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bible article review Stay informed of upcoming events and in third person about, news. CURRENT REDEEMER REPORT | ARTICLES BY AUTHOR | REDEEMER REPORT ARCHIVE | REDEEMER REPORT PDF ARCHIVE. The Bible and same sex relationships: A review article. The relationship of homosexuality to Christianity is one of the main topics of discussion in our culture today. In the de montaigne sparknotes, fall of last year I wrote a review of books by Wesley Hill and Sam Allberry that take the historic Christian view, in Hill’s words: “that homosexuality was not God’s original creative intention for humanity . and therefore that homosexual practice goes against in third person, God’s express will for all human beings, especially those who trust in Christ.” There are a number of other books that take the opposite my essay for free view, namely that the Bible either allows for or supports same sex relationships. Over the last year or so I (and other pastors at Redeemer) have been regularly asked for responses to their arguments. The two most read volumes taking this position seem to be those by Matthew Vines and in third yourself, Ken Wilson. The review of these two books will be longer than usual because the topic is so contested today and, while I disagree with the authors’ theses, a too-brief review can’t avoid appearing cursory and thesis quality management, dismissive.
Hence the length. I see six basic arguments that these books and others like them make. Vines and Wilson relate stories of people who were sure that the essay person about yourself, Bible condemned homosexuality. However, they were brought to a change of degree, mind through getting to know gay people personally. It is certainly important for Christians who are not gay to hear the hearts and essay about yourself, stories of people who are attracted to the same sex. And when I see people discarding their older beliefs that homosexuality is sinful after engaging with loving, wise, gay people, I’m inclined to dissertation nursing degree agree that those earlier views were likely defective.
In fact, they must have been essentially a form of bigotry. They could not have been based on theological or ethical principles, or on an understanding of essay in third yourself, historical biblical teaching. They must have been grounded instead on school essay a stereotype of gay people as worse sinners than others (which is itself a shallow theology of sin.) So I say good riddance to bigotry. However, the reality of bigotry cannot itself prove that the Bible never forbids homosexuality. We have to look to the text to determine that. Vines and essay in third about, Wilson claim that scholarly research into the historical background show that biblical authors were not forbidding all same sex relationships, but only exploitative ones — pederasty, prostitution, and me write my essay, rape. Their argument is that Paul and other biblical writers had no concept of an innate homosexual orientation, that they only in third person about, knew of exploitative homosexual practices, and therefore they had no concept of mutual, loving, same-sex relationships. These arguments were first asserted in the 1980s by John Boswell and Robin Scroggs. Vines, Wilson and ethical framework essays, others are essentially repopularizing them. However, they do not seem to be aware that the great preponderance of the in third person yourself, best historical scholarship since the 1980s — by michel sparknotes, the full spectrum of secular, liberal and conservative researchers — has rejected that assertion.
Here are two examples. Bernadette Brooten and William Loader have presented strong evidence that homosexual orientation was known in antiquity. Aristophanes' speech in essay in third person about yourself, Plato's Symposium , for example, tells a story about how Zeus split the original human beings in half, creating both heterosexual and homosexual humans, each of which were seeking to be reunited to their “lost halves” — heterosexuals seeking the opposite sex and homosexuals the same sex. Whether Aristophanes believed this myth literally is not the point. It was an explanation of a phenomenon the ancients could definitely see — that some people are inherently attracted to the same sex rather than the opposite sex. Contra Vines, et al, the ancients also knew about mutual, non-exploitative same sex relationships. In Romans 1, Paul describes homosexuality as men burning with passion “for one another” (verse 27). Dissertation Nursing Degree. That is mutuality. Such a term could not represent rape, nor prostitution, nor pederasty (man/boy relationships).
Paul could have used terms in Romans 1 that specifically designated those practices, but he did not. He categorically condemns all sexual relations between people of the same sex, both men and women. In Third Yourself. Paul knew about mutual same-sex relationships, and the ancients knew of homosexual orientation. Nonetheless “Nothing indicates that Paul is help me write my essay for free, exempting some same-sex intercourse as acceptable.” (Loader, Making Sense of Sex , p.137). In Third Person. I urge readers to familiarize themselves with this research. A good place to start is the Kindle book by high school essay, William Loader Sexuality in the New Testament (2010) or his much larger The New Testament on Sexuality (2012). Loader is the in third yourself, most prominent expert on counselling ancient and biblical views of sexuality, having written five large and two small volumes in in third person about yourself, his lifetime. It is worth noting that Loader himself does not personally see anything wrong with homosexual relationships; he just — rightly and definitively — proves that you can’t get the Bible itself to dissertation degree give them any support. Essay In Third Yourself. A third line of reasoning in these volumes and help me write, others like them involves recategorization.
In the essay in third yourself, past, homosexuality was categorized by all Christian churches and theology as sin. However, many argue that homosexuality should be put in the same category as slavery and segregation. Vines writes, for example, that the essays, Bible supported slavery and that most Christians used to believe that some form of slavery was condoned by the Bible, but we have now come to person about yourself see that all slavery is wrong. School. Therefore, just as Christians interpreted the Bible to support segregation and slavery until times changed, so Christians should change their interpretations about homosexuality as history moves forward. But historians such as Mark Noll ( America’s God , 2005 and The Civil War as a Theological Crisis , 2006) have shown the 19th century position some people took that the in third person about, Bible condoned race-based chattel slavery was highly controversial and dissertation nursing degree, never a consensus. Most Protestants in essay person, Canada and Britain (and many in the northern U.S. states) condemned it as being wholly against the Scripture. Rodney Stark ( For the Glory of on total management, God , 2003) points out that the Catholic church also came out early against in third yourself, the African slave trade.
David L. Nursing Degree. Chappell in his history of the Civil Rights Movement ( A Stone of Hope , 2003) went further. He proves that even before the Supreme Court decisions of the mid-50s, almost no one was promoting the slender and essay in third, forced biblical justifications for racial superiority and segregation. Even otherwise racist theologians and ministers could not find a basis for white supremacy in the Bible. So we see the analogy between the thesis on total quality, church’s view of essay in third person yourself, slavery and its view of homosexuality breaks down. Up until very recently, all Christian churches and flying airplane, theologians unanimously read the Bible as condemning homosexuality. By contrast, there was never any consensus or even a majority of churches that thought slavery and about, segregation were supported by the Bible. David Chappell shows that even within the segregationist South, efforts to support racial separation from the Bible collapsed within a few years. Help. Does anyone really think that within a few years from now there will be no one willing to defend the traditional view of sexuality from biblical texts? The answer is surely no.
This negates the in third yourself, claim that the number, strength, and clarity of those biblical texts supposedly supporting slavery and those texts condemning homosexuality are equal, and equally open to changed interpretations. Wilson puts forward a different form of the me write, recategorization argument when he says the issue of same-sex relations in the church is like issues of divorce and in third person about yourself, remarriage, Christian participation in war, or the use of in vitro fertilization. Research Flying Paper. We can extend that list to include matters such as women’s roles in yourself, ministry and counselling ethical framework, society, as well as views of baptism, charismatic gifts, and so on. These are “issues where good Christians differ.” We may believe that another Christian with a different view of divorce is seriously wrong, but we don’t say this means his or her view undermines orthodox Christian faith. Wilson, Vines, and many others argue that same-sex relations must now be put into this category. Since we see that there are sincere Christians who disagree over this, it is said, we should “agree to disagree” on this. However history shows that same-sex relations do not belong in this category, either. Essay Person About. Around each of the other items on Wilson’s list there are long-standing and historical divisions within the church. There have always been substantial parts of the church that came to help me write my essay for free different positions on these issues. But until very, very recently, there had been complete unanimity about homosexuality in the church across all centuries, cultures, and even across major divisions of the Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant traditions. So homosexuality is categorically different.
One has to person ask, then, why is flying airplane, it the person about yourself, case that literally no church, theologian, or Christian thinker or movement ever thought that any kind of same sex relationships was allowable until now? One answer to the question is an ironic one. During the Civil War, British Presbyterian biblical scholars told their southern American colleagues who supported slavery that they were reading the high school advice, Scriptural texts through cultural blinders. They wanted to find evidence for their views in the Bible and voila — they found it. If no Christian reading the Bible — across diverse cultures and times — ever previously discovered support for same-sex relationships in the Bible until today, it is in third about yourself, hard not to wonder if many now have new cultural spectacles on, having a strong predisposition to find in these texts evidence for degree, the views they already hold.
What are those cultural spectacles? The reason that homosexual relationships make so much more sense to in third person about people today than in previous times is because they have absorbed late modern western culture’s narratives about the human life. Our society presses its members to believe “you have to be yourself,” that sexual desires are crucial to personal identity, that any curbing of strong sexual desires leads to dissertation psychological damage, and that individuals should be free to live as they alone see fit. These narratives have been well analyzed by person about, scholars such as Robert Bellah and Charles Taylor. They are beliefs about the nature of reality that are not self-evident to most societies and they carry no more empirical proof than any other religious beliefs. They are also filled with inconsistencies and degree, problems. Both Vines and Wilson largely assume these cultural narratives. It is these faith assumptions about identity and freedom that make the straightforward reading of the biblical texts seem so wrong to them.
They are the underlying reason for their views, but they are never identified or discussed. Person About. Vines and Wilson claim that they continue to hold to a high view of ethical, biblical authority, and that they believe the in third yourself, Bible is completely true, but that they don’t think it teaches all same-sex relations are wrong. Vines argues that while the Levitical code forbids homosexuality (Leviticus 18:22) it also forbids eating shellfish (Leviticus 11:9-12). Yet, he says, Christians no longer regard eating shellfish as wrong — so why can’t we change our minds on high advice essay homosexuality? Here Vines is rejecting the New Testament understanding that the ceremonial laws of Moses around the sacrificial system and ritual purity were fulfilled in Christ and no longer binding, but that the moral law of the Old Testament is still in person about, force. Hebrews 10:16, for example, tells us that the Holy Spirit writes “God’s laws” on Christians’ hearts (so they are obviously still in force), even though that same book of the Bible tells us that some of those Mosaic laws — the ceremonial — are no longer in binding on us.
This view has been accepted by all branches of the school, church since New Testament times. When Vines refuses to about yourself accept this ancient distinction between the ceremonial and help, moral law, he is essay person about yourself, doing much more than simply giving us an alternative interpretation of the Old Testament — he is radically revising what biblical authority means. When he says “Christians no longer regard eating shellfish as wrong,” and then applies this to homosexuality (though assuming that Leviticus 19:18 — the Golden Rule — is still in force), he is assuming that it is Christians themselves, not the flying paper, Bible, who have the right to decide which parts of the Bible are essentially now out of date. That decisively shifts the ultimate authority to define right and wrong onto the individual Christian and away from the biblical text. The traditional view is this: Yes, there are things in in third person yourself, the Bible that Christians no longer have to follow but, if the Scripture is our final authority, it is only the Bible itself that can tell us what those things are. The prohibitions against homosexuality are re-stated in the New Testament (Romans 1, 1 Corinthians 6, 1 Timothy 1) but Jesus himself (Mark 7), as well as the essays, rest of the New Testament, tells us that the clean laws and ceremonial code is no longer in force. Vines asserts that he maintains a belief in biblical authority, but with arguments like this one he is actually undermining it.
This represents a massive shift in historic Christian theology and life. More explicit in essay about yourself, Wilson’s volume than Vines' is the common argument that history is counselling ethical, moving toward greater freedom and equality for essay in third person about, individuals, and so refusing to accept same-sex relationships is a futile attempt to stop inevitable historical development. Wilson says that the “complex forces” of michel de montaigne sparknotes, history showed Christians that they were wrong about slavery and something like that is happening now with homosexuality. Charles Taylor, however, explains how this idea of in third person yourself, inevitable historical progress developed out of the research, Enlightenment optimism about human nature and in third person, reason. It is another place where these writers seem to uncritically adopt background understandings that are foreign to the Bible. If we believe in the Bible’s authority, then shifts in public opinion should not matter. Essays. The Christian faith will always be offensive to every culture at some points. And besides, if you read Eric Kaufmann’s Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth? (2010) and essay person, follow the latest demographic research, you will know that the world is not inevitably becoming more secular. The percentage of the world’s population that are non-religious, and that put emphasis on michel individuals determining their own moral values, is shrinking. The more conservative religious faiths are growing very fast.
No one studying these trends believes that history is moving in the direction of more secular societies. The saddest thing for me as a reader was how, in essay about yourself, books on the Bible and for free, sex, Vines and in third person, Wilson concentrated almost wholly on nursing degree the biblical negatives, the in third person about, prohibitions against homosexual practice, instead of giving sustained attention to nursing the high, (yes) glorious Scriptural vision of sexuality. Both authors rightly say that the Bible calls for mutual loving relationships in marriage, but it points to far more than that. In Genesis 1 you see pairs of different but complementary things made to work together: heaven and earth, sea and land, even God and humanity. It is part of the brilliance of God’s creation that diverse, unlike things are made to unite and create dynamic wholes which generate more and more life and essay person about yourself, beauty through their relationships. As N.T. Wright points out, the creation and uniting of help me write my essay for free, male and female at the end of Genesis 2 is the climax of all this. That means that male and female have unique, non-interchangeable glories — they each see and do things that the other cannot. Sex was created by God to be a way to mingle these strengths and glories within a life-long covenant of marriage.
Marriage is the essay about yourself, most intense (though not the counselling framework essays, only) place where this reunion of essay person, male and ethical essays, female takes place in human life. Male and female reshape, learn from, and work together. Therefore, in one of the great ironies of late modern times, when we celebrate diversity in so many other cultural sectors, we have truncated the ultimate unity-in-diversity: inter-gendered marriage. Without understanding this vision, the sexual prohibitions in the Bible make no sense. In Third About Yourself. Homosexuality does not honor the need for this rich diversity of perspective and gendered humanity in sexual relationships. Same-sex relationships not only counselling framework, cannot provide this for each spouse, they can’t provide children with a deep connection to about each half of humanity through a parent of research paper, each gender. This review has been too brief to give these authors the credit they are due for maintaining a respectful and essay person yourself, gracious tone throughout. We live in a time in which civility and love in these discussions is fast going away, and I am thankful the authors are not part of the angry, caustic flow. In this regard they are being good examples, but because I think their main points are wrong, I have had to concentrate on them as I have in this review.
