to what a compare on, take pains not to offend the always-offendable Trump, lest he lose what influence he might still have on my perfect resume cover, the political future of the country and pros on affirmative action essay, the new Administration. Obama was also trying to engage the world in a willing suspension of disbelief, attempting to calm markets and minds, to reassure foreign leaders and, perhaps most of all, millions of Americans that Trump’s election did not necessarily spell the end of my perfect democracy, or the rise of an era of chaos and what a compare essay, racial enmity, or the suspension of the Constitution. This is not the apocalypse.

And yet even in resume the West Wing few could put up the same front. That much was clear when, the past papers studies gce, morning after the election, Obama and Denis McDonough, his chief of staff, had met with groups of staffers. (The two acted “almost like grief counsellors,” one source said.) Obama told his staff not to my perfect resume cover, lose their spirit, to keep their eyes on “the long game.” Soon after the election had been called for Trump, Obama told them, Ben Rhodes had e-mailed to say that sometimes history zigzags. Obama seized on that. “A lot of you are young and this is your first rodeo,” Obama told the staffers in the Oval Office, a source recalled. Elements Essay? “For some of you, all you’ve ever known is winning. But the older people here, we have known loss. And this stings.

This hurts.” It’s easy to letter, be hopeful when things are going well, he went on, but when you need to be hopeful is when things are at their worst. That line reminded one senior aide of Obama’s last speech to the U.N. General Assembly, a defense of the liberal order that was willfully optimistic at to write a compare contrast, a moment when illiberal currents were coursing all over the world. Resume Cover? Now, in his own home, Obama sought to buck his people up and get them into methodology chapter a professional frame of mind. He praised the Bush Administration, which he had criticized so sharply throughout the 2008 campaign, for the generosity and efficiency with which its people had assisted in the transition, and my perfect, he told his people to do the same, to be “gracious hosts” of the most well-known address in the United States. He asked them to make sure that even their body language radiated a sense of my life pride and my perfect resume cover, cooperation. But there was little that could soften the blow, either inside the edexcel past studies gce, White House or in resume cover letter the great world beyond.

Trump’s victory did not merely endanger Obama’s legacy of progressive legislation or international agreements. It unnerved countless women, African-Americans, Latinos, Muslims, and L.G.B.T. people, as well as professionals in national security, the press, and many other institutions. Essay On Why Banning The Use Phones While Driving Be Mandatory? (And this was before Trump appointed Stephen Bannon, the letter, former head of Breitbart News, as his senior counsellor.) The outcome of the essay on why the use of cell phones should be mandatory, election was also a blow to those who anticipated major advances for the Democratic Party: it wrested over-all control of cover just one additional state legislature, and remains a minority in both houses of Congress, having gained only a handful of new seats in the House of Representatives, and only two in the Senate. Democrats saw a net loss of pros two governorships, leaving fewer than a third of the states with Democratic governors. The party of F.D.R. and Robert Kennedy was at its weakest point in decades and had been cast as heedless of the my perfect resume cover letter, concerns of the most white working people. Nor was there any secret why Vladimir Putin and the Russian political elite were so tickled by resume, Trump’s ascent. Yes, Trump represents, to them, a “useful idiot,” a weak, discombobulated, history-less leader who will likely be content to pros on affirmative essay, leave Russia to resume, its own devices, from Ukraine to the Baltic states. But Putin may also think of phd thesis himself as the chief ideologist of the illiberal world, a counter to resume cover, what he sees as the hypocritical and blundering West. What To Write A Compare Contrast On? He has always shown support for nativist leaders such as Marine Le Pen, in resume cover France; now he had a potential ally in the White House. Suddenly, Germany, led by Angela Merkel, was the lonely bulwark of Europe and Atlanticism.

And even she faced a strong nativist challenge, for the sin of chapter admitting thousands of Syrian refugees into the country. The White House was, as one staffer told me, “like a funeral home.” You could see it all around: aides walking through the lobby, hunched, hushed, vacant-eyed. In a retrospective mood, staffers said that, as Obama told me, Clinton would have been an “excellent” President, but they also voiced some dismay with her campaign: dismay that she had seemed to stump so listlessly, if at my perfect cover letter, all, in the Rust Belt; dismay that the Clinton family’s undeniable taste for money could not be erased by good works; dismay that she was such a middling retail politician. There was inevitable talk about phd thesis methodology chapter, Joe Biden, who might have done better precisely where Clinton came up short: in Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, Ohio. And there was the fury at James Comey, who had clearly stalled Clinton’s late momentum, and at the evidence that Russia had altered the course of an American election through a cyber-espionage mission that was conducted in my perfect resume cover letter conjunction with Julian Assange and warmly received by the Republican candidate.

Three days after Trump’s victory, Obama was scheduled to go to Arlington National Cemetery and deliver the a compare contrast on, annual Veterans Day address to cover letter, thousands of vets and the most, their families. Resume Letter? The President’s limousine, the Beast, and a long line of essay banning the use while driving should be mandatory nationwide black vans and security vehicles were lined up and waiting on my perfect cover letter, the south drive of the White House. It was hard not to see it, considering the mood of the previous few days, and the destination, as a kind of cortege. The official line at the White House was that the hour-and-a-half meeting with Trump went well and that Trump was solicitous. Later, when I asked Obama how things had really gone, he smiled thinly and said, “I think I can’t characterize it without . Pros Action? . . ” Then he stopped himself and said that he would tell me, “at some point over a beer—off the record.”

I wasn’t counting on that beer anytime soon. But after the sitdown with Trump, Obama told staff members that he had talked Trump through the rudiments of forming a cabinet and policies, including the Iran nuclear deal, counter-terrorism policy, health care—and that the President-elect’s grasp of such matters was, as the debates had made plain, modest at best. Trump, despite his habitual bluster, seemed awed by my perfect, what he was being told and about to encounter. Denis McDonough strolled by with some friends and family. The day before, the person Trump sent to my life, debrief him about resume cover letter, how to staff and run a White House was his son-in-law, Jared Kushner.

They had taken a walk on the South Lawn. I asked McDonough how it was going, and what to write a compare contrast essay, he gave me a death-skull grin. “Everything’s great!” he said. Resume? He clenched his teeth and grinned harder in self-mockery. McDonough is the picture of rectitude: the catcher elements, ramrod posture, the trimmed white hair, the my perfect resume letter, ashen mien of a bishop who has missed two meals in a row. “I guess if you keep repeating it, it’s like a mantra, and it will be O.K. ‘Everything will be O. K., everything will be O.K.’ ” Although Obama and a compare contrast, his aides had long been alarmed by Trump’s disturbing rhetoric and cover, loose grasp of papers gce policy, they decided that the best path forward was to assume the mask of my perfect decorum. It was a matter of amour-propre, but—again—also of tactics. To have any chance to influence Trump, they had to avoid any trace of the contempt that had once been so pronounced. Memorable Day Of My Life Essay? [cartoon id=a20493] Perhaps the my perfect, more acute personal sadness for past papers religious studies White House staffers was the vision of Obama and Trump sitting side by side in my perfect resume cover letter the Oval Office.

A President who fought with dignity to rescue the country from economic catastrophe and to press for progressive change—from marriage equality to the alleviation of climate change—was putting on a mask of generous equanimity for a visitor whom he had every good reason to despise, an ethically challenged real-estate brander who had launched his political career by promoting “birtherism,” and then ran a sexist and bigoted campaign to galvanize his base. Essay? In the Oval Office, the President was quick to comfort the young members of his staff, but he was, an aide told me, even more concerned about the wounding effect the cover, election would have on the categories of Americans who had been routinely insulted and what to write contrast on, humiliated by the President-elect. At a social occasion earlier this year, someone asked Michelle Obama how it was possible for her husband to maintain his equipoise amid so much hatred. “You have no idea how bad it is,” she said. His practiced calm is my perfect resume cover beyond reckoning. Those closest to Obama at the White House say that he copes by quietly, sarcastically deflating the attacks—like letting the air out of a balloon slowly, one said, the better not to make too much noise. He never loses his capacity to be the scholar of his own predicament, a gently quizzical ethnographer of his own country, of chapter its best and worst qualities. In private, Michelle Obama gives clearer voice to the frustrations, and, not least, to a concern about the racism that is apparent to them both. In public—in one of the most memorable speeches of the campaign—she spoke out ferociously against Trump’s misogyny. There is letter no denying the a compare contrast essay, depths of cover Obama’s humbling.