I hope I have done so with equal civility.
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My Experience with Dirt Bike Riding. Dirt Bikes Vroooommm. De Montaigne Essays? Let's get ready to in third person, ride! Well, here we go! Dirt bike riding can be fun and exciting. Thesis Quality Management? There are many different types of . Essay About Yourself? dirt biking on and off the road. Some of the different organized sports are Motocross , Supercross, Trials, and Enduro. Dirt bikes are built differently then regular motorcycles. Research Flying? Dirt bikes are built to about yourself, handle rough treatment like riding up steep hills and through mud.
Now let's take a ride and quality management learn about the history of in third yourself dirt bike riding. . Bicycle , Motocross , United States 496 Words | 2 Pages. dangers put them at risk of being hurt.” This was a quote from Meg Cabot in michel de montaigne, 2002. This quote fits well with motocross . Motocross . is a way of in third person yourself life for most people that partake in it. The thrill of research airplane racing someone so close that you could tap them on their opposite in third about yourself shoulder, 20 feet in the air, is what we, the motocross racers, live for. Essays? For those uninformed of what motocross is, I will explain. Motocross is competition dirt bike racing which takes place on either large outdoor tracks, or indoor tracks during. Competition , Motocross , Race 938 Words | 2 Pages. Product and Services • Dirt Bike company produces an off road racing type Motorcycle, The four models they produce are : the Enduro 250, the essay in third person about Enduro 550, the . Moto 300 and dissertation the Moto 450. The two Enduros are endurance racers, while the Motos are for motocross racing. All four are very modern, with such technology as both kick and electric starters, steering stabilizers, and liquid cooling. • Dirt Bike company sells their product using network of authorize dealer with branches that concentrated in about, the.
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KTM sponsored over essay in third about yourself, 50 world championship titles in sparknotes, Motocross and Enduro (their two major products) and in third about also had successes in Rally, Supermoto, and US Supercross. KTM was particularly well known for its performance in Paris, France – Dakar, Senegal race (12,000km race through the mountains and deserts over. Brand , Ducati , Honda 3661 Words | 11 Pages. bikes varying in management, engine size, two for trail riding and two for racing. Person About? The names of essay these different types are Enduro 250, the Enduro 550, the Moto 300 and . the Moto 450. The tail riding types are more popular, and the company is expanding into the motocross market. They offer a service department that deals with service warranties and customer problems with parts of the dirt bikes. The company has a network of 40 distributors that they use.
They are based mainly out of the Western and Midwestern parts. Customer service , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 1873 Words | 12 Pages. in the US. In Third Person Yourself? Dirt Bikes USA currently has 4 types of michel de montaigne sparknotes dirt bikes including: the Enduro 250, the Enduro 550, the Moto 300 and the Moto 450. Dirt Bikes USA . appeals to mainly Enduro rides and serious trailer riders, however they are expanding into the motocross market. About Yourself? Dirt Bikes USA also has a service department to deal with service warranties and on total quality customer problems with parts. Dirt Bikes USA does not sell directly to customers but rather uses a network of 40 distributors, based mainly out of the Western. Costs , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 1992 Words | 8 Pages. way from the bottom to about, the top of the rev counter and its eagerness, all have been highly praised in the old Karizma, with the help for free new fuel injected version, . Hero Honda have turned up the level of refinement. Essay In Third About? The engine has its origins in framework, the CRF230 motocross bikes but comes in a more detuned fashion for Indian riding conditions, also the unit has proved its worthiness on the track and on the roads so far by being outstandingly reliable and about cheap to school essay, maintain. One of the key features is in third, that it is an undersquare.
Bajaj Auto , Hero Honda , Honda 7047 Words | 31 Pages. only 3, he started riding on dirt bikes. Through 16 years, Jeremy’s talent and skill lead him to becoming pro at age 19. He was successfully the youngest pro flying, . FMX rider in the United States. He won his first X Games gold medal in the freestyle motocross competition last summer at the Home Depot Center, and in third about won a silver medal in the FMX best-trick contest. Also in 2008, Lusk won two gold medals in an X Games Mexico competition; he finished third in framework, the Dew Tour series standings, and he was never. Bronze medal , Freestyle Motocross , Gold 695 Words | 2 Pages. McGrath began racing motocross at essay in third person yourself, the age of 15 after a successful career in BMX. He placed 8th in degree, the 125cc West Region Supercross season of . Essay Person Yourself? 1989.
In 1990 he won his first supercross race and school advice essay placed 2nd in that season. McGrath won the 125 West Supercross title in 1991 and 1992. Jeremy won a record of seventy-two 250cc Main Events and captured seven 250cc supercross championships between 1993 to 2000, a time now known as the McGrath Era.. He also won the 1995 250 Outdoor Motocross Championship and. 2009 AMA Supercross season , KTM , Monster Energy 567 Words | 2 Pages. sort of adrenaline junkie's own Fantasy Island. In this case however, the island is real and it is called Glamis, located in Imperial County, California. Person? . Glamis is the stomping ground to many of the top motocross riders in the United States. Sparknotes? Pioneers of what we know as freestyle motocross have been expressing themselves in Glamis for years.
Names like Mike Metzger, Seth Enslow, Tommy Tom Cat Clowers, Nate Adams, Brain Deegan and the Metal Militia. All these wild men of motorcycle mayhem come. Crusty Demons , Freestyle Motocross , Jump 555 Words | 2 Pages. Theme: Motocross Topic: The development of motocross Good morning class. The theme of my IA is motocross but . today I will speak specifically on essay in third yourself, the topic “The development of motocross as an me write my essay for free, established sport”. What is motocross . Motocross is defined as a timed motorcycle race over person, a closed outdoor course consisting of a winding dirt trail with hills, jumps, sharp turns, and often muddy terrain. This sport originated in Britain as an off-road event called scrambling.
The first known scramble. Chainsaw , Diesel engine , Four-stroke engine 817 Words | 3 Pages. ?William Grimes Professor Farrugia English 1020 April 8, 2014 Transworld Motocross Ever since I was three years old I have been on a . four-wheeler, at research paper, that time I was riding around with my dad but ever since I can remember I’ve been addicted. Riding four wheelers has always been my go to in third, thing weather it was just around the house, out with friends or family on counselling framework essays, a trail ride or out at the motocross track racing or practicing. In Third Person Yourself? When I was four I got my first four-wheeler and dissertation degree I was hooked, I would. All-terrain vehicle , American films , Bicycle racing 1414 Words | 5 Pages.
Bicycle History When kids wanting to essay person about yourself, mimic dirt motorcycle racers decided to create their own dirt tracks for dissertation degree their bicycles. Even the name Bmx itself was . originated from its motorcycle predecessors, B standing for bicycle and essay person about MX standing for motocross . Dissertation Nursing? I myself recently spoke with a Bmx pioneer. Back a few weeks ago I was having lunch in a parking lot down the street from the Three Rivers campus. Once I had finished eating I decided to get out my bike and ride for essay person about yourself a little while, as I had. Bicycle , Bicycle motocross , BMX bike 3197 Words | 8 Pages. to jump.
When the 30 second sign turns and we are getting ready to counselling framework essays, start, it is just like tunnel vision for me. The best way to look at . motocross is just to think it is a person and a bike. In order to in third about yourself, be a successful racer, the high advice essay rider is in third about yourself, going to have practice every day, try not to crash, and make sure the bike is set up the counselling ethical right way. People say that motocross is not that hard, but it is actually one of the most labor intensive sport in the world. People have intense schedules for practice so they. 2006 singles , English-language films , Race 511 Words | 2 Pages. their need for a rush, or just a quick shot of adrenaline. This is Motocross . The sport of Motocross is mostly looked upon as a . Essay In Third About Yourself? death wish although it is very dangerous I think that the excitement and thrill is definitely worth the risk. It all started for dissertation degree me when I was five, my dad told me when I could ride my bike without training wheels he would get me a dirt bike. Soon enough I was waking up on Christmas morning to a motocross bike. After that it was like throwing a match into a bucket of gasoline.
2009 albums , English-language films , Jump 797 Words | 2 Pages. ? Motocross vs Supercross The topic I choose was supercross and motocross , I choose these because I love them both. I . used to race myself and, I go to supercross every year down in Seattle. Person Yourself? I know the rules pretty well and love learning about them more and flying paper more. Essay Person About Yourself? First off ill start with how many riders there are in both. Help For Free? Motocross has 25 riders super cross has 20 bigger track means they can have more riders on in third about yourself, the track at once.
Next is the research flying paper airplane type of racing you will see when you watch. Bicycle racing , Environment , I Choose 391 Words | 2 Pages. Pakistan By: John Mayer, Austin Snyder Flag Map of Pakistan Population • 176,745,364 Geography • Pakistan is essay in third person yourself, a profound blend of . landscapes varying from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus ranging from the coastal areas of the Arabian Sea in the south to the mountains of the Karakam range in michel, the north. Essay In Third Person About Yourself? Pakistan geologically overlaps both with the Indian and the Eurasian tectonic plates where its Sindh and Punjabprovinces lie on counselling, the north-western corner of the . Ayub Khan , Benazir Bhutto , Defence Minister of Pakistan 995 Words | 8 Pages. Braaap * executive summary * introduction The Braaap motocross brand has been established by Breadly Smith. In 2008 Smith launched the . first braaap store, a retail outlet intended to essay person yourself, be “the motocross equivalent of a surf shop ”. Braaap has since expanded to michel de montaigne sparknotes, four retail outlets across Tasmania and Victoria, with a franchise model to in third about yourself, enable further expansion throughout Australia, and flying airplane the rest of the in third person world. Michel Sparknotes? In 2010 braaap signed a deal with NASCAR driver Marcos Ambrose to launch into the. Boutique , Online shopping , Product 682 Words | 3 Pages. in front of its target audience. Advertising. Red Bull has a diverse international marketing campaign.
The numerous activities range from extreme . sports like mountain biking, BMX, motocross , windsurfing, snowboarding, skateboarding, kayaking, wakeboarding, cliff diving, surfing, skating, freestyle motocross , rally, Formula 1 racing, and breakdancing to art shows, music, and yourself video games. In keeping with their target market of young males, Red Bull has also enlisted help from celebrities, such. Caffeine , Dietrich Mateschitz , Energy drink 1746 Words | 5 Pages. customers to grab a can of help me write my essay for free Monster Energy and unleash the energy within to live life to the fullest. Monster Energy sponsors extreme sporting events like . Motocross . “ Motocross has been a key component of our marketing mix from the inception of the Monster brand,” said Monster Energy President Mr. Mark Hall. “We believe our ongoing support of essay person yourself Motocross has been good for the sport and, in return, the advice fans of the sport have been loyal to us…” (Rizzi, 2010) Marketing Mix 1. Product The world is moving. Alcoholic beverage , Caffeine , Coffee 1201 Words | 4 Pages. Positioning Strategy of Monster Energy. distributing pamphlets of their product by attractive young distributors in huge trucks playing music which are their strong promoting strategies. Essay In Third Person About Yourself? Ricky . Research Flying? Carmichael, a motocross legend also endorses monster energy. One of the major target markets for Monster Beverages Co. (Murr, 2006) is motocross ; they have used 40 foot posters for motocross fans.
There are other means of advertising effectively including enthusiastic, adrenaline rushed TV advertisement. There are some benefits of targeting specific group. Energy drink , Energy drinks , Hansen Natural 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Edwards 1 Amber Edwards English 111 2-3-13 Essay#1 My Father” Dedication, sweat, and a will to be on top is what runs through every athletes veins. . Motocross isn’t like basketball or any other sports in school where it is consisted of refs at every point of perspective eye-balling every move you make. It is in third person about yourself, a moto dog fight from the second the gate drops. De Montaigne Sparknotes? Every successful athlete has not become what they are by themselves. In Third Person About? Behind the scenes there are vast amounts of support. The man that. Christmas , Christmas tree , Father 1394 Words | 3 Pages.
Before I rode motocross , I thought you just get on high, the bike and twist the throttle. One year ago, I got my first dirt bike for essay in third about yourself my birthday. High? In . the essay beginning, I just rode on simple trails down the street at my friend CJ’s house. My friend Brett invited me to go to a motocross track one day and I decided to try it out. I didn’t think anything of it, until after one lap I had to pull off the track because I was exhausted. That’s when I realized how hard motocross really is.
A motocross rider has to. Hardness , Imperial units 517 Words | 2 Pages. people turned to alternate forms of transportation. One of the essay most popular forms of transportation is motorcycles. These vehicles can save a lot of money . at the pump.
Sports involving motorcycles are also becoming more and more popular everyday. Motocross is the second most popular motorsport in America behind NASCAR. This growth of the motorcycle industry got me curious about essay in third person these amazing machines and how they work. The first motorcycles were made in America. In 1867, American, Sylvester Howard. Connecting rod , Cylinder , Engine technology 1029 Words | 3 Pages. Monster Energy Drink Target Audience and Company Objectives. Strong promotion strategies including product hand-outs by young attractive vendors in powerful trucks blasting music are common ways The Company promotes in . cities.
The Company also uses Ricky Carmichael, a motocross legend, to endorse their products. Me Write My Essay? 40 foot posters are used to target motocross fans which are a major target market for Monster Beverages Co. Essay Yourself? (Murr, 2006). Other effective advertisements include using high contrast, recognizable posters in retail stores and high energy, adrenaline rushed. Drink , Energy drink , Energy drinks 1179 Words | 3 Pages. energy-drink that supports the “cool” aspects of what it is trying to de montaigne, sell and they are known for sponsoring events for in third about yourself different outdoors sports and even . De Montaigne Sparknotes? extreme sports.
Celebrity endorsements include famous athletes such as skaters, snowboarders, motocross , and surfers, which all explain Monster’s target audience. Monster reaches out to men and women ages 18-34 specifically, who they also consider to be their largest “fanbase”. The company focuses on their athletic reputation because their fans. Advertising , Brand , Energy drink 949 Words | 3 Pages. cliff and when the man looks down it goes miles and miles down of nothing and person about then he just dives off while doing tricks in the air for cliff diving. After . that it goes to high school, a X games scene where there is a huge crowed on there feet and then a pro motocross athlete does flips up in the air and essay person yourself lands them perfectly. It has the pro soccer Red Bull team, teams brake dancing, red bull airplanes flying in the air. School? Then goes to a clip of, Blake Griffin throwing it down playing basketball in California. Essay Person? It. 2009 NBA Draft , Advertising , Energy drink 1175 Words | 3 Pages. Market Segmentation - Power Bike in Thailand.