He fully grasps the nature of the bigotry and phd thesis methodology, the nihilism that Trump has espoused in my perfect resume cover the name of working-class empowerment. Papers Religious? Obama’s way is to keep cool while insisting on, and embodying, a faith in institutions. “Look, by dint of resume cover letter biography, by dint of on why banning the use of cell phones should be mandatory nationwide experience, the basic optimism that I articulate and present publicly as President is real,” he told me. “It’s what I teach my daughters. It is how I interact with my friends and with strangers. I genuinely do not assume the worst, because I’ve seen the my perfect, best so often. So it is a mistake that I think people have sometimes made to think that I’m just constantly biting my tongue and there’s this sort of roiling anger underneath the calm Hawaiian exterior. I’m not that good of an the use of cell while be mandatory nationwide, actor. I was born to a white mother, raised by a white mom and grandparents who loved me deeply. I’ve had extraordinarily close relationships with friends that have lasted decades. I was elected twice by the majority of the American people.

Every day, I interact with people of good will everywhere.” Obama is resume a patriot and what, an optimist of a particular kind. Cover? He hoped to be the liberal Reagan, a progressive of consequence, but there are crucial differences. For one thing, Obama does not believe in the simplistic form of American exceptionalism which insists that Americans are more talented and virtuous than everyone else, that they are blessed by a patriotic God with a special mission. America is a country that was established on on affirmative action essay, the ideas of Enlightenment philosophers and my perfect letter, improved upon not merely by legislation but also by catcher rye literary elements essay, social movements: this, to Obama, is the real nature of its exceptionalism. Last year, at the fiftieth anniversary of the Selma-to-Montgomery march, he stood on the Edmund Pettus Bridge, in Selma, and defined American exceptionalism as embodied by its heroes, its freedom fighters: Sojourner Truth, Susan B. My Perfect Letter? Anthony, John Lewis, the a compare contrast on, “gay Americans whose blood ran in the streets of San Francisco and New York”; its Tuskegee Airmen and Navajo code-talkers, its 9/11 volunteers and G.I.s, and its immigrants—Holocaust survivors, Lost Boys of Sudan, and the “hopeful strivers who cross the Rio Grande.” Now Obama had begun the transfer of resume cover power to Donald Trump. The President insisted to the press that they’d had “an excellent conversation.”

Obama got in his car and the motorcade pulled out of the White House gates and sped south through the streets of memorable day of essay D.C., over the Potomac and into the green grounds of resume cover Arlington. I was packed into gce a van filled with officials from the letter, Pentagon. They were gossiping softly about the election and its aftermath, but, once we were through the gates, passing thousands of tombstones, listening to the thud of ceremonial cannon fire, they went quiet. After a while, someone remarked that Obama was about to leave for a weeklong foreign trip, beginning with Greece. “Birthplace of democracy,” someone else said. A Compare Contrast Essay? “Hard to take after this week.” After speaking at the Memorial Amphitheatre, Obama returned to resume, the White House for lunch and methodology, a few meetings. I saw him in the Oval Office afterward. In shirtsleeves but with his tie knotted high, he sat down in the chair where he had met with Trump the day before and ordered some tea. Throughout the my perfect cover, campaign, he had told his audiences that if Trump—“uniquely unqualified” and “temperamentally unfit” to be Commander-in-Chief—were to win, eight years of accomplishment would go out the window. I asked him if he still believed that. “Now that the the most memorable day of my life essay, election is over, no, I don’t believe it,” he said with a sharp, dark laugh. “Not because I was over-hyping it. My Perfect Resume Letter? I think that the possibility of everything being out the window exists.

But, as a practical matter, what I’ve been saying to people, including my own staff, is that the federal government is an a compare contrast, aircraft carrier, it’s not a speedboat. And, if you need any evidence of that, think about how hard we worked over my perfect the last eight years with a very clear progressive agenda, with a majority in the House and in the Senate, and we accomplished as much domestically as any President since Lyndon Johnson in those first two years. But it was really hard.” Obama said that he had accomplished “seventy or seventy-five per cent” of memorable day of my life what he set out to resume letter, do, and catcher rye literary elements essay, “maybe fifteen per cent of my perfect letter that gets rolled back, twenty per cent, but there’s still a lot of stuff that sticks.” He went on, “Obviously, the Affordable Care Act, I think, is most vulnerable, because that has been a unifying bogeyman for Republicans over the course of the last six years. In the minds of a lot of the Republican base, it is an example of essay on why banning should be mandatory nationwide a big government program designed to take something from them and give it to someone else who is unworthy.” But he said that, while the Republicans would have to resume cover, make some attempt to deliver on that, they had to proceed with care, because the program’s twenty-odd million beneficiaries included many Trump voters, “even if they don’t make the connection.” If the Republicans “tinker and modify but still maintain a commitment to provide health insurance for papers the people who received it,” he said, “then a whole bunch of my perfect cover letter stuff hasn’t gone out the window.” Obama has a similar view about the pros, Iran nuclear agreement, despite Trump’s regular denunciations of it. “We actually have over my perfect resume cover a year of proof, and you’ve got the Israeli military and catcher elements essay, intelligence community acknowledging that, in resume cover fact, it has worked,” he said.

The agreement has not changed “some of the more obnoxious behavior of essay Iran,” but it has insured that Iran does not now have “breakout capacity,” the ability to build a weapon in my perfect resume letter a short window of time. “So, given that proof, I don’t think that it is catcher rye literary elements inconceivable that Republican leaders look and my perfect resume letter, they say, ‘This thing worked. Pros Action Essay? Obama is no longer in office. Resume? This is not something that our base is hankering to essay banning of cell phones driving be mandatory, undo, and we may quietly leave it in place.’ ” [cartoon id=maslin-2003-08-04] This kind of talk has led some to think that Obama was deluded in his quest to provide reassurance. Resume Cover Letter? James Hohmann, a columnist in banning of cell phones the Washington Post , suggested that Obama had reached only the first stage of letter grief—denial—in the five stages that Elisabeth Kubler-Ross set out in her book “On Death and Dying.” Anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance were still to edexcel papers religious gce, come. Yet Obama argued coolly that Trump’s record of shifting positions without losing his supporters might be a curiously hopeful fact. His formulation of this thought was, of course, excruciatingly diplomatic. “I think that the President-elect has shown himself to letter, be able to make a connection with his supporters that gives him much more flexibility than the normal candidate to take a variety of approaches,” he said. “They seem to trust him, separate and what to write a compare on, apart from cover letter, any particular thing that he says or does. And, as a consequence, I think we have to wait and see how, in the face of the realities of governance, he reacts to it. Another way of putting this is that what has been true for edexcel past religious gce some time is that if I proposed something that was literally word for word in the Republican Party platform, it would be immediately opposed by eighty to my perfect resume cover, ninety per cent of the Republican voters. And the reason is not that they’ve evaluated what I said. It’s that I said it.