(McColl-Kennedy Kiel, 2000). In this psychographics segmentation, teenager from ethical essays high class family for example, the in third person yourself teenager will spend more money to paper, . purchase something. When they buy a bike, they will choose bike with specific function such as, bicycle motocross (BMX) this bike can do dirt jumps, mountain bike, or a bike with high speed. Behavioral segmentation is one of the most powerful more then the other of essay in third about segmentation. High School Essay? Behavioral segmentation is base on people attitudes and behavior. Person About Yourself? For example. Bicycle , Market segmentation , Marketing 2024 Words | 7 Pages. REFLECTION PAPER about Kadayawan 2013.
celebrated to me write, thank our creator for person the good harvest and blessing. There are lots of events, tourist from around the globe, TV Icons visiting and my essay for free having Mall . Shows, Sale and many marked down prices on almost all items in the Malls, Sporting events namely Motocross , Fun runs, marathons and in third yourself many more. There is also street dance and float parade where each participants showcase the culture and creativity of Dabawenyos and on total quality many spectators enjoy the colourful costumes and designs. I spent the yourself Kadayawan Festival. Classmates , Gratitude , National Mall 551 Words | 2 Pages. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ . _____________________________________________________________________ 7. The name Motocross is michel essays sparknotes, derived from a portmanteau of the words “Motorcycle” and “Cross Country.” ____. Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building , Intransitive verb , Oklahoma City bombing 575 Words | 3 Pages. quickly with what is happening in the environment around them. They have an array of outlets in which young individuals can immerse themselves in, whether it . is through art, music, film, or board sports like snowboarding, surfing, skating and even motocross . Through the many events that Volcom Entertainment provides it supports athletes through competitions and contest, or musicians through their record label, or artists with their collaborations. One of their new contests is the 2012 Volcom Fiji. Boardsport , Brand , Graphic design 2449 Words | 7 Pages.
audience, Monster has to think of ways to be able to reach their audience where they are going to have their attention focused at. The way Monster is able . to essay about yourself, reach their target audience is by first sponsoring athletes in extreme sports such as motocross , snowboarding, car racing, water extreme sports, etc…The target audience for these extreme sports are young men. When these young men go to these events or see these events on television, internet, mobile device, or their tablets they see the Monster. Advertising , Blog , Energy drinks 438 Words | 2 Pages. should spend their money on, therefore we take each other into consideration. Ethical? Motocross is an in third about yourself, activity we both participate in.
Whether we are . racing, watching it on TV, or talking about it among friends, we are able to relate to each other, think about each other when we’re not present, and continue to be a part of that experience. The affect present in this dyad is dissertation nursing degree, positive, and loving. We share a common love for motocross bringing us very close, and the goal we have to purchase a house together someday. Developmental psychology , Dyad , Dyadic 887 Words | 2 Pages. alternative sports fans. They developed from early on a strong and recognizable identity. Vans catered to skateboarders and “extreme” sports adepts and fans . from the start (Surfing, Skateboarding, BMX, Wakeboarding, Snowboarding, Waterboarding, Motocross ). Their core business has always been focusing on the skateboarding market and they developed a strong culture around this sport. Their customers and the general public would identify the brand with certain sports.
This is a big advantage over about yourself, the. Customer , Marketing , Shoe 755 Words | 3 Pages. England The aluminium Bickerton portable small-wheeler is developed. Followed by the successful Brompton in research flying paper airplane, 1976 and Dahon in 1980. Bmx (Bicycle . Motocross ) 1970 USA The movie On Any Sunday by Bruce Brown debuts.
Although it is a motorcycle documentary, a brief scene during the beginning of the essay about movie shows kids on Sting-Ray bikes emulating motocross . On Total Quality Management? This small spark eventually evolves into full-fledged, organized BMX racing by in third about yourself 1974. Mass-Produced Titanium Frame/Fork 1974 USA Teledyne markets. Bicycle , Bicycle chain , Bicycle parts 1685 Words | 7 Pages. A Visual of Supercross Championships. excellent ways to communicate information (Berger, 2008). Thesis On Total Management? Especially to someone who does not have a background in the information being presented. I have a . very strong background in the off-road motorcycle world, to include not only Supercross, but Motocross ; Grand Prix’s and Desert off-road racing as well. For someone who has never seen or participated in essay in third person about, one of school essay these events, they surely would not understand the history or even the hard work put in by both the riders and the factory teams that they.
Champion , Championship , Chart 805 Words | 3 Pages. in terms of their use of traditional media (TV, radio, magazine, outdoor)? List the different media and examples of essay in third person yourself specific media vehicles. They mainly . rely on magazine promotion. They put their ads in all of the on total management true skate, surf, snow, and essay about yourself motocross magazines that are available. Then after magazines are events, for example: skateboard competitions, surfing competitions, etc. Degree? Next in the line of media is about, television and radio. 7. What is their strategy in terms of the role of the high internet. Mainstream , Marketing , Mass media 897 Words | 4 Pages. humps all different sizes some being small and some being big!
BMX first started in the early 1970s when kids began racing their bikes on dirt tracks, in . Southern California drawing inspiration from the essay person about motocross superstars of their time. There was no stopping it a new sport was made, bicycle motocross was the name it was given but it was quickly shortened to BMX. It was that good that it grabbed the attention of more than a thousand people in school advice, one short summer. BMX has many high points and on of the. 2008 Summer Olympics , Athens , International Olympic Committee 521 Words | 2 Pages.
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Air Distribution Systems Technician. Charlottesville , VA 22905. Posting Summary: Facilities Management (FM) supports the University of essay person, Virginia's wide range of research, academic and patient care programs. With over 1,200 employees dedicated to excellence, Facilities Management is responsible for the day-to-day operation, repair and maintenance of U.Va.'s buildings, infrastructure and grounds as well as other University-owned and leased properties. Me Write? The Air Distribution Systems Technician performs cleaning, Regulatory agency inspections and maintenance of essay about yourself, documentation, fabrications, modifications, assessments, installations, repairs, and renovations of flying paper, air distribution equipment and in third person about ductwork throughout the dissertation Health system. The incumbent keeps customers informed of yourself, job status. University Leadership Characteristics: *For Thomas Jefferson, learning was an integral part of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes, life. The academical village was created around the assumption that learning is a lifelong and shared process, and that interaction between scholars and essay person students enlivens the pursuit of knowledge. University Human Resources strives to identify applicants who will contribute as high potential employees, leaders and managers. We employ individuals who foster and promote the University mission and purpose. Employment Conditions for Faculty U. Nursing? .Va. will perform background checks including receipt of official transcripts from the institution granting the essay highest degree for all new faculty hires prior to making a final offer of employment. /AA Statement: The University of Virginia is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer.
Women, minorities, veterans and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply. , please specify kind of ethical, experience: Significant experience in construction and/or maintenance organization with air distribution systems. Essay In Third Person About Yourself? , Skills and Abilities: 1. Framework Essays? Capable of working independently and prioritizing tasks in in third about yourself order to meet the needs of the unit and its customers 2. Department: Facilities Management Department Closing Date: 10-13-2017 If any experience is preferred, please specify kind of experience: HVAC Test and high advice Balance FLSA Exemption Status: Non Exempt Is this position funded in whole or in part by the American Recovery Reinvestment Act (Stimulus Package)?: No Posting Date: 09-28-2017 Location: Charlottesville Is this position eligible for an Alternate Work Schedule?: Yes Employment Posting Category: University Staff E-mail a Friend: jobs.virginia.edu/applicants/Central?quickFind=82875 Anticipated Hiring Range: $39,000 - $45,000 Preferred EducationWhat level of education is preferred to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one.: Associate's Degree Number of Months/Year: 12 Drug Testing Required?(Typically positions involved in patient contact, mass transportation or law enforcement are included): No Position Type: University Operational and Administrative Staff Posting for UVA Employees Only: No Required Computer Applications: Basic computer skills Area of Interest: Building Trades Employment Conditions: Criminal HistorySexual Offender RegistryProfessional Licensure If yes, what is the required License or Certification.: Trade License / Certification (HVAC, Electronics or Sheet Metal Mechanic) or equivalent required. Optional Applicant Documents: CV / ResumeCover Letter Shift: Day Type of Application:(required to essay person yourself, apply for on total management this posting): Staff Application Required ExperienceWhat is the minimum level of relevant experience required to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one.: Considerable - 4 to 7 years Posting Number: 0621802 Organization (Position Organization): 20345 FM-HS Work Mgmt Number of Work Hours Per Week:(format: xx.xxxx): 40 Working Title: Air Distribution Systems Technician If degree or equivalent experience preferred, please specify:(Entries to essay in third about, the right will appear in the posting for high school advice essay this position.): College or technical training desired. Is this position eligible for Telecommuting?: No Required EducationWhat is the minimum level of formal education required to successfully perform the essay in third person about yourself duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one.: High School Diploma or Equivalent Required. Create a job alert for Air Distribution Systems Technician at Charlottesville, VA. Great! You#39;ll now receive job alerts for help my essay for free Air Distribution Systems Technician at Charlottesville, VA. Create a job alert for Air Distribution Systems Technician at Charlottesville, VA.
University OF Virginia. Posted 12 days ago. VIEW JOBS 9/24/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-23T00:00 Posting Information GENERAL INFORMATION FOR ALL POSTINGS Posting Number: 0618566 Position Type: University Managerial and Professional Staff Employment Posting Category: University Staff Type of Application: (required to apply for this posting) Staff Application Organization (Position Organization): 22024 IT-ITS Enterprise Infrastructure Department: Information Technology Services Location: Charlottesville Working Title: Network Distribution Technician Anticipated Hiring Range: $48,462 - $62,000 Is this position funded in whole or in part by the American Recovery Reinvestment Act (Stimulus Package)? No End Date of Position: Posting Date: 04-13-2016 Posting Summary: Click here for an example. Information Technology Services is person about yourself seeking a Network Telecommunications Engineer. This position is responsible for nursing degree coordinating and essay person about completing technical documentation, monitoring and managing network performance, resolving low complexity network problems, as well as anticipating and mitigating potential failures to ensure the availability of the University Network. Telecommunication Engineers cross train within their team as well as with Network Engineers and are expected to help me write my essay, seek assistance from more senior members and/or management when guidelines are inadequate, significant deviations are proposed, or when unanticipated problems arise.
Good judgment is essential as the impact of errors can be substantial, potentially affecting the production of students, faculty and staff university wide. In Third Person About Yourself? Telecommunication Engineers work with end users, departments and vendors to high advice essay, resolve network capacity and hardware/software issues, Telecommunication Engineers are also required to participate in an on-call rotation which provides 24x7 coverage. Essay? University Leadership Characteristics: For Thomas Jefferson, learning was an integral part of life. The academical village was created around the assumption that learning is framework essays a lifelong and essay in third about yourself shared process, and that interaction between scholars and help my essay for free students enlivens the pursuit of knowledge. University Human Resources strives to identify applicants who will contribute as high potential employees, leaders and managers.
We employ individuals who foster and promote the University mission and purpose. Successful candidates exemplify uncommon integrity; they are honest, trusted, team-oriented and live the core values of the University. These candidates display great judgment, by practicing evidence-based decision-making. They are strategically focused by contributing to and achieving department goals and vision. They set high performance standards and hold themselves accountable by essay in third yourself aggressively executing these standards.
These employees also develop a deep passion for the University and the impact it has on students, faculty, alumni and community. Successful candidates identify their personal career goals and development opportunities, and as supervisors, help their staff do the same. They contribute to team success by leading talent, through their individual efforts and by dissertation nursing leading and developing their teams. Closing Date: Open Until Filled Required Applicant Documents: CV / Resume Cover Letter E-mail a Friend: jobs.virginia.edu/applicants/Central?quickFind=78870 Faculty, Professional Research Staff and essay person yourself University Staff - Executive Tenure Status: Rank: Appointment Type: Academic Year for Position? (e.g. 2015) Employment Conditions for thesis Faculty Univ.Staff - Operational Administrative (OA), Managerial Professional (MP) Area of Interest: Information Technology FLSA Exemption Status: Click here for in third yourself a definition.
Exempt Posting for UVA Employees Only: Yes Shift: Day Number of Work Hours Per Week: (format: xx.xxxx) 40 Number of Months/Year: 12 EO/AA Statement: The University of Virginia is an flying equal opportunity and affirmative action employer. Women, minorities, veterans and persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply. Essay Person About? Optional Applicant Documents: Univ.Staff - OA or MP - QUALIFICATIONS EDUCATION Required Education What is the minimum level of formal education required to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one. Degree Requirements Analysis *Degree or Equivalent Experience Required If degree or equivalent experience required , please specify: (Entries to the right will appear in the posting for counselling ethical essays this position.) Degree Requirements Analysis Associate#39;s Degree in related discipline with at least one year of experience. Relevant experience may be considered in lieu of essay in third, a degree.
Preferred Education What level of education is help me write for free preferred to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one. *Degree Preferred If degree or equivalent experience preferred , please specify: (Entries to the right will appear in the posting for this position.) EXPERIENCE Required Experience What is the minimum level of relevant experience required to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the essay position? Choose one. Some - up to 4 years If any experience is management required , please specify kind of experience: Preferred Experience What is the minimum level of relevant experience preferred to essay about yourself, successfully perform the help me write my essay duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one. Considerable - 4 to 7 years If any experience is essay in third preferred , please specify kind of counselling framework essays, experience: LICENSE or CERTIFICATION If yes, what is the yourself required License or Certification. My Essay? If yes, what is the preferred License or Certification. Systimax Installation and Maintenance and/or Systimax Design and essay person yourself Engineering KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS and ABILITIES Required Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: Basic knowledge of network architecture, network hardware, monitoring and management software. Basic knowledge of building network wiring specifications and best practices. Basic understanding of voice over IP telephony and counselling framework essays analog gateway infrastructure.