Well, the reverse then becomes true.” At the same time, Obama refused to interpret Clinton’s—and the Party’s—loss as a personal repudiation. “Some of this is really simple and it’s the thing that Mitch McConnell figured out on Day One of my Presidency, which is people aren’t paying that close attention to how Washington works,” he said. “They know there are lobbyists, special interests, gridlock; that the memorable day of essay, powerful have more influence and letter, access than they do. And if things aren’t working, if there’s gridlock, then the only guy that they actually know is supposed to be in charge and what contrast essay, supposed to letter, be helping them is the rye literary elements, President. And so the very deliberate strategy that Mitch McConnell and the Republican Party generally employed during the course of my Presidency was effective. What they understood was that, if you embraced old-fashioned dealing, trading, horse-trading, bipartisan achievement, people feel better. Cover Letter? And, if people feel better, then they feel better about the President’s party, and the President’s party continues. And, if it feels broken, stuck, and everybody is angry, then that hurts the President or the President’s party.” Obama was convinced, accordingly, that Trump won less as a champion of working people than as an anti-establishment insurgent. “The President-elect, I think, was able to make an catcher rye literary essay, argument that he would blow this place up,” he said. My Perfect Resume? “Hillary may have been more vulnerable because she was viewed as an insider. And the reporting around the Goldman speeches”—speeches given to Goldman Sachs executives—“might have reduced her advantage, the normal Democratic advantage, in the eyes of working people, that we were standing for them. I don’t think it was fair, but that’s how it played itself out.”

He picked up the thread of what he had been saying in the car back in North Carolina: that, before the rise of the new-media universe, he had been able—even as a black guy “with a really weird name”—to meet people where they lived, and convey a sense “that I cared about them, that I could relate to them, that I didn’t condescend to them, and edexcel past papers religious gce, that maybe I was in this for the right reasons. . . . So it’s not just, like, the letter, gushing San Francisco liberal hugging me that makes me optimistic. It’s that I’ve seen great decency among people who may, nevertheless, have some presuppositions or biases about African-Americans or Latinos or women or gays. And the issue is, constantly, How do we break through those barriers?” I reminded Obama that, eight years ago, when I was interviewing him about race, he had been somewhat elusive throughout our official session but afterward had tracked me down in the building to the most day of my life, remind me how complicated it was for him to letter, talk about the subject. A stray word about past papers religious gce, race could be as explosive as a stray word about the financial markets. He remembered.

“There are certain things we know,” he said. “We know that when there is a conversation about the my perfect resume, police and African-Americans, and conflict between those two, everybody goes to their respective corners. That is an area that just triggers the deepest stereotypes and assumptions—on both sides. Memorable Day Of My Life? The biggest drop that I had in my poll numbers in my first six months had nothing to do with the economy. It was ‘the beer summit.’ ” That August, a fifty-eight-year-old black Harvard professor, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., had been arrested and handcuffed at his own door by a white police officer. My Perfect Resume Letter? An uproar ensued when Obama seemed to take Gates’s side, and, hoping to quiet the storm, the White House arranged a sitdown over beers between the professor and religious, the policeman. “Among white voters, my poll numbers dropped, like, I don’t know, ten per cent or something,” Obama continued. Cover? “If you don’t stick your landing in studies talking about resume letter, racial issues, particularly when it pertains to the criminal-justice system, then people just shut down. They don’t listen.” He thought back to that fateful day in August. “I thought that it would be fairly innocuous to say, ‘I don’t know all the past papers religious gce, facts, but if you’ve got an elderly black gentleman—even if he’s being obnoxious to a police officer—handcuffing him probably doesn’t make sense if he’s on his own porch.

I thought that would be viewed as a pretty common-sense proposition. It was a pretty visceral reaction. Now, what we also know is that, when we are talking about family or service or sports or popular culture, there are all these categories where people’s stereotypes rarely pop up. And, when they do, the majority of my perfect resume cover people are offended by them. And so the question for me, over phd thesis methodology the course of my Presidency, during the course of this election, has always been, How do I strengthen the better angels of our nature? And how do we tamp down our tribal impulses?” Even in the midst of resume what he can only see as a disastrous turn of history, Obama retained the on why the use of cell while should nationwide, uncanny capacity to view his quandaries as if he were drafting a research paper. “A President who looked like me was inevitable at some point in my perfect resume letter American history,” he said. “It might have been somebody named Gonzales instead of Obama, but it was coming. And I probably showed up twenty years sooner than the demographics would have anticipated. What To Write A Compare Contrast? And, in that sense, it was a little bit more surprising. Resume Letter? The country had to do more adjusting and processing of it. It undoubtedly created more anxiety than it will twenty years from now, provoked more reactions in catcher rye literary elements essay some portion of the population than it will twenty years from now.

And that’s understandable.” How did he speak with his two daughters about the election results, about the post-election reports of racial incidents? “What I say to them is that people are complicated,” Obama told me. “Societies and cultures are really complicated. . . . Resume? This is not mathematics; this is biology and chemistry. These are living organisms, and it’s messy. Methodology Chapter? And your job as a citizen and as a decent human being is to constantly affirm and lift up and fight for my perfect cover letter treating people with kindness and memorable day of, respect and understanding. And you should anticipate that at any given moment there’s going to be flare-ups of bigotry that you may have to confront, or may be inside you and you have to vanquish. And it doesn’t stop. . . . You don’t get into a fetal position about it. You don’t start worrying about apocalypse. You say, O.K., where are the resume letter, places where I can push to what on, keep it moving forward.” For the Democratic Party, these questions have a strategic dimension. After Obama and Clinton, the Party bench is thin.

Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren are hardly young. Obama insisted that there were gifted Democratic politicians out there, but that many were new to the scene. He mentioned Kamala Harris, the new senator from my perfect resume letter, California; Pete Buttigieg, a gay Rhodes Scholar and Navy veteran who has twice been elected mayor of South Bend, Indiana; Tim Kaine; and a compare essay on, Senator Michael Bennet, of resume Colorado. And Obama related the Party’s losses this year to past religious studies, previous setbacks—and recoveries. “Some of my perfect resume letter my staff are really young, so they don’t remember this,” Obama said. “They remember my speech from the pros, Boston Convention, in 2004, because they uploaded it on YouTube or something, but they might have been fifteen when it happened. Well, that’s the election that John Kerry lost.

George Bush was reelected. Tom Daschle, the Democratic leader in the Senate, was defeated. The Senate went Republican. The House was Republican. Me and Ken Salazar, of Colorado, were the only two Democrats nationally who won. It was a very similar period to where we are right now. Two years later, Democrats had won back the my perfect resume, Senate; I think they had won back the House.

And four years later I was the President of the United States. “So this notion somehow that these irreversible tides have been unleashed, I think, surrenders our agency. Rye Literary Elements? It’s easier than us saying, Huh, we missed that, we messed that up, we’ve got to resume letter, do better in how we organize. Pros On Affirmative? We have to stop relying on resume letter, a narrow targeting of pros action our base turnout strategy if we want to govern. . . . Setting aside the results of this election, Democrats are well positioned to keep winning Presidential elections just by appealing to the base. And, each year, the demographic improves.” To put it more bluntly than Obama did, the nonwhite percentage of the population will continue to increase. “But we’ll keep on getting gridlock just because of population distribution in this country,” he went on. Letter? “As long as California and Wyoming have the same number of senators, there’s going to essay banning while should, be a problem—unless we’re able to have a broader conversation and cover, move people who right now aren’t voting for progressive policies and candidates. . . . All of on why banning while driving should this requires vigilance in protecting gains we’ve made, but a sense, yes, of equanimity, a sense of purposeful calm and optimism, and my perfect resume letter, a sense of humor—sometimes gallows humor after results like the ones we just had. That’s how ultimately the race is won.”

Not long before the election, Valerie Jarrett, the senior aide with the closest relationship to the Obamas, asked the President, “Don’t you sometimes wish you could run for another term? I’m sure you could win, and there’s so much more to do.” Obama had no appetite for the use of cell while should nationwide superseding the Twenty-second Amendment. “I said no, because, look, at some point you lose touch,” he recounted. My Perfect Letter? “By being in this room. At some point, you get worn down. At some point, you start getting into on why of cell phones should be mandatory bad habits.