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2. Essay Person About Yourself? Cleans equipment after each patient use. 3. Stocks Pyxis machines. 4. Inspects all equipment and supplies upon receipt and prior to delivery. 5. Michel? Demonstrates high standards of customer service. *MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS:* * Education: High School Graduate or Equivalent. Person Yourself? * Experience: No experience required. * License/Certification: None required. GENERAL INFORMATION: The above statements are intended to describe the general nature and level of work being performed by on total quality management individuals assigned to person about yourself, this position. They are not intended to dissertation nursing degree, be an essay about yourself exhaustive list of for free, all duties, responsibilities, and skills required of personnel so classified. Essay? **Job:** **Facility/Trades* **Title:** *Supply Specialist-Central Distribution* **Location:** *Charlottesville City-Charlottesville* **Requisition ID:** *34704* University Of Virginia Health System Charlottesville VA. University Of Virginia. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/5/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-03T00:00 ## Posting Summary: Facilities Management (FM) supports the University of thesis quality management, Virginia#39;s wide range of in third yourself, research, academic and sparknotes patient care programs.
With over essay in third person about 1,200 employees dedicated to excellence, Facilities Management is responsible for michel de montaigne sparknotes the day-to-day operation, repair and essay person about maintenance of U.Va.#39;s buildings, infrastructure and grounds as well as other University-owned and leased properties. The Utility Systems Welder Senior provides technical support and performs welding and cutting on a variety of metals including carbon steel, stainless steel, copper, aluminum, and dissertation degree plastics such as HDPE, PE, and PVC. Duties include repairing, maintaining, and installing steam, condensate, heating hot water, chilled water, domestic water, storm, sanitary sewer, waste stacks, vents, plumbing fixtures, gas, and similar systems; pipefitting; welding to essay, ANSI/ASTM B31.1 X-ray standard for heating distribution piping and research flying paper airplane other applications; fabricating containers and structural supports; and general work on equipment or systems in plants, steam tunnels, and the utility infrastructure. ## University Leadership Characteristics: *For Thomas Jefferson, learning was an integral part of life. The academical village was created around the assumption that learning is a lifelong and shared process, and about that interaction between scholars and students enlivens the pursuit of knowledge.* University Human Resources strives to identify applicants who will contribute as high potential employees, leaders and airplane managers. We employ individuals who foster and promote the University mission and essay in third about purpose. Help My Essay For Free? Successful candidates exemplify uncommon integrity; they are honest, trusted, team-oriented and live the core values of the University. About? These candidates display great judgment, by practicing evidence-based decision-making. They are strategically focused by contributing to and achieving department goals and vision.
They set high performance standards and hold themselves accountable by aggressively executing these standards. These employees also develop a deep passion for the University and the impact it has on dissertation nursing students, faculty, alumni and essay about yourself community. Successful candidates identify their personal career goals and development opportunities, and as supervisors, help their staff do the same. They contribute to on total quality management, team success by leading talent, through their individual efforts and by essay leading and developing their teams. Ethical? ## Employment Conditions for Faculty U.Va. will perform background checks including receipt of official transcripts from the institution granting the highest degree for all new faculty hires prior to making a final offer of employment. ## EO/AA Statement: The University of Virginia is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer. Women, minorities, veterans and essay person persons with disabilities are encouraged to apply. ## If any experience is required, please specify kind of experience: A minimum of seven years of pipe welding experience, with four years of experience in piping systems and mechanical systems. ## Required Knowledge, Skills and Abilities: 1. Demonstrated knowledge of welding equipment. 2. Demonstrated knowledge for dissertation pipefitting procedures. Essay In Third? 3. Ability to interpret drawings.
4. Counselling Framework? Understandings of various pipe distribution systems. 5. Must pass X-ray Welding test in accordance with B31.1 6. Ability to weld using GTAW, SMAW, GMAW processes. 7. Demonstrated knowledge of plasma cutting, cutting torches, soldering and silver soldering. Essay? 8. Demonstrated knowledge of nursing degree, rigging pipe and associated materials to successfully complete projects. Person? *Department:* Facilities Management Department *Closing Date:* 10-04-2017 *If yes, what is the preferred License or Certification.:* Welding X-Ray Certification *FLSA Exemption Status:* Non Exempt *Is this position funded in whole or in part by michel the American Recovery Reinvestment Act (Stimulus Package)?:* No *Posting Date:* 09-08-2017 *Location:* Charlottesville *Is this position eligible for person an Alternate Work Schedule?:* Yes *Employment Posting Category:* University Staff *E-mail a Friend:* jobs.virginia.edu/applicants/Central?quickFind=82710 *Anticipated Hiring Range:* $47,000 - $52,000 *Preferred EducationWhat level of education is preferred to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one.:* Not a Requirement *Number of Months/Year:* 12 *Drug Testing Required?(Typically positions involved in patient contact, mass transportation or law enforcement are included):* No *Position Type:* University Operational and Administrative Staff *Posting for UVA Employees Only:* Yes *Required Computer Applications:* Outlook *Area of Interest:* No Response *If yes, what is the required License or Certification.:* Ability to pass ASME Section 9 B31.1 X-Ray welding test. Ethical Essays? Driver#39;s License. *Optional Applicant Documents:* CV / ResumeCover Letter *Shift:* Day *Type of Application:(required to apply for this posting):* Staff Application *Required ExperienceWhat is the minimum level of relevant experience required to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one.:* Extensive - 7 years plus *Posting Number:* 0621657 *Organization (Position Organization):* 20310 FM-Utilities *Preferred ExperienceWhat is the minimum level of relevant experience preferred to successfully perform the duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one.:* No Response *Number of yourself, Work Hours Per Week:(format: xx.xxxx):* 40 *Working Title:* Utility Systems Welder Senior *Is this position eligible for Telecommuting?:* No *Required EducationWhat is the minimum level of school advice, formal education required to successfully perform the in third person about yourself duties and responsibilities of the position? Choose one.:* High School Diploma or Equivalent Required University Of Virginia Charlottesville VA. Air Distribution Systems Technician.
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American Literature/Colonial Period (1620s-1776) American Literature, defined here as it traditionally has been to essay person yourself, be the literature of the United States, or as written on paper land that would one day become the United States, has as its beginning date 1583, the essay yourself, year the counselling, earliest English writing explorers started to write about the new continent. Some date the end of the Colonial Period as early as 1763, the start of the French and Indian War, the results of which set in motion a chain of events that led the in third, colonies to seek independence from Great Britain. Others set it as late as 1789, the year the dissertation degree, U.S. Constitution went into effect.
This text splits the in third person about, difference by using 1776, the year the Declaration of Independence was signed, as the cutoff year for the period. This year is a guideline not a rigidly held cutoff. The writing of the period varied greatly in terms of quality and subject, but less so in terms of genre. Counselling Ethical Framework. For the sake of classification, in fact, all of the literature of the in third person about yourself, period can be broken down into just ten genres: Not all of these genres span the on total quality management, entire period, although a few do. Many American literature textbooks cover the colonial period genre by genre.
The danger in doing this is time distortion. This period of literature spans almost 300 years, longer by far than all of the other periods of literature put together. The other problem with covering this period by genre is that many of its most famous writers wrote in more than one genre, so the essay yourself, same writer must be considered multiple times. A final disadvantage is the proximity of many of the genres to another genre. For example, how different can a work in philosophy be from a religious tract when a religious background is assumed by the author? Many political writers touch heavily on history, and vice versa. Given these considerations, it is more fruitful to cover this period diachronically while keeping possible genres in counselling mind. Aside from span of time, another consideration that makes this period unique from all the others is that the writers in this period had no idea they were writing anything that could be classified as American literature.
These writers were mostly British, and in third person yourself all were heavily indebted to British literature writing conventions long since established in the motherland. No other period of help my essay American literature is as derivative of essay person yourself English literature as the colonial period. Relation to English Literature Edit. The British claimed most of the Atlantic seaboard north of Florida as belonging to Britain soon after Columbus discovered land across the Atlantic Ocean. Henry VII sent John Cabot to help me write my essay for free, chart out the regions or provinces of the heathen and in third yourself infidel, whatsoever they may be as early as 1497. However, circumstances never arose for England to make good on her claims until late during Elizabeth's reign. When England finally did establish her first permanent settlement in research paper airplane 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and a few years later in Massachusetts, her primary motives were: The literature produced in in third about the part of America known as the on total management, United States did not begin as an independent literature. England bestowed on the earliest settlers the English language, books, and modes of thought. England had an established literature long before the first permanent settlement across the Atlantic was considered. Shakespeare, for example, had died only four years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth.
For nearly two hundred years after the first English settlements in America, the essay in third about, majority of the works read there were written by school essay, English authors. The hard struggle necessary to obtain a foothold in a wilderness was not favorable to the early development of a literature. Those who remained in England could not clear away the forest, till the soil, and person about yourself contend with Indians, but they could write the books and send them across the ocean. The early settlers were for the most part content to ethical framework essays, allow English authors to do this. Essay In Third About. For these reasons it is unsurprising that early American literature does not match in michel de montaigne quality that produced in England during the in third about yourself, same period. When Americans began to write in larger numbers, there was at research paper first close adherence to English models. For a while it seemed as if American literature would be only a feeble imitation of these models. Beginning in in third person about the eighteenth century, that started to change and some colonial writing was considered to have merit in its own right. The literature of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes England gained something from America as well.
As early as the nineteenth century, English critics, like John Addington Symonds, Robert Louis Stevenson, and Edward Dowden, have testified to essay in third person yourself, the power of the democratic element in American literature and willingly admitted that without a study of Cooper, Poe, and Hawthorne no one could give an high school adequate account of the landmarks of achievement in fiction written in English. In Third Person About Yourself. French critics too have always admired Poe. In a certain field Poe and Hawthorne occupy a unique place in the world's achievement. Nor are men like Herman Melville and Mark Twain common in high school advice any literature. Some of the reasons why American literature developed along original lines and thus conveyed a message of its own to the world are to be found in the changed environment and the varying problems and in third yourself ideals of American life. Even more important than the high advice essay, changed ways of earning a living and the difference in climate, animals, and scenery were the struggles leading to the Revolutionary War, the formation and guidance of the Republic, and the Civil War. All these combined to give individuality to American thought and literature.
In 1607 the first permanent English colony within the present limits of the United States was planted at Jamestown in Virginia. The colony was founded for commercial reasons by the London Company, an organization formed to secure profits from colonization. The colonists and in third about the company that furnished their ship and outfit expected large profits from the thesis quality management, gold mines and the precious stones which were believed to await discovery. Of course, the adventurers were also influenced by the honor and the romantic interest which they thought would result from a successful settlement. When the expedition sailed from England in December, 1606, Michael Drayton, an essay in third person about yourself Elizabethan poet, wrote verses dedicated To the Virginian Voyage. These stanzas show the reason for counselling framework essays sending the colonizers to Virginia: The majority of the early Virginian colonists, however, were unfit for their task. Contemporary accounts tell of the many unruly gallants, packed hither by their friends to about, escape ill destinies. Beggars, vagabonds, indentured servants, kidnapped girls, even convicts, were sent to Jamestown. After the execution of Charles I in 1649, and the setting up of the Puritan Commonwealth, many of the royalists, or Cavaliers, as they were called, came to Virginia to escape oppressive Puritan rule. Michel De Montaigne Sparknotes. They became the ancestors of Presidents and statesmen, and essay about of many of the aristocratic families of the South.
The ideals expressed by Captain John Smith, the leader and preserver of the Jamestown colony, are worthy to essay, rank beside those of the colonizers of New England. Looking back at his achievement in in third yourself Virginia, he wrote, Then seeing we are not born for ourselves but each to help other . Seeing honor is our lives' ambition . and seeing by no means would we be abated of the dignities and glories of our predecessors; let us imitate their virtues to be worthily their successors. The Puritans Colonize New England Edit. During the counselling ethical framework, period from 1620 to 1640, large numbers of English people migrated to that part of America now known as New England. These emigrants were not impelled by hope of essay in third person about yourself wealth, or ease, or pleasure. They were called Puritans because they wished to purify the advice essay, Church of England from what seemed to them great abuses; and the purpose of these men in emigrating to America was to lay the foundations of a state built upon their religious principles. These people came for an intangible something--liberty of conscience, a fuller life of the spirit--which has never commanded a price on any stock exchange in the world. They looked beyond. These Puritans had been more than one century in in third the making. We hear of them in the time of Wycliffe (1324-1384). Degree. Henry VIII formed the Church of essay person England in 1534.
Opposed by Catholics and some Protestant religious groups, some could not reconcile their beliefs to worship in England's official church. For these dissenting Protestants, their religion was a constant command to put the unseen above the seen, the eternal above the temporal, to research, satisfy the about, aspiration of the spirit. They would not accommodate the perceived Romishe taint that remained in the Church of England. James I (reigned 1603–1625) told them that he would harry them out of the kingdom unless they conformed to the rites of the Established Church. Michel De Montaigne. His son and successor Charles I (reigned 1625–1649) called to his aid Archbishop Laud (1573–1645), a bigoted official of that church. Laud hunted the dissenting clergy like wild beasts, threw them into prison, whipped them in about yourself the pillory, branded them, slit their nostrils, and mutilated their ears. John Cotton, pastor of the church of Boston, England, was told that if he had been guilty only of an infraction of certain of the Ten Commandments, he might have been pardoned, but since his crime was Puritanism, he must suffer.
He had great trouble in escaping on a ship bound for the New England Boston. Professor Tyler says: New England has perhaps never quite appreciated its great obligations to Archbishop Laud. It was his overmastering hate of framework nonconformity, it was the vigilance and vigor and consecrated cruelty with which he scoured his own diocese and afterward all England, and hunted down and hunted out the ministers who were committing the unpardonable sin of dissent, that conferred upon the principal colonies of New England their ablest and noblest men. It should be noted that the Puritan colonization of New England took place in a comparatively brief space of time, during the twenty years from 1620 to 1640. Until 1640 persecution drove the Puritans to New England in multitudes, but in that year they suddenly stopped coming. During the one hundred and twenty-five years following that date, more persons, it is supposed, went back from the New to the Old England than came from the Old England to the New, says Professor Tyler. The year 1640 marks the assembling of the Long Parliament, which finally brought to essay yourself, the block both Archbishop Laud (1645) and King Charles I (1649), and chose the great Puritan, Oliver Cromwell, to lead the Commonwealth. The leading men in the colonization of Virginia and thesis on total quality management New England were born in the reign of essay in third person about Queen Elizabeth (1558–1603), and they and their descendants showed on this side of the Atlantic those characteristics which made the Elizabethan age preeminent. In the on total management, first place, the Elizabethans possessed initiative.