I told her, ‘We’re playing on house money here. We weren’t supposed to my perfect resume letter, be here. Pros On Affirmative Essay? For us to have had this opportunity and to my perfect resume, be able to make this much change, as much as we wish that we could have gotten everything done, it’s remarkable.’ ” The Trump era confronted the action, outgoing President with obvious questions. Who was now the leader of the opposition and of the Democratic Party? What if there were violent racial incidents? Would he step in as a spokesman, a moral voice? Because of the demands of the transition and resume letter, the tradition of discretion, Obama seemed unwilling to edexcel papers gce, address these issues head on, but, at my perfect cover letter, least in general terms, there was no question that he was now seeing his post-Presidency in a new, if dimmer, light. “I think that if Hillary Clinton had won the election then I’d just turn over the keys,” he said. “We’d make sure the briefing books were in order and out we go.

I think now I have some responsibility to at least offer my counsel to those who will continue to be elected officials about how the D.N.C. can help rebuild, how state parties and progressive organizations can work together.” Trump had triumphed in rural America by appealing to a ferment of anti-urban, anti-coastal feeling. And yet Obama dismissed the notion that the Republicans had captured the issue of inequality. Phd Thesis Chapter? “The Republicans don’t care about that issue,” he said. “There’s no pretense that anything that they’re putting forward, any congressional proposals that are going to come forward, will reduce inequality. . . . What I do concern myself with, and the Democratic Party is going to have to concern itself with, is the fact that the my perfect cover, confluence of globalization and the most my life, technology is making the gap between rich and poor, the mismatch in letter power between capital and labor, greater all the time. And that’s true globally. “The prescription that some offer, which is stop trade, reduce global integration, I don’t think is going to work,” he went on. “If that’s not going to work, then we’re going to have to redesign the social compact in some fairly fundamental ways over the next twenty years. And I know how to build a bridge to that new social compact. It begins with all the the most, things we’ve talked about in the past—early-childhood education, continuous learning, job training, a basic social safety net, expanding the earned-income tax credit, investments in infrastructure—which, by cover letter, definition, aren’t shipped overseas. All of those things accelerate growth, give you more of a runway. But at some point, when the past papers religious studies gce, problem is not just Uber but driverless Uber, when radiologists are losing their jobs to A.I., then we’re going to have to my perfect cover letter, figure out how do we maintain a cohesive society and a cohesive democracy in which productivity and wealth generation are not automatically linked to how many hours you put in, where the links between production and distribution are broken, in some sense. Catcher Rye Literary Essay? Because I can sit in my office, do a bunch of stuff, send it out over my perfect resume cover letter the Internet, and essay, suddenly I just made a couple of million bucks, and the person who’s looking after my kid while I’m doing that has no leverage to get paid more than ten bucks an hour.” [cartoon id=warp-2011-02-14] The sense that, on the level of politics and policy, there was work to be done (“I know how to build a bridge to that new social compact”) infused the post-Presidential role that he sketched for himself. “I’ll be fifty-five when I leave”—he knocked on a wooden end table—“assuming that I get a couple more decades of good health, at least, then I think both Michelle and resume cover letter, I are interested in creating platforms that train, empower, network, boost the next generation of leadership.

And I think that, whatever shape my Presidential center takes, I’m less interested in a building and campaign posters and a compare, Michelle’s dresses, although I think it’s fair to say that Michelle’s dresses will be the biggest draw by a huge margin. Cover? But what we’ll be most interested in is programming that helps the next Michelle Obama or the next Barack Obama, who right now is sitting out there and catcher rye literary, has no idea how to make their ideals live, isn’t quite sure what to do—to give them resources and cover, ways to think about social change.” He seemed to be returning to the days when he was a community organizer in the Altgeld Gardens housing project, on the South Side of Chicago. “The thing that I have always been convinced of,” he said, “the running thread through my career, has been this notion that when ordinary people get engaged, pay attention, learn about the forces that affect their lives and are able to join up with others, good stuff happens.” Every ex-Presidency is marked, of course, by the Presidential memoir, and Obama acknowledged that the genre has been vexed. “My observation in reading Presidential memoirs is that they are very heavy on ‘and then this happened, and then that happened,’ ” he said. He noted that he hadn’t managed to keep a diary in the White House and marvelled at the “remarkable discipline that Jimmy Carter apparently had where each day he was describing what he had for breakfast and the most day of essay, what happened here and what happened there.” He admitted that as a writer he could never be as free as he was in his first book, “Dreams from My Father.” “Some of it is just by my perfect resume letter, virtue of decorum,” he said. “If you have meetings with people that they’ve assumed were private and suddenly you’re just spilling the beans, it’s a little bit like telling on an old girlfriend about something.” Shortly after four, following nearly two hours of conversation, Obama got up to call it a day. What Contrast Essay? He would get some rest over the weekend—he played golf on Saturday and Sunday—then leave for the trip to Europe and South America on Monday. Along the resume cover letter, way, he knew, his job was to keep offering reassurance, to deny the prospect of apocalypse, just as he had with his staff. This would require some doing, as his successor’s transition team already showed signs of chaotic infighting and on affirmative, of favoring many of the reactionaries, climate-change deniers, and heroes of the my perfect resume, alt-right in their midst. On his first stop, in Athens, Obama would give a speech about populism, nationalism, globalization, tribalism, and, by implication, the ominous rise of Donald Trump. Walking out the on affirmative essay, gates of the White House, I thought about the morning at Arlington.

The weather was sunny, crisp, cool; dried leaves, russet and umber, skittered across the my perfect letter, walk. It reminded me of Election Day eight years ago, in what to write a compare essay on Chicago. Obama had voted near his house, on the South Side, and resume cover, then accepted victory that night, flanked by his wife and the most memorable day of, daughters, in Grant Park. “While the Democratic Party has won a great victory tonight,” he had told the crowd of nearly a quarter-million people, “we do so with a measure of humility and determination to heal the divides that have held back our progress.” And he cited words that Abraham Lincoln spoke to resume cover, “a nation far more divided than ours”: “We are not enemies but friends. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection.” Obama, graying now, more exhausted than he admits, carried the wreath at Arlington to the most memorable day of my life essay, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier: “Here Rests in Honored Glory an resume cover letter, American Soldier Known But to God.” As a bugler played Taps, the realization came that in the coming year it would be Trump, formerly of Trump Taj Mahal, at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Methodology Chapter? Donald Trump, formerly the host of “Celebrity Apprentice” and the owner of Trump University, in the Situation Room. At 10 Downing Street. At the Elysee Palace. At the Gate of my perfect letter Heavenly Peace.

In the speech at Arlington that morning, Obama managed to deliver a political message. Memorable Day Of? And this time he went beyond the call for orderly transitions and resume cover letter, praise for “excellent” meetings. Edexcel Past Papers Religious? He delivered a distinct paean to values that Trump so often dismissed. “Veterans Day often follows a hard-fought political campaign, an exercise in resume letter the free speech and self-government that you fought for,” he said. “It often lays bare disagreements across our nation. But the methodology chapter, American instinct has never been to find isolation in opposite corners. It is to find strength in our common creed, to forge unity from our great diversity, to sustain that strength and unity even when it is hard.

“It’s the example of the resume letter, single most diverse institution in our country—soldiers, sailors, airmen, marines, and coastguardsmen who represent every corner of our country, every shade of humanity, immigrant and native-born, Christian, Muslim, Jew, and nonbeliever alike, all forged into common service.” His sober cadences gave resonance to words that could have been rote. So did the rye literary elements essay, awareness that just seventy days remained of his Presidency. Here was the hopeful vision of diversity and dignity that Obama had made his own, and hearing these words I couldn’t help remembering how he began his victory speech eight years ago. “If there is my perfect letter anyone out there who still doubts that America is catcher essay a place where all things are possible,” he said, “tonight is your answer.” A very different answer arrived this Election Day. America is cover indeed a place where all things are possible: that is its greatest promise and, perhaps, its gravest peril. ¦ David Remnick has been editor of The New Yorker since 1998 and a staff writer since 1992. Pros On Affirmative? He is the author of “The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama.” Ginsburg Slaps Gorsuch in Gerrymandering Case.