This power consists, first, in having ideas, and secondly, in essay person about yourself passing from the ideas to the suggested action. High School Advice. Some people merely dream. The Elizabethans dreamed glorious dreams, which they translated into essay in third action. Nursing. They defeated the Spanish Armada; they circumnavigated the globe; they made it possible for Shakespeare's pen to mold the thought and to essay person, influence the actions of the world. If we except those indentured servants and apprentices who came to America merely because others brought them, we shall find not only that the first colonists were born in an age distinguished for its initiative, but also that they came because they possessed this characteristic in a greater degree than those who remained behind. Flying. It was easier for the majority to stay with their friends; hence England was not depopulated. The few came, those who had sufficient initiative to cross three thousand miles of unknown sea, who had the power to dream dreams of a new commonwealth, and the will to embody those dreams in action.
In the second place, the Elizabethans were ingenious, that is, they were imaginative and person yourself resourceful. Impelled by the mighty forces of the Reformation and de montaigne essays the Revival of Learning which the England of Elizabeth alone felt at one and the same time, the Elizabethans craved and in third about yourself obtained variety of experience, which kept the nursing, fountainhead of ingenuity filled. It is instructive to follow the lives of Elizabethans as different as Sir Philip Sidney, William Shakespeare, Sir Walter Raleigh, Captain John Smith, and John Winthrop, and to note the about, varied experiences of me write my essay each. Yankee ingenuity had an essay about Elizabethan ancestry. The hard conditions of the New World merely gave an opportunity to exercise to the utmost an ingenuity which the colonists brought with them. In the third place, the Elizabethans were unusually democratic; that is, the thesis on total management, different classes mingled together in about a marked degree.
This intermingling was due in part to increased travel, to the desire born of the New Learning, to school, live as varied and essay in third yourself as complete a life as possible, and to the absence of overspecialization among individuals. This chance for varied experience with all sorts and conditions of men enabled Shakespeare to speak to all humanity. All England was represented in his plays. When the Reverend Thomas Hooker, born in the last half of Elizabeth's reign, was made pastor at Hartford, Connecticut, he suggested to his flock a democratic form of government much like that under which we now live. American life and literature owe their most interesting traits to these three Elizabethan qualities: initiative, ingenuity, and democracy. Counselling. The Cambridge University graduate, the cooper, cloth-maker, printer, and essay in third person yourself blacksmith had the initiative to set out for the New World, the ingenuity to deal with its varied exigencies, and the democratic spirit that enabled them to work side by thesis on total, side, no matter how diverse their former trades, modes of life, and social condition. The hero of the Jamestown colony, and its savior during the essay person yourself, first two years, was Captain John Smith, born in Willoughby, Lincolnshire, in 1579, twenty-four years before the counselling framework, death of Elizabeth and thirty-seven before the death of person about Shakespeare. Smith was a man of Elizabethan stamp: active, ingenious, imaginative, craving new experiences.
While a mere boy, he could not stand the tediousness of ordinary life, and so betook himself to the forest where he could hunt and play knight. In the high, first part of his young manhood he crossed the Channel, voyaged in the Mediterranean, fought the Turks, killing three of them in single combat, was taken prisoner and in third yourself enslaved by the Tartars, killed his inhuman master, escaped into Russia, went thence through Europe to Africa, was in desperate naval battles, returned to England, sailing thence for Virginia, which he reached at high school advice essay the age of in third about twenty-eight. He soon became president of the research paper airplane, Jamestown colony and labored strenuously for its preservation. The first product of essay in third person about yourself his pen in America was A True Relation of Virginia , written in 1608, the year in thesis on total quality management which John Milton was born. The last work written by Smith in America is entitled: A Map of Virginia, with a Description of the Country, the Commodities, People, Government, and Religion . His description of the Indians shows his capacity for quickly noting their traits:
Smith has often been accused of boasting, and some have said that he was guilty of great exaggeration or something worse, but it is certain that he repeatedly braved hardships, extreme dangers, and captivity among the Indians to essay in third person about yourself, provide food for dissertation the colony and to survey Virginia. After carefully editing Captain John Smith's Works in a volume of 983 pages, Professor Edwin Arber says: For [our] own part, beginning with doubtfulness and essay yourself wariness we have gradually come to the unhesitating conviction, not only of Smith's truthfulness, but also that, in regard to all personal matters, he systematically understates rather than exaggerates anything he did. Although by far the greater part of Smith's literary work was done after he returned to England, yet his two booklets written in America entitle him to a place in colonial literature. He had the Elizabethan love of achievement, and he records his admiration for those whose 'pens writ what their swords did.' He was not an artist with his pen, but our early colonial literature is the richer for his rough narrative and for the description of help Virginia and the Indians. In one sense he gave the Indian to literature, and in third about that is his greatest achievement in literary history. Degree. Who has not heard the story of his capture by the Indians, of his rescue from torture and death, by the beautiful Indian maiden, Pocahontas, of her risking her life to save him a second time from Indian treachery, of essay person about her bringing corn and thesis on total quality preserving the colony from famine, of her visit to England in 1616, a few weeks after the death of Shakespeare, of her royal reception as a princess, the daughter of an Indian king, of in third person Smith's meeting her again in London, where their romantic story aroused the me write my essay for free, admiration of the court and the citizens for the brown-eyed princess? It would be difficult to say how many tales of Indian adventure this romantic story of Pocahontas has suggested. It has the honor of being the first of its kind written in essay in third person about the English tongue.
Did Pocahontas actually rescue Captain Smith? In his account of his adventures, written in Virginia in 1608, he does not mention this rescue, but in de montaigne sparknotes his later writings he relates it as an actual occurrence. When Pocahontas visited London, this story was current, and there is no evidence that she denied it. About Yourself. Professor Arber says, To deny the michel de montaigne essays, truth of the Pocahontas incident is to create more difficulties than are involved in its acceptance. But literature does not need to ask whether the story of Hamlet or of Pocahontas is true. If this unique story of American adventure is a product of Captain Smith's creative imagination, the literary critic must admit the captain's superior ability in producing a tale of such vitality. If the story is true, then our literature does well to about, remember whose pen made this truth one of the most persistent of our early romantic heritages. He is as well known for the story of Pocahontas as for all of his other achievements.
The man who saved the Virginia colony and who first suggested a new field to the writer of American romance is rightly considered one of the most striking figures in our early history, even if he did return to England in less than three years and end his days there in 1631. American literature is widely considered to begin with Captain John Smith. Research Paper Airplane. It is best to read him in his own words in essay order to form your own judgements. Fortunatley, his works are available for free on thesis management the Internet. Visit the following URLs, read as much of Smith as interests you, and we'll see you when you return in order to continue our voyage through American literature: A True Relation of Such Occurrences and Accidents of essay about Note as Happened in Virginia (1608) http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/jamestown-browsemod?id=J1007 An Accidence, or The Pathway to Experience Necessary for all Young Seamen (1626) is not available currently online. A technical manual, Smith's short pamphlet on seamanship is illustrated with incidents from his own experiences. It would be enlarged as A Sea Grammar in 1627.
Advertisements for the Unexperienced Planters of New England, or Anywhere (1631) http://www.archive.org/details/advertisementsfo00smit Captain James Smith was not the only Englishman writing in the colonies in on total the early seventeenth century. William Strachey, a contemporary of Shakespeare and secretary of the Virginian colony, wrote at Jamestown and sent to person about yourself, London in 1610 the manuscript of michel de montaigne essays sparknotes A True Repertory of the Wrack and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, Kt., upon and from the Islands of the Bermudas . Person About. This is a story of shipwreck on the Bermudas and of escape in small boats. The book is memorable for the description of a storm at sea, and it is help for free possible that it may even have furnished suggestions to Shakespeare for The Tempest . If so, it is interesting to compare these with what they produced in Shakespeare's mind. Strachey tells how the sea swelled above the clouds and gave battle unto heaven. He speaks of an apparition of a little round light, like a faint star, trembling and streaming along with a sparkling blaze, half the height upon the main mast, and shooting sometimes from essay person about yourself, shroud to help me write my essay for free, shroud. Ariel says to Prospero: Strachey voices the current belief that the person about, Bermudas were harassed by tempests, devils, wicked spirits, and other fearful objects. Shakespeare as Ferdinand with fewer words intensify Strachey's picture: The possibility that incidents arising out of Virginian colonization may have turned Shakespeare's attention to the still vex'd Bermoothes and given him suggestions for one of his great plays lends added interest to michel essays sparknotes, Strachey's True Repertory.
But, aside from Shakespeare, this has an interest of its own. It has the Anglo-Saxon touch in in third yourself depicting the wrath of the sea, and it shows the character of the thesis quality, early American colonists who braved a wrath like this. As was the case with Captain Smith, William Strachey's work too is available on in third person yourself the Internet. Enjoy reading your fill and we'll see you upon your return. A true reportory of the wracke, and redemption of Sir THOMAS GATES Knight original-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown.
A True Reportory of the Wreck and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates, Knight modern-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. For The Colony in Virginea Britannia. Lawes Divine, Morall and Martiall, c. Help. original-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. For The Colony in Virginia Brittannia: Laws Divine, Moral and Martial, etc. modern-spelling version at Virtual Jamestown. The Historie of Travaile Into Virginia Britannia at Google Books.
A Dictionary of Powhatan at Google Books. During his stay in the colony as its treasurer, he translated ten books of Ovid's Metamorphoses , sometimes working by the light of a pine knot. This work is rescued from the class of mere translation by its literary art and imaginative interpretation, and it possesses for us an additional interest because of its nativity amid such surroundings. Two lines telling how Philemon. show that his environment aided him somewhat in the translation.
He himself says of this version that it was bred in person about the new world, whereof it cannot but participate, especially having wars and me write my essay for free tumults to in third about, bring it to light, instead of the muses. He was read by both Dryden and Pope in school essay their boyhood, and the form of their verse shows his influence. The only original poem which merits our attention in person about the early Virginian colony was found soon after the Revolutionary War in a collection of manuscripts, known as the Burwell Papers . Thesis Management. This poem is an elegy on the death of essay about Nathaniel Bacon (1676), a young Virginian patriot and high school advice military hero, who resisted the despotic governor, Sir William Berkeley. It was popularly believed that Bacon's mysterious death was due to poison. An unknown friend wrote the elegy in defense of essay about yourself Bacon and his rebellion. These lines from that elegy show a strength unusual in colonial poetry: Clerk of the Council of Virginia, he published in London in 1705 a History and Present State of Virginia . This is sparknotes today a readable account of the colony and about yourself its people in the first part of the research flying airplane, eighteenth century. This selection shows that in those early days Virginians were noted for what has come to be known as southern hospitality: Colonel William Byrd (1674-1744) Edit. A wealthy Virginian, he was commissioned by the Virginian colony to run a line between it and North Carolina.
He then wrote a History of the Dividing Line run in the Year 1728 . This book is a record of personal experiences, and is as interesting as its title is forbidding. This selection describes the Dismal Swamp, through which the line ran: These two selections show that American literature, even before the Revolution, came to in third, be something more than an imitation of help my essay English literature. No critic could say that they might as well have been written in London as in Virginia. They also show how much eighteenth-century prose had improved in form. Even in essay about England, modern prose may almost be said to begin with John Dryden, who died at the beginning of the eighteenth century. In addition to improvement in form, we may note the appearance of a new quality: humor. America's earliest writers have few traces of humor because colonization was a serious life and death affair to them. After the founding of the Plymouth colony in 1620, Virginia and New England developed along different lines. In New England there were more dwellers in towns, more democracy and mingling of all classes, more popular education, and more literature.
The ruling classes of school essay Virginia were mostly descendants of the Cavaliers who had sympathized with monarchy, while the Puritans had fought the Stuart kings and had approved a Commonwealth. In Virginia a wealthy class of landed gentry came to be an increasing power in the political history of the country. About Yourself. The ancestors of George Washington and many others who did inestimable service to the nation were among this class. It was long the fashion for this aristocracy to send their children to England to be educated, while the Puritans trained theirs at advice essay home. New England started a printing press, and was printing books by 1640. In 1671 Sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia, wrote, I thank God there are no free schools, nor printing, and I hope we shall not have these hundred years; for essay yourself learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world, and printing has developed them. Producers of literature need the stimulus of town life. The South was chiefly agricultural. The plantations were large, and the people lived in far greater isolation than in research flying paper New England, where not only the town, but more especially the church, developed a close social unit. One other reason served to make it difficult for a poet of the plowman type, like Robert Burns, or for an author from the general working class, like Benjamin Franklin, to arise in the South.
Labor was thought degrading, and the laborer did not find the same chance as at the North to learn from close association with the intelligent class. The reason for this is given by Colonel William Byrd, from essay in third person, whom we have quoted in the preceding section. He wrote in 1736 of the leading men of the me write my essay for free, South: William Bradford was born in 1590 in the Pilgrim district of England, in the Yorkshire village of Austerfield, two miles north of Scrooby. While a child, he attended the religious meetings of the essay person about yourself, Puritans. Quality. At the age of eighteen he gave up a good position in the post service of England, and crossed to Holland to escape religious persecution. His History of Plymouth Plantation is not a record of the Puritans as a whole, but only of that branch known as the Pilgrims, who left England for Holland in 1607 and 1608, and who, after remaining there for nearly twelve years, had the initiative to be the first of their band to come to the New World, and to settle at Plymouth in 1620. For more than thirty years he was governor of the essay yourself, Plymouth colony, and he managed its affairs with the advice, discretion of a Washington and the zeal of a Cromwell. His History tells the story of the in third, Pilgrim Fathers from the time of the formation of their two congregations in England, until 1647. In 1897 the ethical framework essays, United States for the first time came into possession of the manuscript of this famous History of Plymouth Plantation , which had in some mysterious manner been taken from Boston in in third about yourself colonial times and had found its way into the library of the Lord Bishop of London. Few of the English seem to have read it.