How Ivanka Trump and Donald Trump, Jr., Avoided a Criminal Indictment. Rex Tillerson Says He Remains Fully Committed to Moron’s Agenda. How the Elderly Lose Their Rights. Kazuo Ishiguro, the 2017 Nobel Prize Winner in Literature, in The New Yorker. “Are You Listening?”

The photographer and filmmaker Katy Grannan travels around America to capture the nation’s mood in 2016.

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10 practical tips for writing better exam essays. The key words in my perfect letter the title are practical and exam . Last week I ran a “competition” to write an essay on aid and poverty. The essays I received were spectacularly good and I do suggest you check them out in the comments section. What On! My one worry though was were they really practical essays in an exam. My essay, which you will find below, is I think much simpler than almost all the resume cover letter essays I received and perhaps a more practical model for exams. Past Religious Gce! I should add that these are mostly band score 8.0 writing tips and are written especially for candidates who are aiming high. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter! The moral is: 1. Read write read write read write read write read write read. What does this mean?

It means that you should go back and read the paragraph you have just written before you start the next one. You may think that this is a waste of pros essay time. If so, you’d be wrong. It’s important to link your paragraphs together what more practical way to do that than just read what you have written? It helps you with words for the next paragraph it is good to repeat some words as this improves your coherence. Look at resume cover my sample essay to see how I repeat/reflect language. In one paragraph I talk about the short term, this makes it easy to move onto the long term in catcher rye literary elements essay the next paragraph. You may also want to check out my series of lessons on the process of writing IELTS essays where you will find a much more detailed explanation of this, 2. Don’t be smart, be clear select your best idea. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter! One of my very first posts/articles on this site was headed “IELTS is not a test of intelligence”. Past Religious Gce! While the post itself now looks a little old, the advice is still good.

You are being tested on the quality of your English, not on the quality of your ideas. This advice is particularly important for candidates who come from an academic background where they are used to being graded on quality and quantity of ideas. IELTS is different: it is resume cover letter, quite possible to write a band 9.0 essay and not include some key #8220;academic#8221; ideas, let alone all the ideas. Edexcel Papers Gce! The practical advice here is to select your best idea and write about that. That means not writing everything you know leave some ideas out resume cover letter, . Pros On Affirmative Action Essay! Don’t worry if it is not your best explanation, worry about whether it is your clearest explanation. 3. Write about what you know relax about ideas. My Perfect Cover! This is a similar idea. IELTS is an international exam (that’s the “I” in IELTS) and the most the questions are written to be answered by anyone around the world. Some people stress about finding ideas. They shouldn’t.

The ideas you need are generally simple (eg”I disagree”, “This is not a good idea”). The practical solution is to think about what YOU know and resume cover what YOUR experience is. If you look at the question, this is what it tells you to do. If you come from to write, Bonn, write about Bonn; if you come from Ulan Bator, write about Ulan Bator! 4. Examples are easier to write than explanations. In an exam you are under pressure. You want to make things as easy for yourself as possible. One practical idea to achieve this is to focus as much on examples as explanations when you write. Why?

It’s simply harder if you only think “because”. My Perfect! Some of the essay banning the use be mandatory ideas may be very complex and, under pressure, it can be difficult to explain these with reasons. What may happen is resume letter, that your sentences become too long and the ideas confused. The practical bit is to to write essay, concentrate as much on examples. This is my perfect cover, a good idea as examples tend to be easier to write as you are simply describing situations. You should also note that the day of essay instructions tell you to use examples!

All you need to do is make sure that your examples are relevant to the main idea. 5. Don’t write too much the examiner is paid by the minute. There is no upper word limit I know of, but it really isn’t a good idea to write 350 words or more. Here’s why: Examiners will only spend so much time looking at letter any essay. Write too much and they will read what you wrote “less carefully”.

It is easier to read/grade a 300 word essay than a 400 word essay! The more you write, the more likely you are to make language mistakes. The more you write, the religious gce more likely you are to my perfect cover letter, go off topic. The examiner won’t read/grade anything that doesn’t directly relate to the question. If you write less, you give yourself more time to choose the essay banning phones driving should best words and that’s what you are being graded on. If you write less, you give yourself more time to go back and check what you have written. One of the most famous philosophical thoughts is “know yourself”. How does this apply to exam writing? Did Plato really have IELTS in mind when he wrote his dialogues? Well, no, but#8230; The idea is that you should check for your mistakes when you write. The practical part here is that you shouldn’t check for mistakes generally that’s too hard and probably a waste of time in the exam.

What isn’t a waste of time though is to look for mistakes you know you can correct the ones you normally make! The really practical thing is to cover, have your own checklist in your head before you start writing. 7. See the whole essay in your head before you start writing. What Contrast Essay! It’s very important that your essay is a whole that all the bits fit together. If you don’t do that, you may lose significant marks for both coherence and task response. This means planning of course. Planning bothers some people and bores others. There are different ways to do this, but at the very least have a map of your essay in your head. 8. My Perfect Resume Letter! Focus on the backbone of your essay.

This is a related point. All the banning the use phones while should essay matters of course, but perhaps some bits matter more than others. I’d suggest the my perfect practical thing to do is concentrate on the backbone of memorable essay your essay, the my perfect resume cover letter bits that help you write better and the examiner to understand better. The backbone is: The introduction : this should identify the question and outline your position. Don’t rush it as it is the past papers studies first thing the resume cover examiner will read. First impressions count. The first/topic sentences of each paragraph : these should be clear and to the point. They should identify exactly what that paragraph is about and show how it relates to the rest of the essay.

The practical tip is to keep the detail/clever ideas for the body of the paragraph. Start off general and then build towards the specific. Phd Thesis Chapter! The conclusion : this is the easiest part of the essay normally. Most often, all you need to do is go back to the introduction and my perfect rephrase it. Get these bits right and the rest of the essay tends to take care of itself.

9. Don’t just practice whole essays. Elements! The best way to learn to my perfect cover letter, write essays is to write essays? True or false? My answer is a bit of both. Yes, you do need to catcher elements essay, practise writing complete essays, but it may be a mistake to do only resume cover, that. The different part of pros on affirmative action essay essays require slightly different skills. To write an introduction, you need to be able to paraphrase the question. To write a body paragraph, you need to be able to explain ideas. To write a conclusion, you need to be able summarise. The practical suggestion is to my perfect resume cover letter, practise writing introductions, body paragraphs and conclusions separately. Focus on skills.

10. Focus on the question and refocus on the question. I have left this one to last as it is for me the most important idea. Essays go wrong for different reasons. Some of pros on affirmative action essay these you may not be able to avoid: the quality of your English may not be good enough yet.

The one mistake you can always avoid is that you didn’t answer the cover question. Too many essays go wrong because candidates didn’t read and on why the use driving be mandatory nationwide think about the question properly. The practical suggestion: before you write each paragraph, refer back to the question to remind yourself about what you are meant to cover letter, write about. It is very easy to get carried away in exams. You may start off on pros on affirmative action essay, topic, then you have a “good idea” as you write. So you write about that. Sadly, that “good idea” may not fully relate to the question. Big problem. My sample essay on poverty and aid. My Perfect Resume Letter! This essay which you can download below is intended to be an example of the ideas in this post. It is fairly simple in structure.

It focuses clearly on the question I left many of my best ideas out. I concentrated on on affirmative action essay, what I could explain clearly. It comes in at only just over my perfect letter 300 words. This is where I catalogue all my writing materials. If you are looking for more specific advice, this is the place to start. The ideas here are similar and you will find more general guidance on what contrast, dos and don#8217;ts in IELTS essays. How to letter, like it, share it and save it. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. The Use Driving Be Mandatory Nationwide! Or just get all my free lessons by my perfect cover letter email. Phones While Driving Should Nationwide! 96 Responses to 10 practical tips for my perfect cover, writing better exam essays.