Even its custodian miscalled it The Log of the Mayflower, although after the ship finally cleared from England, only five incidents of the voyage are briefly mentioned: the death of a young seaman who cursed the Pilgrims on the voyage and made sport of their misery; the cracking of thesis on total management one of the main beams of the ship; the washing overboard in a storm of a good young man who was providentially saved; the essay in third about, death of essay a servant; and the sight of Cape Cod. On petition, the Lord Bishop of London generously gave this manuscript of essay in third about yourself 270 pages to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Dissertation Nursing. In a speech at the time of its formal reception, Senator Hoar eloquently summed up the subject matter of the volume as follows: In addition to giving matter of unique historical importance, Bradford entertains his readers with an account of Squanto, the Pilgrims' tame Indian, of Miles Standish capturing the lord of misrule at Merrymount, and of the failure of an experiment in essay in third person yourself tilling the soil in common. Bradford says that there was immediate improvement when each family received the full returns from working its own individual plot of ground. He thus philosophizes about this social experiment of the Pilgrims:
Both the counselling ethical essays, subject matter of the in third about, early colonial prose in management this manuscript compare favirably with that produced in England at the same time. On March 29, 1630, John Winthrop made the first entry in essay in third yourself his Journal on board the ship Arbella, before he left the Isle of de montaigne essays Wight for Massachusetts Bay. This Journal was to continue until a few months before his death in 1649, and was in essay person about after times to receive the dignified name of History of New England , although it might more properly still be called his Journal , as its latest editor does indeed style it. John Winthrop was born in the County of Suffolk, England, in 1588, the year of the defeat of the Spanish Armada. He was a wealthy, well-educated Puritan, the owner of broad estates. As he paced the deck of the me write my essay for free, Arbella , the night before he sailed for Massachusetts, he knew that he was leaving comfort, home, friends, position, all for liberty of conscience.
Few men have ever voluntarily abandoned more than Winthrop, or clung more tenaciously to their ideals. After a voyage lasting more than two months, he settled with a large number of Puritans on the site of essay person about yourself modern Boston. For the principal part of the time from paper, his arrival in 1630 until his death in 1649, he served as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Not many civil leaders of any age have shown more sagacity, patriotism, and tireless devotion to duty than John Winthrop. His Journal is a record of contemporaneous events from 1630 to 1648. The early part of this work might with some justice have been called the Log of the essay in third yourself, Arbella . TRANSLITERATION OF FACSIMILE OF WINTHROP'S JOURNAL ANNO DOMINI 1630, MARCH 29, MONDAY. EASTER MONDAY.
The entry for dissertation nursing Monday, April 12, 1630, is: The following entry for June 5, 1644, reflects an interesting side light on the government of essay about yourself Harvard, our first American college: Another entry for on total management 1644 tells of one William Franklin, condemned for causing the death of his apprentice: Winthrop relates how Franklin appealed the case when he was found guilty, and how the Puritans inflicted the death penalty on essay in third him after searching the nursing, Bible for essay yourself a rule on which to base their decision. The most noticeable qualities of this terrible story are its simplicity, its repression, its lack of striving after effect. Winthrop, Bradford, and Bunyan had learned from the on total quality, 1611 version of the Bible to be content to person yourself, present any situation as simply as possible and to rely on the facts themselves to secure the effect. Winthrop's finest piece of prose, Concerning Liberty , appears in an entry for the year 1645. He defines liberty as the power to do that which is good, just, and honest. This liberty you are to ethical framework, stand for, with the essay about yourself, hazard, not only of your goods, but of your lives, if need be. Winthrop saw clearly what many since his day have failed to see, that a government conducted by the people could not endure, if liberty meant more than this. Winthrop's Journal records almost anything which seemed important to the colonists.
Thus, he tells about dissertation nursing degree, storms, fires, peculiar deaths of animals, crimes, trials, Indians, labor troubles, arrival of ships, trading expeditions, troubles with England about the charter, politics, church matters, events that would point a moral, like the selfish refusal of the in third about yourself, authorities to loan a quantity of gunpowder to the Plymouth colony and michel de montaigne sparknotes the subsequent destruction of essay in third person that same powder by an explosion, or the drowning of help me write a child in in third person about yourself the well while the parents were visiting on Sunday. In short, this Journal gives valuable information about the civil, religious, and domestic life of the early days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The art of modern prose writing was known neither in England nor in America in Winthrop's time. The wonder is high school advice essay that he told the story of this colony in such good form and that he still holds the essay in third person about yourself, interest of the reader so well. William Bradford and John Winthrop were governors of two religious commonwealths.
We must not forget that the Puritans came to on total quality management, America to secure a higher form of spiritual life. In the reign of Elizabeth, it was thought that the essay in third person yourself, Revival of Learning would cure all ills and unlock the gates of happiness. This hope had met with disappointment. Then Puritanism came, and ushered in a new era of sparknotes spiritual aspiration for something better, nobler, and more satisfying than mere intellectual attainments or wealth or earthly power had been able to secure. The Puritans chose the Bible as the guidebook to their Promised Land.
The long sermons to which they listened were chiefly biblical expositions. In Third. The Puritans considered the saving of the soul the most important matter, and they neglected whatever form of culture did not directly tend toward that result. They thought that entertaining reading and other forms of amusement were contrivances of the devil to turn the soul's attention away from the Bible . Even beauty and art were considered handmaids of the Evil One. The Bible was read, reread, and constantly studied, and it took the place of me write my essay secular poetry and prose. The New England Puritan believed in person about yourself the theology of John Calvin, who died in ethical framework essays 1564. His creed, known as Calvinism, emphasized the importance of the individual, of life's continuous moral struggle, which would land each soul in heaven or hell for all eternity. In the New England Primer , the children were taught the first article of belief, as they learned the letter A: Calvinism stressed the doctrine of foreordination, that certain ones, the elect, had been foreordained to be saved. Thomas Shephard (1605–1649), one of the great Puritan clergy, fixed the mathematical ratio of the damned to the elect as a thousand to one. On the physical side, scientists have pointed out a close correspondence between Calvin's creed and the theory of evolution, which emphasizes the desperate struggle resulting from the survival of the fittest.
The fittest are the elect; those who perish in the contest, the damned. In the evolutionary struggle, only the few survive, while untold numbers of the in third about yourself, unfit, no matter whether seeds of plants, eggs of fish, human beings, or any other form of thesis on total quality life, go to the wall. In spite of the apparent contradiction between free will and foreordination, each individual felt himself fully responsible for the saving of his soul. In Third Person. A firm belief in this tremendous responsibility made each one rise the stronger to meet the other responsibilities of life. Civil responsibility seemed easier to one reared in de montaigne essays this school. The initiative bequeathed by essay in third about yourself, Elizabethan times was increased by the Puritans' religion. Although there were probably as many university men in proportion to the population in early colonial Massachusetts as in England, the strength and direction of their religious ideals helped to turn their energy into activities outside the field of pure literature. In course of research flying airplane time, however, Nathaniel Hawthorne appeared to give lasting literary expression to this life.
The clergy occupied a leading place in in third person yourself both the civil and religious life of New England. They were men of energy and ability, who could lead their congregations to Holland or to the wilds of dissertation degree New England. For the purpose in hand the world has never seen superior leaders. Many of them were graduates of Cambridge University, England. Their great authority was based on character, education, and essay in third person natural ability. Help. A contemporary historian said of John Cotton, who came as pastor from the old to the new Boston in 1633, that whatever he delivered in the pulpit was soon put into an order of court . Person About. or set up as a practice in research paper airplane the church. The sermons, from two to four hours long, took the place of magazines, newspapers, and modern musical and theatrical entertainments. The church members were accustomed to hard thinking and they enjoyed it as a mental exercise. Their minds had not been rendered flabby by such a diet of miscellaneous trash or sensational matter as confronts modern readers.
Many of the congregation went with notebooks to person about, record the different heads and the most striking thoughts in the sermon, such, for instance, as the following on the dangers of essays idleness: The sermons were often doctrinal, metaphysical, and extremely dry, but it is essay person yourself a mistake to conclude that the clergy did not speak on topics of current interest. Flying Paper Airplane. Winthrop in his Journal for 1639 relates how the Rev. John Cotton discussed whether a certain shopkeeper, who had been arraigned before the court for extortion, for essay person having taken in counselling ethical some small things, above two for one, was guilty of sin and should be excommunicated from the church, or only publicly admonished. Cotton prescribed admonition and about yourself he laid down a code of ethics for the guidance of sellers. With the exception of Roger Williams (1604?-1683), who had the framework essays, modern point of view in insisting on complete soul liberty, on the right of every man to think as he pleased on matters of essay in third person about religion, the Puritan clergy were not tolerant of other forms of worship. They said that they came to school advice essay, New England in order to worship God as they pleased. They never made the essay person yourself, slightest pretense of establishing a commonwealth where another could worship as he pleased, because they feared that such a privilege might lead to a return of the persecution from which they had fled. If those came who thought differently about religion, they were told that there was sufficient room elsewhere, in Rhode Island, for instance, whither Roger Williams went after he was banished from on total quality management, Salem. The history of the Puritan clergy would have been more pleasing had they been more tolerant, less narrow, more modern, like Roger Williams.
Yet perhaps it is best not to complain overmuch of the strange and somewhat repellent architecture of the in third person about, bridge which bore us over the stream dividing the desert of royal and ecclesiastical tyranny from the Promised Land of our Republic. Let us not forget that the clergy insisted on research flying paper popular education; that wherever there was a clergyman, there was almost certain to be a school, even if he had to teach it himself, and that the clergy generally spoke and acted as if they would rather be free among the dead than slaves among the essay in third person about, living. The trend of Puritan theology and the hard conditions of life did not encourage the production of poetry. The Puritans even wondered if singing in church was not an exercise which turned the mind from God. The Reverend John Cotton investigated the question carefully under four main heads and six subheads, and he cited scriptural authority to show that Paul and Silas ( Acts , xvi., 25) had sung a Psalm in the prison.
Cotton therefore concluded that the quality, Psalms might be sung in church. The divines in essay person yourself the country joined to translate into high school advice essay English metre the in third person about yourself, whole book of Psalms from the original Hebrew, and they probably made the worst metrical translation in existence. In their preface to this work, known as the Bay Psalm Book (1640), the first book of verse printed in the British American colonies, they explained that they did not strive for a more poetic translation because God's altar needs not our polishings. Dissertation. The following verses from about yourself, Psalm 87 are a sample of the so-called metrical translation which the Puritans sang: This Harvard graduate and Puritan preacher published in dissertation degree 1662 a poem setting forth some of the in third yourself, tenets of Calvinistic theology. This poem, entitled The Day of Doom, or a Poetical Description of the research flying paper airplane, Great and Last Judgment , had the largest circulation of any colonial poem. Essay In Third About Yourself. The following lines represent a throng of infants at the left hand of the final Judge, pleading against the sentence of infant damnation: Wigglesworth represents the Almighty as replying: When we read verse like this, we realize how fortunate the Puritanism of Old England was to have one great poet schooled in the love of both morality and thesis on total quality beauty.
John Milton's poetry shows not only his sublimity and high ideals, but also his admiration for beauty, music, and art. Wigglesworth's verse is inferior to much of the ballad doggerel, but it has a swing and a directness fitted to catch the popular ear and to lodge in in third person about yourself the memory. While some of de montaigne essays sparknotes his work seems humorous to us, it would not have made that impression on the early Puritans. At the same time, we must not rely on verse like this for essay in third person yourself our understanding of their outlook on life and death. Beside Wigglesworth's lines we should place the epitaph, Reserved for a Glorious Resurrection, composed by the great orthodox Puritan clergyman, Cotton Mather (p. 46), for his own infant, which died unbaptized when four days old. It is well to remember that both the Puritans and their clergy had a quiet way of believing that God had reserved to himself the high school, final interpretation of his own word. Colonial New England's best poet, or The Tenth Muse, as she was called by her friends, was a daughter of the Puritan governor, Thomas Dudley, and became the wife of another Puritan governor, Simon Bradstreet, with whom she came to New England in 1630. Although she was born before the in third about, death of Shakespeare, she seems never to have studied the help me write my essay for free, works of in third yourself that great dramatist. Her models were what Milton called the fantastics, a school of poets who mistook for manifestations of poetic power, far-fetched and strained metaphors, oddities of expression, remote comparisons, conceits, and strange groupings of thought. She had especially studied Sylvester's paraphrase of The Divine Weeks and Works of the French poet Du Bartas, and probably also the works of poets like George Herbert (1593–1633), of the English fantastic school.
This paraphrase of Du Bartas was published in a folio of 1215 pages, a few years before Mrs. Bradstreet came to America. This book shows the taste which prevailed in England in help me write for free the latter part of the first third of the seventeenth century, before Milton came into the ascendancy. The fantastic comparison between the in third person yourself, Spirit Eternal, brooding upon nursing, chaos, and a hen, is shown in these lines from Du Bartas: A contemporary critic thought that he was giving her early work high praise when he called her a right Du Bartas girl. One of her early poems is The Four Elements , where Fire, Air, Earth, and Water. Such a debate could never be decided, but the subject was well suited to he fantastic school of poets because it afforded an opportunity for much ingenuity of argument and for far-fetched comparisons, which led nowhere. Late in life, in her poem, Contemplations , she wrote some genuine poetry, little marred by imitation of the fantastic school. Spenser seems to have become her master in later years.
No one without genuine poetic ability could have written such lines as: These lines show both poetic ease and power: The comparative excellence of her work in such an atmosphere and amid the domestic cares incident to rearing eight children is remarkable. In 1647, Nathaniel Ward, who had been educated for the law, but who afterward became a clergyman, published a strange work known as The Simple Cobbler of Agawam, in America willing, as the essay in third yourself, sub-title continues, to help mend his native country, lamentably tattered, both in the upper leather and sole, with all the honest stitches he can take. He had been assistant pastor at quality Agawam (Ipswich) until ill health caused him to resign. He then busied himself in compiling a code of laws and in other writing before he returned to essay about yourself, England in 1647. The following two sentences from his unique book show two points of the religious faith of the Puritans: (1) the belief in a personal devil always actively seeking the destruction of mankind, and (2) the assumption that the vitals of the elect are safe from the mortal sting of sin.
He is often a bitter satirist, a sort of colonial Carlyle, as this attack on woman shows: He does not hesitate to coin a word. Help. The preceding short selection introduces us to nugiperous and nudiustertian. Next, he calls the women's tailor-made gowns the very pettitoes of infirmity, the giblets of about perquisquilian toys. The spirit of a reformer always sees work to be done, and Ward emphasized three remedies for mid-seventeenth-century ills: (1) Stop toleration of departure from religious truth; (2) banish the research flying airplane, frivolities of essay in third person women and men; and (3) bring the civil war in England to a just end. In proportion to the population, his Simple Cobbler , designed to nursing degree, mend human ways, was probably as widely read as Carlyle's Sartor Resartus in essay person about yourself later days. In criticism, Ward deserves to be remembered for these two lines: There was born in high advice 1652 at Bishopstoke, Hampshire, England, a boy who sailed for New England when he was nine years old, and in third person yourself who became our greatest colonial diarist.
This was Samuel Sewall, who graduated from Harvard in 1671 and finally became chief justice of Massachusetts. His Diary runs with some breaks from 1673 to 1729, the year before his death. Good diaries are scarce in any literature. Those who keep them seldom commit to writing many of the most interesting events and secrets of their lives. This failing makes the majority of diaries and memoirs very dry, but this fault cannot be found with Samuel Sewall. Ethical Framework. His Diary will more and more prove a mine of wealth to the future writers of our literature, to our dramatists, novelists, poets, as well as to our historians. The early chronicles and stories on which Shakespeare founded many of his plays were no more serviceable to him than this Diary may prove to a coming American writer with a genius like Hawthorne's. In Sewall's Diary we at once feel that we are close to life. Essay Person Yourself. The following entry brings us face to face with the children in a Puritan household:
Sewall was one of the seven judges who sentenced nineteen persons to be put to death for witchcraft at Salem. After this terrible delusion had passed, he had the manliness to rise in church before all the members, and on total management after acknowledging the blame and shame of essay about his decision, call for prayers that God who has an dissertation degree unlimited authority would pardon that sin. Sewall's Diary is best known for its faithful chronicle of his courtship of yourself Mrs. Catharine Winthrop. Dissertation Nursing. Both had been married twice before, and both had grown children. He was sixty-nine and she fifty-six. No record of any other Puritan courtship so unique as this has been given to the world.
He began his formal courtship of Mrs. Winthrop, October 1, 1720. His Diary contains records of each visit, of person about yourself what they said to each other, of the Sermons, cake, and high essay gingerbread that he gave her, of the healths that he drank to her, the lump of sugar that she gave him, of how they went into the best room, and clos'd the person yourself, shutters. Acute men have written essays to account for the aristocratic Mrs. Winthrop's refusal of Chief-Justice Sewall. Help Me Write. Some have said that it was due to essay in third person about, his aversion to slavery and to his refusal to allow her to keep her slaves.
This episode is only a small part of a rich storehouse. The greater part of the Diary contains only the raw materials of literature, yet some of it is real literature, and me write for free it ranks among the in third person yourself, great diaries of the world. LIFE AND PERSONALITY. Cotton Mather, grandson of the Reverend John Cotton (p. 14), and the most distinguished of the old type of counselling framework essays Puritan clergymen, was born in Boston and died in his native city, without ever having traveled a hundred miles from it.
He entered Harvard at the age of eleven, and took the bachelor's degree at essay in third person about fifteen. His life shows such an overemphasis of high essay certain Puritan traits as almost to presage the coming decline of clerical influence. Essay Person About Yourself. He says that at the age of only seven or eight he not only composed forms of prayer for his schoolmates, but also obliged them to pray, although some of them cuffed him for dissertation nursing his pains. At fourteen he began a series of in third yourself fasts to crucify the flesh, increase his holiness, and bring him nearer to God. He endeavored never to waste a minute. In his study, where he often worked sixteen hours a day, he had in large letters the sign, BE SHORT, to greet the eyes of visitors.
The amount of writing which he did almost baffles belief. Michel Sparknotes. His published works, numbering about four hundred, include sermons, essays, and books. Essay Person. During all of his adult life, he also preached in the North Church of Boston. He was a religious fantastic, that is, he made far-fetched applications of religious truth. A tall man suggested to him high attainments in Christianity; washing his hands, the desirability of a clean heart. Although Cotton Mather became the most famous clergyman of colonial New England, he was disappointed in two of his life's ambitions. He failed to become president of Harvard and to bring New England back in religious matters to the first halcyon days of the colony. On the contrary, he lived to dissertation nursing degree, see Puritan theocracy suffer a great decline. Essay In Third. His fantastic and strained application of religious truth, his overemphasis of many things, and especially his conduct in dissertation nursing degree zealously aiding and abetting the essay, Salem witchcraft murders, were no mean factors in causing that decline. His intentions were certainly good. He was an apostle of altruism, and he tried to improve each opportunity for doing good in everyday life.
He trained his children to do acts of kindness for ethical other children. His Essays to Do Good were a powerful influence on the life of Benjamin Franklin. In Third About Yourself. Cotton Mather would not have lived in vain if he had done nothing else except to help mold Franklin for the service of his country; but this is dissertation nursing only one of Mather's achievements. We must next pass to his great work in literature. This prose epic of New England Puritanism, the most famous of Mather's many works, is a large folio volume entitled Magnalia Christi Americana: or the Ecclesiastical History of New England . It was published in London in 1702, two years after Dryden's death. The book is a remarkable compound of whatever seemed to the author most striking in early New England history.
His point of view was of course religious. In Third Person About Yourself. The work contains a rich store of biography of the early clergy, magistrates, and governors, of the lives of eleven of the essay, clerical graduates of Harvard, of the faith, discipline, and government of the New England churches, of remarkable manifestations of the divine providence, and of the Way of the Lord among the in third person, churches and the Indians. We may today turn to the Magnalia for vivid accounts of early New England life. Mather has a way of selecting and expressing facts in such a way as to on total management, cause them to lodge in the memory. These two facts about John Cotton give us a vivid impression of the influence of the early clergy: We read that the in third person about, daily vocation of Thomas Shepard, the de montaigne sparknotes, first pastor at Cambridge, Massachusetts, was, to quote Mather's noble phrase, A Trembling Walk with God.
He speaks of the choleric disposition of Thomas Hooker, the great Hartford clergyman, and says it was useful unto him, because he had ordinarily as much government of his choler as a man has of in third about yourself a mastiff dog in a chain; he 'could let out his dog, and pull in his dog, as he pleased.' Some of Mather's prose causes modern readers to paper, wonder if he was not a humorist. Essay In Third Yourself. He says that a fire in the college buildings in some mysterious way influenced the President of help my essay Harvard to shorten one of his long prayers, and gravely adds, that if the devotions had held three minutes longer, the person about yourself, Colledge had been irrecoverably laid in ashes. One does not feel sure that Mather saw the humor in this demonstration of help me write practical religion. In Third Yourself. It is also doubtful whether he is intentionally humorous in his most fantastic prose, such, for instance, as his likening the Reverend Mr. Partridge to the bird of essays that name, who, because he had no defence neither of beak nor claw, took a flight over the ocean to escape his ecclesiastical hunters, and finally took wing to become a bird of paradise, along with the winged seraphim of heaven. Such fantastic conceits, which for a period blighted the literature of the essay in third yourself, leading European nations, had their last great exponent in Cotton Mather. Minor writers still indulge in these conceits, and find willing readers among the high school, uneducated, the tired, and those who are bored when they are required to essay in third person about, do more than skim the surface of things. Flying. John Seccomb, a Harvard graduate of 1728, the year in essay in third person about yourself which Mather died, then gained fame from such lines as: but the best prose and poetry have for a long time won their readers for other qualities. Even the taste of the next generation showed a change, for Cotton Mather's son, Samuel, noted as a blemish his father's straining for far-fetched and research flying paper airplane dear-bought hints. Cotton Mather's most repellent habit to modern readers is his overloading his pages with quotations in essay in third person foreign languages, especially in high school essay Latin.
He thus makes a pedantic display of his wide reading. He is not always accurate in person about yourself his presentation of historical or biographical matter, but in spite of all that can be said against the Magnalia , it is a vigorous presentation of much that we should not willingly let die. In fact, when we read the de montaigne, early history of essay person about New England, we are frequently getting from the Magnalia many things in degree changed form without ever suspecting the source. LIFE AND WRITINGS. Jonathan Edwards, who ranks among the world's greatest theologians and essay person metaphysicians, was born in 1703 in East Windsor, Connecticut.
Like Cotton Mather, Edwards was precocious, entering Yale before he was thirteen. The year previous to his going to college, he wrote a paper on spiders, showing careful scientific observation and argument. This paper has been called one of the rarest specimens of precocious scientific genius on record. At fourteen, he read Locke's Essay on the Human Understanding , receiving from it, he says, higher pleasure than the most greedy miser finds when gathering up handfuls of silver and gold from some newly discovered treasure. Before he was seventeen, he had graduated from Yale, and counselling essays he had become a tutor there before he was twenty-one. Like Dante, he had a Beatrice. Thinking of her, he wrote this prose hymn of a maiden's love for person about yourself the Divine Power:
Jonathan Edwards thus places before us Sarah Pierrepont, a New England Puritan maiden. To note the similarity of help me write thought between the Old Puritan England and the New, let us turn to the maiden in Milton's Comus: Unlike Dante, Edwards married his Beatrice at the age of seventeen. In 1727, the year of his marriage, he became pastor of the church in Northampton, Massachusetts. With the aid of his wife, he inaugurated the greatest religious revival of the century, known as the Great Awakening, which spread to other colonial churches, crossed the ocean, and stimulated Wesley to call sinners to repentance. Early in life, Edwards formed a series of resolutions, three of which are:
To live with all my might, while I do live. Never to do anything, which, if I should see in essay about another, I should count a just occasion to despise him for, or to think any way the more meanly of him. Never, henceforward, till I die, to act as if I were any way my own, but entirely and altogether God's. He earnestly tried to keep these resolutions until the end. After a successful pastorate of twenty-three years at Northampton, the church dismissed him for no fault of his own. Like Dante, he was driven into exile, and he went from high essay, Northampton to in third person about, the frontier town of Stockbridge, where he remained for seven years as a missionary to the Indians. His wife and daughters did their utmost to add to the family income, and some contributions were sent him from Scotland, but he was so poor that he wrote his books on the backs of letters and on the blank margins cut from newspapers. Research. His fame was not swallowed up in the wilderness. Princeton College called him to its presidency in 1757. He died in that office in 1758, after less than three months' service in his new position. His wife was still in Stockbridge when he passed away.
Tell her, he said to his daughter, that the uncommon union which has so long subsisted between us has been of about yourself such a nature as I trust is spiritual, and therefore will continue forever. In September of the same year she came to lie beside him in michel de montaigne sparknotes the graveyard at Princeton. In 1900, the church that had dismissed him one hundred and fifty years before placed on its walls a bronze tablet in his memory, with the noble inscription from Malachi ii, 6. As a writer, Jonathan Edwards won fame in three fields. He is (1) America's greatest metaphysician, (2) her greatest theologian, and (3) a unique poetic interpreter of the universe as a manifestation of the divine love. His best known metaphysical work is The Freedom of the Will (1754).
The central point of this work is that the will is about yourself determined by management, the strongest motive, that it is repugnant to reason that one act of the will should come into existence without a cause. He boldly says that God is free to do only what is right. Person Yourself. Edwards emphasizes the de montaigne, higher freedom, gained through repeated acts of the right kind, until both the inclination and the power to do wrong disappear. As a theologian, America has not yet produced his superior. His Treatise concerning the Religious Affections , his account of the Great Awakening, called Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God , and Thoughts on the Revival , as well as his more distinctly technical theological works, show his ability in this field.
Unfortunately, he did not rise superior to the Puritan custom of preaching about hellfire. He delivered on that subject a sermon which causes modern readers to shudder; but this, although the most often quoted, is the least typical of the man and his writings. Those in in third search of really typical statements of his theology will find them in such specimens as, God and real existence is the michel de montaigne essays, same. God is and in third person about there is nothing else. He was a theological idealist, believing that all the varied phenomena of the universe are constantly proceeding from God, as light from the sun. Such statements suggest Shelley's lines, which tell how. Dr. Michel Essays. Allen, Edwards's biographer and critic, and a careful student of his unpublished, as well as of his published, writings, says, He was at his best and greatest, most original and creative, when he described the divine love. Such passages as the following show this quality:
His favorite text was, I am the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the essay in third, valleys, and his favorite words were sweet and essays sparknotes bright. The great English writers between the essay yourself, colonization of Jamestown in 1607 and the outbreak of the French and Indian War in 1754 are John Milton, John Bunyan, John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Richard Steele and Joseph Addison, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, and Henry Fielding. The colonial literature of this period was influenced only in a very minor degree by the work of these men, for a generation usually passed before the influence of contemporary English authors appeared in American literature. Counselling Ethical Framework. In the next section, we shall see evidences of the influence of Pope. Benjamin Franklin will tell us how Bunyan and Addison were his teachers, and the early fiction will show its indebtedness to essay about, the work of Samuel Richardson.
Virginia and Massachusetts produced the bulk of American colonial literature. There were, however, thirteen colonies stretched along the high essay, seaboard from Georgia (1733), the last to be founded, to Canada. Although these colonies were established under different grants or charters, and although some had more liberty and suffered less from the interference of England than others, it is essay in third about yourself nevertheless true that every colony was a school for a self-governing democracy. No colonies elsewhere in the world had the same amount of liberty. We must not suppose that there was complete liberty in those days. The early government of Virginia was largely aristocratic; that of Massachusetts, theocratic. Virginia persecuted the Puritans. The early settlers of Massachusetts drove out Roger Williams and hanged Quakers. New York persecuted those who did not join the Church of England. However, it is still nevertheless true that these thirteen colonies were making the greatest of all world experiments in democracy and liberty.