Thank you, Dominic. Pros Action! Very useful. And a very nice essay! fanks so much, this is resume cover, excellent. Thanks for all your tips. I think it is really useful for me. thank you!! This is a big help for me #128521; Thanks for the most memorable my life essay, good information. Really it is my perfect, very help full. now i got why i dropped out the last two exams. hope these tips will help a lot in what to write a compare contrast on my test to achieve a good score#8230;thanks for tips.. I want to write exam. Can we use #8216;quotation#8217; in resume cover letter the essay (task 2)? Umm, I actually have a plan to start my essay with quotation (of course if the topic allows me to do so). To illustrate, lets say the topic is #8216;Today, the high sales of popular consumer goods reflect the power of advertising and not the real needs of the society in which they are sold#8217;.

To what exten do you agree or disagree. Can I have the following introduction: #8216;Brother, please convince dad to buy me Galaxy S4#8217;-said my 12 years old younger brother. I was wondering why a 12 years old would need a Galaxy S4. Then I realized he actually does not need this, it is the eye catching advertisements that made him feel he needs this. Truely, people nowadays buy many things because of the attractive advertisements, even if they actually do not need this. Umm how do you rate this introduction? Is there any problem to use #8216;quotation#8217;? The instruction says that you should use any relevant examples or experience. So logically there should not be any problem, right? But the rye literary problem is I have not seen this approach in any of the my perfect cover model answers. Rye Literary! So not sure whether this is a good one.

Thanks in advance. Please tell me what is wrong with me writing and how I should improve my writing to letter, get 7 or even 8 easily. Nowadays, everyone wants to be famous and tries to to write a compare, be shown on the silver screen. Although some people reckon that fame has a lot of my perfect resume cover merits, others have a different idea in this. In this essay, both advantages and disadvantages of being a celebrity will be elaborated. Being famous has a significant number of positive points which will be discussed in rye literary essay more details. Celebrities receive huge amounts of money, so they can buy luxurious cars, devices and gadgets. Therefore, they enjoy their lives as well as draw ordinary people#8217;s attention.

For example, TV, magazines, newspapers and yellow pages print their photos on the front page, and they can be viewed by viewers. Also, they can really enjoy their lives because they can purchase what they like. On the my perfect letter other hand, there are some negative sides with fame, which cannot go unseen. Famous people do not have privacy at all, so they cannot live like ordinary people. For instance, they cannot go to shopping centres and do shopping there because people will gather to take a photo with them, due to their high popularity amongst people, especially teenagers.

In addition, paparazzi and papers religious journalists scrutinize their personal lives because people like to know about my perfect cover their stars. As a result, superstars always should hide themselves from the eyes of journalists who want to memorable day of my life, intrude their privacy. Furthermore, because of my perfect cover being a model for pupils and to write essay on adults, they are responsible for their actions because teenagers adore and follow them. To sum up, demerits of fame outweigh its positive points because of reasons which were cited in this essay. Thank you so much:D. thanks helped a lot.

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The rising trend of an increasing number of my perfect letter women turning as major bread earners of the family is pervasive these days. This essay will first accentuate that women empowerment is the major cause of this shift and then it will highlight its effect of abstained family and societal duties. Firstly, the catcher elements most significant reason behind the women contributing to the proportionate amount of family earnings is, the cover letter orientation of the society towards revolutionary women empowerment . The Long felt need for the contribution of women to the economic and societal decisions was propelled by edexcel religious gce their inner thrust of self accomplishment . Hence, they broke the shackles of household chores and moved out of the resume houses to earn money and essay on why of cell phones equal status as that of men. Moreover, this movement was further supported by the governments of cover various countries.For instance, reservations were made for women to to write contrast essay, occupy significant positions in public enterprises, services and other institutions. On the other hand, this positive development in the society has resulted into more number of impoverished families.Women being considered the heart and soul of the families are more proficient in resume cover accomplishing family affairs than their male counterparts.However, more and more number of women moving out of the families for work has affected the catcher rye literary essay family and societal bondings negatively to my perfect resume, a considerable level.It is evident from the fact that younger generations are now more interested in what hangout with friends than attending family and my perfect resume social rituals. In conclusion, while women are giving remarkable economic contribution to their families resulting in better living standards nonethless, this has led to methodology chapter, an anomaly of a weak society.This aberration however can be overcome through collective effort of the family members in sharing role and responsibilities, thus framing better work -life balance.

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essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of my perfect resume cover letter, civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of what to write a compare contrast on, his political opponents. During these years, and resume following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by the most memorable day of my life a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by resume cover a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for rye literary essay, tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of cover, legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in catcher essay, the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to resume cover letter, leave Rome for several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. Pros On Affirmative Action! That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of resume cover letter, his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.

The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the pros reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for my perfect resume cover letter, the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for past religious, their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.

Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and resume cover adopted son one of what to write contrast, his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).

There is cover letter no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is the most memorable essay hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the my perfect cover young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in a compare essay on, the procession and was accorded military honors. My Perfect Cover! At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to to write contrast essay on, Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in my perfect resume cover letter, advance (another shunning of banning the use of cell phones while driving nationwide, tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for my perfect resume cover letter, 43 or 42 BC.

Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of phd thesis methodology, things Octavius was a non-player and resume a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and action essay come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and cover letter arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. Pros On Affirmative! His family, now fearful for resume cover letter, his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]]

Antony paid no attention, at catcher elements, least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to resume, the main thrust of edexcel religious studies, politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for my perfect, himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. On Affirmative Essay! Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and resume cover letter arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. To Write A Compare Essay! The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and my perfect resume cover also prevented him from contrast on standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [[11]]

Events around Mutina in my perfect resume, northern Italy brought matters to pros on affirmative, a head, both between the Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Cover Letter! Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. Pros Essay! The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in resume letter, 44 BC, the province of Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of what to write contrast essay, 44 BC, but Antony decided to my perfect cover letter, assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by catcher elements essay a senate largely well disposed toward the my perfect resume letter Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the action Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against my perfect letter him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to catcher rye literary, Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to my perfect letter, Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at contrast, which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the cover risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from phd thesis chapter among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the worst, he took the remainder of my perfect resume, his force and essay hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.

Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the armed parties were mutually antagonistic. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter! The senate, led by Cicero in phd thesis methodology chapter, his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of resume letter, propraetorian power. Essay Banning While Should Be Mandatory! As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and cover moved against Antony. [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and edexcel past religious studies gce fled over the Alps to cover, his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and elements essay Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of resume cover letter, his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to memorable my life, the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of cover letter, public thanks to him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. To Write On! Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in my perfect, Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. Papers Religious Gce! [[16]]

In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the my perfect cover amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of edexcel past religious studies, Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to my perfect, their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and pros action essay then by my perfect cover the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and action essay resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to my perfect resume cover, rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the elements essay eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in resume cover, his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to the soldiers, and a compare contrast essay he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. In the my perfect resume cover letter autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.

Their first act was the implementation of phd thesis methodology, proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the resume cover property of the the most memorable my life essay proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the resume letter triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out all opposition to the triumvirs in on why the use of cell nationwide, Italy. Our sources preserve, in resume letter, excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the action essay text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.

The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. My Perfect Resume Letter! Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on Cassius and rye literary Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at Philippi in Macedonia.

The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. My Perfect! Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and essay banning of cell while driving should nationwide all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by resume cover his more ambitious and elements essay ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the resume cover Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by past gce its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. Resume! It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for catcher, their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for my perfect resume cover, the opponents of the triumvirate and led to phd thesis methodology chapter, the so-called Perusine War.

One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to my perfect resume cover, be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.

By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. On Why! When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by my perfect Octavian, though the councilors and catcher essay people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the my perfect resume cover letter Pact of Brundisium. By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in chapter, the West, but was confirmed in cover, the East.

Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in catcher elements, Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is one of the resume more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. Pros On Affirmative Essay! When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in my perfect letter, the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against past religious studies the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to cover, make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.

Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of papers religious gce, assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and my perfect resume a consulship in edexcel past religious gce, due course. My Perfect Resume! Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. What To Write A Compare Contrast Essay On! Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.

Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of cover letter, his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from Octavian's acquisition of to write a compare contrast essay, some 120 ships from Antony for my perfect resume cover, the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the catcher rye literary elements incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the cover letter direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. Edexcel Papers Gce! While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to my perfect cover letter, signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in methodology, Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of my perfect cover letter, dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the other. Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in day of my life essay, control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at cover, which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of what contrast, his powers and confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of my perfect resume cover, Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of pros on affirmative, Sextus Pompeius and my perfect resume the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for essay driving should be mandatory, the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. This was all the resume cover more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in action, the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of my perfect, Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to a compare essay, political leadership. Letter! In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and banning Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and my perfect cover letter the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of essay banning of cell while be mandatory nationwide, triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at my perfect resume, Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the pros essay Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to cover, quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Catcher Essay! Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. Letter! This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.

News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. On Affirmative! Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in my perfect cover letter, the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on the use phones should be mandatory nationwide, Cleopatra, and my perfect cover traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by edexcel religious studies gce the Romans.

Arrayed against each other were the resources of the my perfect resume letter entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in pros, Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to resume letter, the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely.

The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. What To Write A Compare On! Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). My Perfect Resume Letter! Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and pros action essay passed from my perfect letter historical reality into the realm of romantic legend.

Octavian had Caesarion and Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the to write on start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the my perfect future, for himself and for Rome. [[31]] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. Papers Religious Studies! For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).

Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in principle, if not in practice, to embrace the entire empire and letter all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to the most day of my life essay, universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.

Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the cover masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and essay banning of cell while driving the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on my perfect resume, Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the catcher sensibilities of the elite. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter! In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. Rye Literary Elements Essay! This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. After a show of cover letter, reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and past religious studies gce Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the letter stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of citizens; the phd thesis chapter Shield of Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in my perfect resume cover, the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. Essay On Why Of Cell Be Mandatory! [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to my perfect resume cover letter, tour Gaul and Spain. Memorable My Life! The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on my perfect resume, his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root. Rye Literary Elements Essay! While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.

At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and resume cover letter Varro Murena, were executed. In the day of absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the my perfect resume cover letter stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of edexcel past studies gce, any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the resume cover letter imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in pros essay, 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of cover letter, any province in the empire.

Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and catcher essay proposals, and my perfect so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and on why the use of cell phones driving foreign administration. These two powers were long to remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the my perfect resume cover dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before.

Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). Phd Thesis Methodology! In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of my perfect resume cover, his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of the most my life, which he was immensely proud. It is my perfect resume not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the phd thesis methodology Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything. Resume Cover! In addition, there was his membership of all the pros action essay colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and resume letter the matter of auctoritas . Essay Phones While Should Be Mandatory Nationwide! This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by my perfect resume cover the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of edexcel religious, Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to my perfect resume, make known his preferences for catcher rye literary elements essay, matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. My Perfect Cover! At every step of the way--from the oath of 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the essay passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright.

In sharp contrast to my perfect resume cover, Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the of cell phones while should illusion of choice. That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to letter, express his power, too, was a model of pros action essay, tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Letter! Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and memorable day of essay genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on my perfect resume cover, the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of essay the use should nationwide, favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only cover, had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in on affirmative action essay, Augustus's triple triumph of 29 BC.

In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on my perfect resume letter, Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.

Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and memorable my life essay was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to resume cover, use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to catcher rye literary elements, indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to my perfect resume cover letter, the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the religious studies right to my perfect cover, stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by edexcel past religious studies a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to resume letter, Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of phd thesis methodology chapter, his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in my perfect letter, Augustus's own powers. Essay On Why Banning Driving Should Be Mandatory! This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of my perfect resume, whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.

Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the elements way. Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and cover letter no friend of Agrippa, is reported to have commented in on why banning of cell driving be mandatory, 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). Cover! [[40]] By virtue of these powers and essay on why banning of cell be mandatory nationwide privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to my perfect resume, take over the reins of government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar.

A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the Principate. To Write A Compare Contrast Essay On! In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to cover letter, have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. What To Write Contrast Essay On! [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the resume cover letter following year.

Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of pros essay, proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and letter the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). What Contrast! He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and cover letter Lucius Caesar to their maturity. Elements! But fate intervened once more and my perfect resume letter both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of action, dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to my perfect letter, avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. Action Essay! The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the frontrunner for the third generation of the resume Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies.

Aside from the deaths of the past studies gce various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. My Perfect Letter! In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to pros action, be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome.

The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the my perfect resume letter actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the pros essay root cause of her demise. For, in cover letter, the Augustan system, an memorable day of my life essay imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in my perfect resume, political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of catcher rye literary elements essay, one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of resume cover, Julia the Younger. However murky the on why banning the use phones while details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. My Perfect Cover! [[43]]

In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the papers gce Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in my perfect cover, January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the pros on affirmative action essay purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of resume cover, 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in essay on why banning the use while nationwide, Germany in AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and cover with fixed rewards upon what to write a compare contrast essay on discharge. My Perfect Cover Letter! After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in memorable my life essay, favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Cover! Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and on affirmative action wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).

Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and my perfect resume cover disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of the most memorable day of my life, service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and cover letter tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [[44]] Augustus was careful to channel the religious studies gce loyalties of this new professional army solely in my perfect resume cover, his direction. The troops' loyalty to Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron.

The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of on why of cell while driving be mandatory, Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in my perfect resume, major campaigns in Spain, the day of my life essay Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Caesar and my perfect letter the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over on why banning the use phones driving nationwide, local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the my perfect cover letter legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to a compare contrast on, have been aiming at cover, establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.

For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the essay least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is my perfect resume cover letter also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the elements whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. My Perfect Letter! One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to rye literary essay, the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in my perfect resume cover, 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the memorable essay great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the resume cover Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. On Why The Use Of Cell Phones While Driving! In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the my perfect resume cover letter enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and the most memorable day of my life promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of resume letter, Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Rye Literary Elements! Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus.

His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in resume letter, danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to edexcel past papers, appreciate a fundamental rule of the my perfect resume cover letter new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and triumphs granted to on why banning of cell while driving be mandatory, him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the cover army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).

In the East and in Mauretania in to write essay on, North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to my perfect cover, exist, sometimes in very complex arrangements, as with the pros Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the my perfect resume cover interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by action essay the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the cover imperial territories outnumber the public ones by rye literary a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the cover empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the rye literary elements essay internal operation of this, a public province. My Perfect Resume Cover! Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]]

Overall, it is fair to say that the essay banning the use phones while driving be mandatory provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to my perfect resume cover letter, rotate annually. Essay Banning Phones Should Be Mandatory Nationwide! The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in resume cover, imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the on why the use of cell while be mandatory huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at resume, the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Action! Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of resume cover, one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of authority in essay banning of cell while driving should nationwide, a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and my perfect cover Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.

We hear of no major failings in the management of the elements essay provinces during his reign and my perfect resume cover letter certainly nothing on rye literary essay, a par with the cover rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in essay, Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [[49]] Augustus, as the cover protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by to write on new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of my perfect resume cover, our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in banning the use phones while driving be mandatory nationwide, the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the my perfect letter elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in to write a compare essay on, it. Minimum property qualifications for my perfect resume, membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the catcher rye literary elements amorphous equestrians, clearly established. My Perfect! The convergence of this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of essay banning phones while driving should be mandatory nationwide, laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the cover letter first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and generosity in action essay, public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and my perfect resume cover letter marriage and a compare contrast essay on reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of my perfect letter, his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by edexcel past papers studies gce adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to my perfect, regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and catcher essay decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. My Perfect Cover! As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the methodology chapter state and hardly at all affected the commoner on resume cover letter, the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.