The important colony of New Netherland (New York) was settled by thesis on total quality, the Dutch early in the seventeenth century. They established an aristocracy with great landed estates along the Hudson. The student of literature is specially interested in about this colony because Washington Irving has invested it with a halo of romance. He shows us the ethical framework, sturdy Knickerbockers, the Van Cortlands, the Van Dycks, the Van Wycks, and other chivalrous Dutch burghers, sitting in perfect silence, puffing their pipes, and thinking of nothing for hours together in those days of simplicity and sunshine. For literary reasons it is essay person about yourself well that this was not made an English colony until the Duke of nursing York took possession of it in 1664. At the beginning of the person about yourself, eighteenth century, the colonists in me write the middle and northern part of the country divided their energies almost equally between trade and agriculture. At the South, agriculture was the chief occupation and tobacco and rice were the in third person about, two leading staples. These were produced principally by the labor of negro slaves. There were also many indentured servants at the South, where the dividing lines between the different classes were most strongly marked. Up to 1700 the history of each colony is practically that of a separate unit. Almost all the colonies had trouble with Indians and royal governors.
Pirates, rapacious politicians, religious matters, or witchcraft were sometimes sources of disturbance. Counselling Ethical Framework Essays. All knew the hard labor and the privations involved in subduing the essay in third, wilderness and making permanent settlements in michel a new land. History tells of the abandonment of in third yourself many other colonies and of the subjugation of many other races, but no difficulty and no foe daunted this Anglo-Saxon stock. In 1700 the population of New England was estimated at about one hundred and ten thousand. In 1754, the beginning of the French and Indian War, Connecticut alone had that number, while all New England probably had at this time nearly four hundred thousand. The middle colonies began the eighteenth century with about fifty-nine thousand and grew by the middle of the help my essay for free, century to about three hundred and fifty-five thousand.
During the same period, the southern group increased from about ninety thousand to six hundred thousand. By 1750 the thirteen colonies probably had a total population of nearly fourteen hundred thousand. Since no census was taken until 1790, these figures are only approximately correct. Such development serves to show the trend of coming events. Essay In Third Person. This remarkable increase in population soon caused numbers to go farther west. Help. This movement resulted in collision with the French, who were at this time holding the central part of the country, from the Gulf into Canada. One other result followed.
The colonies began to seem valuable to England because they furnished a market for essay English manufactures and a carrying trade for English ships. The previous comparative insignificance of the colonies and the trouble in high school advice essay England had served to protect them, but their trade had now assumed a proportion that made the mother country realize what a valuable commercial asset she would have if she regulated the colonies in her own interest. In this section we have traced the history of American colonial literature from the foundation of the Jamestown Colony until 1754. Before 1607 Chaucer, Spenser, and Shakespeare had written, and before 1620 the King James version of the Bible had been produced. England had, therefore, a wonderful literature before her colonies came to America. They were the essay in third, heirs of all that the English race had previously accomplished; and they brought to these shores an counselling Elizabethan initiative, ingenuity, and democratic spirit.
The Virginia colony was founded, as colonies usually are, for a commercial reason. The Virginians and the other southern colonists lived more by agriculture, were more widely scattered, had fewer schools, more slaves, and less town life than the New Englanders. Under the influence of a commanding clergy, common schools, and the stimulus of town life, the New England colony produced more literature. The chief early writers of Virginia are: (1) Captain John Smith, who described the essay in third about, country and the Indians, and gave to literature the story of Pocahontas, thereby disclosing a new world to the imagination of writers; (2) William Strachey, who outranks contemporary colonial writers in describing the wrath of the sea, and who may even have furnished a suggestion to Shakespeare for The Tempest ; (3) two poets, (a) George Sandys, who translated part of Ovid, and (b) the unknown author of the elegy on Nathaniel Bacon; and (4) Robert Beverly and William Byrd, who gave interesting descriptions of early Virginia. The chief colonial writers of New England are: (1) William Bradford, whose History of Plymouth Plantation tells the story of the first Pilgrim colony; (2) John Winthrop, who wrote in his Journal the research flying airplane, early history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; (3) the poets, including (a) the translators of the Bay Psalm Book , the first volume of so-called verse printed in the British American colonies, (b) Wigglesworth, whose Day of Doom , was a poetic exposition of Calvinistic theology, (c) Anne Bradstreet, who wrote a small amount of genuine poetry, after she had passed from the influence of the fantastic school of poets; (4) Nathaniel Ward, the author of essay in third about yourself The Simple Cobbler of Agawam , an attempt to mend human ways; (5) Samuel Sewall, New England's greatest colonial diarist; (6) Cotton Mather, the most famous clerical writer, whose Magnalia is a compound of early colonial history and biography, sometimes written in a fantastic style; (7) Jonathan Edwards, America's greatest metaphysician and theologian, who maintained that the action of the human will is determined by the strongest motive, that the substance of my essay this universe is nothing but the divine Idea, communicated to human consciousness, and who could invest spiritual truth with the beauty of the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the in third about yourself, valleys. The New England colonist came to America because of religious feeling. His religion was to him a matter of eternal life or eternal death. On Total. From the about yourself, modern point of michel de montaigne essays view, this religion may seem too inflexibly stern, too little illumined by the spirit of love, too much darkened by the shadow of eternal punishment, but unless that religion had communicated something of its own dominating inflexibility to in third person, the colonist, he would never have braved the ocean, the dissertation nursing degree, wilderness, the Indians; he would never have flung the gauntlet down to tyranny at Lexington and Concord.
The greatest lesson taught by in third about, colonial literature, by men like Bradford, Winthrop, Edwards, and the New England clergy in general, is thesis quality management moral heroism, the determination to follow the shining path of the Eternal over the wave and through the essay in third yourself, forest to a new temple of human liberty. High School. Their aspiration, endeavor, suffering, accomplishment, should strengthen our faith in the worth of those spiritual realities which are not quoted in the markets of the person yourself, world, but which alone possess imperishable value. In either Gardiner's Students' History of counselling framework England , Walker's Essentials in English History , Andrews's History of England , or Cheney's Short History of England , read the chapters dealing with the time of Elizabeth, James I, Charles I, the Commonwealth, Charles II, James II, William and Mary, Anne, George I and essay in third person about II. A work like Halleck's History of English Literature covering these periods, should be read. Read the michel sparknotes, account from the earliest times to essay person, the outbreak of the French and Indian War in any of the following: Thwaites's The Colonists , 1492-1750. Fisher's Colonial Era . Counselling Essays. Lodge's A Short History of the English Colonies in America . Doyle's The English in essay person yourself America . Hart's Essentials in American History . Channing's A Students' History of the United States . Eggleston's A Larger History of the United States of America . James and de montaigne Sanford's American History . For an account of special colonies, consult the volumes in American Commonwealths series, and also, Fiske's Beginnings of New England , The Dutch and Quaker Colonies in America , Old Virginia and essay in third about Her Neighbors . Tyler's A History of American Literature during the Colonial Time , 2 vols. Research Flying Paper. Otis's American Verse , 1625-1807. Richardson's American Literature , 2 vols.
Trent's A History of essay person American Literature , 1607-1865. Wendell's History of Literature in America'_. Narratives of Early Virginia , edited by Tyler. Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation . New edition, edited by Davis. (Scribner, 1908.) Winthrop's Journal (History of New England). New edition, edited by Hosmer, 2 vols., (Scribner, 1908.) Chamberlain's Samuel Sewall and the World He Lived in . Lodge's A Puritan Pepys (Sewall) in Studies in History . Campbell's Anne Bradstreet and michel sparknotes her Time . Twichell's John Winthrop . In Third Person. Walker's Thomas Hooker . Wendell's Life of me write for free Cotton Mather . Allen's Life of Jonathan Edwards . In Third About. Gardiner's Jonathan Edwards, a Retrospect . The following volumes of selections from American Literature will be referred to either by the last name of the author, or, if there are more authors than one, by the initials of the high essay, last names: Cairns's Selections from Early American Writers , 1607-1800. (Macmillan.) Trent and essay in third person yourself Wells's Colonial Prose and Poetry , 3 vols., 1607-1775. (Crowell.) Stedman and Hutchinson's A Library of American Literature , 1608–1890, 11 vols. (Benjamin.) Carpenter's American Prose Selections . (Macmillan.) Trent's Southern Writers: Selections in flying airplane Prose and person about Verse . (Macmillan.) JOHN SMITH The Beginnings of Jamestown (from A True Relation of Virginia , 1608); The Religious Observances of the ethical framework essays, Indians (from A Map of Virginia , published in 1612), Cairns, pp. 2–4, 10-14; The Romance of Pocahontas (from The General History of Virginia , 1624), S. Person About Yourself. H., Vol.
I., pp. 10–17; T. School. W., Vol. I., pp. In Third Person About. 12–22. WILLIAM STRACHEY Read the selection from A True Repertory of the Wrack and Redemption of Sir Thomas Gates , in Cairns, 19-26.
POETRY IN THE VIRGINIA COLONY. For George Sandys, see pp. 51–58 in Vol. I. of Tyler's A History of on total management American Literature during the Colonial Time . For the elegy on the death of Nathaniel Bacon, see Tyler, Vol. I., 78, 79; Cairns, 185-188; T. W., II., 166-169; S. H., I., 456-458; Trent, 12-14. DESCRIPTIONS OF VIRGINIA The best selection from Beverly's History and Present State of Virginia may be found in T. W., II., 354-360. See also Trent, 16-18; S. H., II., 270-272. For selections from Byrd's History of the Dividing Line , see Cairns, passim , 259-272; Trent, 19-22; T. In Third Person Yourself. W., III., 23-32; S. H., II., 302-305. WILLIAM BRADFORD The Voyage of the ethical, Mayflower, Cairns, 31-35; Early Difficulties of the Pilgrim Fathers, T. W., I., 42-45; The Communal System Abandoned, T. W., I., 46-49; The Landing of the Pilgrims and their Settlement at Plymouth, S. H., L, 124-130.
JOHN WINTHROP Twenty-five entries from his Journal or History of in third person yourself New England are given in Cairns, 44-48, and fourteen in T. W., I., 99-105. His famous speech on Liberty may be found in T. W., I., 106-116; in S. H., I., 302-303; and in Cairns, 50-53. EARLY NEW ENGLAND VERSE The selection given earlier from the Bay Psalm Book is sufficient. For Wigglesworth's Day of Doom , see Cairns, 166-177; T. W., II., 54-60; S. H., passim , II., 3-16. Anne Bradstreet's best poem, Contemplations , may be found in Cairns, 154-162; T. W., I., 280-283; S. Research Airplane. H., I., 314, 315.
WARD'S SIMPLE COBBLER OF AGAWAM His view of in third person about yourself religious toleration is given in Cairns, 113-118, and T. W., I., 253-259. For the de montaigne sparknotes, satiric essay on women's fashions, see Cairns, 119-124; T. W., I., 260-266; S. H. I., 276-280. SAMUEL SEWALL Cairns, 240-243, gives from the Diary the events of in third about a month. Notes on the Witchcraft Persecution and his prayer of for free repentance for the blame and in third person about shame of it may be found in T. W., II., 294-296. The record of his courtship of on total quality management Madam Winthrop is given in in third about Cairns, 245-249; T. Essays. W., III., 304-319; and S. H., II., 192-200. For his early anti-slavery tract, see T. Essay In Third About. W., II., 320-326; S. H., II., 189-192. COTTON MATHER His fantastic life of Mr. Counselling. Ralph Partridge from the in third about, Magnalia is given in Cairns, 228, 229. The interesting story of the michel, New England argonaut, Sir William Phips, may be found in T. W., II., 257-266, and in essay S. H., II., 143-149. Counselling. One of his best biographies is that of Thomas Hooker, S. H., II., 149-156. JONATHAN EDWARDS For a specimen of an almost poetic exposition of the divine love, read the selection in Cairns, 280, 281; T. W., III., 148, 149; S. Essay In Third About. H., II., 374; and Carpenter, 16, 17, beginning, I am the Rose of Sharon and the Lily of the valleys.
Selections from his Freedom of the Will are given in Cairns. 291-294; T. Essays. W., III., 185-187; and essay person about yourself S. H., II., 404-407 (the best). 1. Is Captain John Smith more remarkable for chronicling what passed before his senses or for explaining what he saw? How does his account of the Indians compare with modern understanding? Is Smith apparently a novice, or somewhat skilled in writing prose? Does he seem to nursing degree, you to be a romancer or a narrator of a plain unvarnished tale? 2. Essay Person About. Compare Strachey's storm at sea with Act I of Shakespeare's Tempest . In what part of this Act and under what circumstances does he mention the still-vex'd Bermoothes? 3. Compare the ability of the three great early colonizers, Smith, Bradford, and Winthrop, in writing narrative prose. Advice. Smith's story of Pocahontas is easily accessible. Those who can find the complete works of Bradford and Winthrop may select from Bradford for comparison his story of Squanto, the Pilgrims' tame Indian. Winthrop's Journal contains many specimens of brief narrative, such as the story of the voyage across the in third yourself, Atlantic from framework, March 29 to June 14, 1630; of Winthrop's losing himself in the wood, October 11, 1631; of shipwreck on the Isle of Shoals, August 16, 1635; of an indentured servant, March 8, 1636; of an essay in third about yourself adventure with Indians, July 20–30, August 24, and October 8, 1636.
Those without opportunity to consult the counselling framework, works of Bradford and essay in third about Winthrop will find in the books of selections sufficient material for comparison. 4. Dissertation Nursing. Is brevity or prolixity a quality of these early narrators? Was English prose written before 1640 superior to the work of these three men? What advance in prose narrative do you find in Beverly and Byrd? 5. What characteristic of a famous English prose writer of the nineteenth century is noticeable in Ward's essay on fashions? 6. Why could fine poetry not be reasonably expected in early Virginia and New England? What are some of the Calvinistic tenets expounded in Wigglesworth's Day of Doom ? Choose the best two short selections of colonial poetry. 7. What are some of the qualifications of essay person yourself a good diarist? Which of these do you find in the Diary of degree Samuel Sewall? 8. Point out some of the fantastic prose expressions of Cotton Mather. Compare his narrative of Captain Phips with the work of in third about Smith, Bradford, and flying paper Winthrop, on the one hand, and of Beverly and Byrd, on the other.
9. Compare the theology in Edwards's Rose of Sharon selection with that in Wigglesworth's Day of Doom . Why may this selection from Edwards be called a poetic exposition of the divine love? What is his view of the freedom of the will?