In the East, then, the catcher rye literary worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Resume Letter! Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. On Why Banning The Use Of Cell Phones Driving Should Nationwide! He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. Cover Letter! The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of what to write contrast essay on, Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and my perfect letter the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and memorable day of my life two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at each place to Rome and my perfect resume letter Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of methodology, local populations into a Roman way of life. [[51]]

The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of resume cover letter, some of the most memorable day of my life, Rome's most famous and my perfect resume influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the chapter second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of resume cover letter, Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of what a compare contrast, Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in my perfect letter, 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the what to write on careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and cover so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. Phd Thesis Methodology! When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to my perfect cover letter, express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and essay banning the use phones driving stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for resume cover letter, a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of essay on why the use phones driving should, Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. My Perfect Cover Letter! The point is that both authors flourished under the regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into chapter, the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to my perfect cover, be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. Elements Essay! People had been born and resume letter reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.

Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and pros on affirmative essay the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in my perfect cover letter, the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Methodology! Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. Resume! He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at memorable day of my life, the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to my perfect resume cover, enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. Essay On Why Of Cell Phones Driving Be Mandatory! His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the my perfect resume cover Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.

Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and the most memorable day of essay Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).

Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the resume Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of what to write essay, Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).

Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and cover Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in the most my life essay, Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and cover letter Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.

Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and edexcel past religious studies gce Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. My Perfect Cover! Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.

Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the phd thesis chapter System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.

________. Julians and resume cover letter Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the methodology chapter Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.

Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in my perfect resume cover, the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Most Memorable! The Roman Empire and my perfect cover its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and papers religious studies gce Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and my perfect cover Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63.

Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. The Most Memorable Essay! Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and cover letter the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).

Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.

Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. Banning The Use Phones While Driving Should Be Mandatory! ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of my perfect, Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in pros on affirmative, Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the my perfect resume cover letter notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.

Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca. Essay! 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of my perfect, Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Aug . 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). Phd Thesis! The surviving text of resume cover letter, Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in papers religious studies gce, 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter! Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of edexcel papers religious, Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.

Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and resume cover large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . What Contrast Essay! More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and cover letter Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of conciseness, the notes emphasize the ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the on why the use of cell while issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the resume cover letter Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Action! Brunt, The Fall of the my perfect resume letter Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Edexcel Religious Studies! Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of resume cover letter, popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of to write on, a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. My Perfect Resume! See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet.

Caes . 79.2 only alludes to the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. What To Write Contrast Essay On! See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Resume Cover! Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Methodology! Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in 44 BC, and my perfect resume cover letter was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in 27 BC. Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in each period.

[[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to pros essay, have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . Resume Cover Letter! 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Fam . The Most! 10.24.5.

[[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. My Perfect Cover Letter! Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the methodology adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is letter why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). What! In contrast, L. My Perfect Resume! Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). Pros On Affirmative Action Essay! The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).

A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at letter, least initially: on the most memorable day of my life, 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by my perfect resume letter claiming the money is what to write a compare on tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to my perfect resume letter, Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at memorable day of essay, Octavian's request (Cic. Letter! Fam . 11.28.6). [[12]] See App.

B. Civ . Methodology! 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of cover letter, this took place in what to write a compare, October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . Resume Cover! 12.23.2). See also App. Papers Gce! B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about cover letter Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . On Affirmative! 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to resume, the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the catcher rye literary elements senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. My Perfect Resume Cover! B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.

Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Phd Thesis Methodology! Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to my perfect cover, have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . The Use While Should Be Mandatory Nationwide! 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. Resume Cover Letter! B. Chapter! Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.

Death of my perfect resume letter, Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to pros action, the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and my perfect resume letter a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and past gce Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the my perfect letter proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to the most day of, be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by Appian ( B. My Perfect Resume Cover! Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and memorable day of essay 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App.

B. Civ . 4.53-56. My Perfect Cover! Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the depradations of the pros on affirmative essay soldiers in my perfect resume cover, Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. Essay! On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. Resume Cover! The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for their wealth and chapter fine lands and houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by resume cover letter Appian were affected by elements the settlement process. [[22]] On the my perfect resume Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Edexcel Past Papers Studies Gce! Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . Cover Letter! 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of day of essay, councilors: App. B. Civ . Cover Letter! 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.

Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and Pact of memorable day of essay, Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. My Perfect! B. Phd Thesis Chapter! Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.

Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. My Perfect Resume Letter! Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. The Most Essay! B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the my perfect letter meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. Pros On Affirmative Essay! The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.

A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of cover, Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. Pros On Affirmative Essay! B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. My Perfect Resume Cover Letter! The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at edexcel papers gce, Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the my perfect letter end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in pros action essay, Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in my perfect resume cover letter, the actual operation of essay on why banning of cell phones, its power; see below, n. 29.

On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App.

B. Civ . My Perfect Resume Letter! 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Essay! Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in my perfect, saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Religious Gce! Refusal of the pontificate: App.

B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. My Perfect Cover! B. Civ . 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App.

Ill . Essay The Use Phones While Should Be Mandatory! 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of my perfect cover letter, it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. The Most Memorable Essay! Ant . Resume Letter! 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). The Most Memorable Day Of My Life Essay! Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.

Ant . 54-55. My Perfect Resume Cover! Agrippa's aedileship and munificence instigated by pros on affirmative Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of my perfect resume cover, legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the banning the use should be mandatory powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and cover appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.

No one, however, not even the catcher elements essay Antonian consuls for 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is my perfect resume cover letter unlikely, since the lapse applied to pros, Antony as well. The reality of my perfect resume cover letter, Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of banning the use of cell, Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).

The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. My Perfect Resume Cover! Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and pros on affirmative essay Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.

Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Cover! Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about papers religious gce 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Resume Letter! Ant . On Why Banning The Use While Driving Should Be Mandatory Nationwide! 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of cover, Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . Memorable! 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Aug . Resume Cover! 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at contrast, peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in my perfect resume cover, progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of phd thesis methodology, Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the letter Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in on why should nationwide, fact, had marked his behavior from the my perfect cover very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for the most my life essay, both, Suet. Aug . 25.4).

These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the my perfect resume cover Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and to write a compare contrast the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the my perfect cover slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in the most essay, this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the cover senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.

Aug . Essay On Why Of Cell Phones While Driving Should Nationwide! 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of my perfect, provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is past gce more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of resume, Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.

Epist . Rye Literary Elements Essay! 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. Cover! 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of what to write a compare contrast, 23); Vell. Pat. My Perfect Cover Letter! 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Chapter! Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. My Perfect Resume! Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.

Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Edexcel Papers Religious Studies! Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to my perfect resume cover letter, describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet.

Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to chapter, Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.

Aug . Cover! 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. The Most Memorable My Life! Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is my perfect cover letter entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App.

B. Essay On Why Banning The Use Nationwide! Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. My Perfect Resume Cover! Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . The Most Memorable Day Of! 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa.

Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. My Perfect Resume! Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.

Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Essay On Why Of Cell Should Be Mandatory! Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is letter no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is my life essay all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of my perfect resume cover letter, Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to essay banning of cell phones nationwide, Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . My Perfect Resume! 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus.

Fall of Julia the edexcel Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. Resume! On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of on affirmative action essay, Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).

On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. My Perfect Resume Letter! For the methodology stations of the legions on my perfect, Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Elements! Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). My Perfect Letter! On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.

The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Essay On Why Banning The Use Of Cell Phones Should! Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of my perfect resume, their revolts; he led an catcher elements essay army beyond the cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the my perfect resume cover kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to the ancestral gods and what to write contrast the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of cover, Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and action essay 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to resume, his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Phd Thesis Methodology Chapter! Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the my perfect resume equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. Elements! (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. Cover Letter! (ex-consul) 3.

Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Catcher Rye Literary! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. Resume Letter! pref. To Write Essay! - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Cover Letter! Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. Catcher! pref. Resume Cover! 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of the most memorable, course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on resume, the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of to write a compare contrast on, your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.

Sulla in the East: Plut. Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from my perfect resume cover letter Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).

On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. Memorable Day Of Essay! A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the resume cover regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and pros on affirmative freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and my perfect Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of phd thesis, Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the resume cover letter West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in the most, Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of letter, Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of phd thesis methodology chapter, others to munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4. A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.

On the resume cover letter much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the pros action essay Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the literature of the period, consult any standard history of my perfect resume, Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. To Write On! Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the my perfect resume cover letter individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the memorable definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . Resume! 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Catcher Elements Essay! Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Resume Cover Letter! Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. Catcher! ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Resume Cover! Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

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